Index Military Definitions

fabrication. [DSMC] The construction of a part from raw material; the development of software code.

fabricator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Individuals or groups who, without genuine resources, invent information or inflate or embroider over news for personal gain or for political purposes.

facilitator. [TR 350-70] Person responsible for keeping the meeting focused and moving. Military small group instruction facilitators may or may not be subject matter experts and may instruct, lead, and/or facilitate a group to a predetermined standard. The facilitator's function includes stimulating group interaction, assisting group functioning, and expanding group participation and development.

facilities. [DSMC] Includes the permanent, semipermanent, or temporary real property assets required to operate and support the materiel system, including conducting studies to define types of facilities or facility improvements, locations, space needs, utilities, environmental requirements, real estate requirements, and equipment. One of the traditional elements of logistics support.

facility. 1[DSMC]

l A physical plant, such as real estate and improvements thereto, including buildings and equipment, that provides the means for assisting or making easier, the performance of a function; for example, base arsenal, factory.

l Any part of adjunct of a physical plant, or any item of equipment that is an operating entity and contributes or can contribute to the execution of a function by providing some specific type of physical assistance.

See also base.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A real property entity consisting of one or more of the following: a building, a structure, a utility system, pavement, and underlying land. See also base.

facility substitutes. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items such as tents and prepackaged structures requisitioned through the supply system that may be used to substitute for constructed facilities.

facsimile. 1A system of telecommunication for the transmission of fixed images with a view to their reception in a permanent form. Electronic equipment that communicates and reproduces both printed and handwritten material. 2If used in conjunction with a reference to a document; e.g., facsimile bid, the terms refers to a document (in the example given, a bid) that has been transmitted to and received by the Government via facsimile. 3[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system of telecommunication for the transmission of fixed images with a view to their reception in a permanent form.

factory training. Training or instruction provided by a vendor or manufacturer on how to maintain and operate a specific piece of equipment.

fade. To slowly change a video image (screen).

faded. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Contact has disappeared from reporting station's scope, and any position information given is estimated."

failure. [DSMC] The event in which any part of an item does not perform as required by its performance specification. The failure may occur at a value in excess of the minimum required in the specification, i.e., past design limits or beyond the margin of safety.

failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). Narrative description of possible effects of failure for each failure mode. Included is criticality of the failure. For example, completely inoperable in some modes, or operable at a degraded level of performance.

failure-free warranty (FFW). [DSMC] A procurement methodology whose purpose is to bring the manufacturers, or design control agent, into the loop of continuously upgrading the field reliability of designated equipment(s).

fairway. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A channel either from offshore, in a river, or in a harbor that has enough depth to accommodate the draft of large vessels. See also draft; watercraft.

faker. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A friendly aircraft simulating a hostile in an air defense exercise.

fallback position. [DSMC] Alternative (second choice) position.

fallout. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The precipitation to Earth of radioactive particulate matter from a nuclear cloud; also applied to the particulate matter itself.

fallout contours. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Lines joining points which have the same radiation intensity that define a fallout pattern, represented in terms of roentgens per hour.

fallout pattern. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The distribution of fallout as portrayed by fallout contours.

fallout prediction. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An estimate, made before and immediately after a nuclear detonation, of the location and intensity of militarily significant quantities of radioactive fallout.

fallout safe height of burst. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The height of burst at or above which no militarily significant fallout will be reproduced as a result of a nuclear weapon detonation. See also types of burst.

fallout wind vector plot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A wind vector diagram based on the wind structure from the surface of the Earth to the highest altitude of interest.

false negative. Occurs when a person can perform the task but receives a failing score on the test.

false origin. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fixed point to the south and west of a grid zone from which grid distances are measured eastward and northward.

false positive. Occurs when a person cannot perform the task but receives a passing score on the test.

familiarization training. [TR 350-70] Orientation on a task or group of tasks as a substituted for training. Technically information dissemination, not training.

family of weapons. [DSMC] In NATO context, composed of related and complementary systems in a particular mission area.

famished. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Have you any instructions for me?"

fan camera photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Photography taken simultaneously by an assembly of three or more cameras systematically installed at fixed angles relative to each other so as to provide wide lateral coverage with overlapping images. See also tri-camera photography.

fan cameras. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An assembly of three or more cameras systematically disposed at fixed angles relative to each other so as to provide wide lateral coverage with overlapping images. See also split cameras.

fan marker beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of radio beacon, the emissions of which radiate in a vertical, fan-shaped pattern. The signal can be keyed for identification purposes. See also radio beacon; Z marker beacon.

Far Side. Launch of a four-stage rocket from a balloon flying at 30480m, reaching an altitude of 4345km.

farm gate type operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operational assistance and specialized tactical training provided a friendly foreign air force by the United States Armed Forces to include, under certain specified conditions, the flying of operational missions in combat by combined United States/foreign aircrews as a part of the training being given when such missions are beyond the capability of the foreign air force.

fatigue. [DSMC] A physical weakening of material because of age, stress, or vibration.

fatigue allowance. [DSMC] Time included in the production standard to allow for decreases or losses in production which might be attributed to worker fatigue. (Usually applied as a percentage of the leveled, normal, or adjusted time.)

fault insertion devices. Equipment designed with malfunctions to be used as training aids for systems, subsystems and equipment.

feasibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operation plan review criterion. The determination of whether the assigned tasks could be accomplished by using available resources. See also acceptability; adequacy; completeness; suitability.

feasibility assessment (FA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A basic target analysis that provides an initial determination of the viability of a proposed target for special operations forces employment.

feasibility study. [DSMC] A study of the applicability or desirability of any management or procedural system from the standpoint of advantages versus disadvantages in any given case.

feasibility test. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation plan review criteria to determine whether or not a plan is within the capacity of the resources that can be made available. See also logistic implications test.

feature. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, any object or configuration of ground or water represented on the face of the map or chart.

feature line overlap. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A series of overlapping air photographs which follow the line of a ground feature, e.g., river, road, railway, etc.

Federal Acquisition Computer Network (FACNET). [DSMC] Required by the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994. FACNET allows the electronic interchange of procurement information between the private sector and the federal government and among federal agencies. FACNET allows federal agencies to electronically provide notice of solicitations for contracts, receive responses to solicitations and associated requests for information, provide public notice of contract awards, make payments to contractors, and archive data relating to each procurement action.

Federal Acquisition Computer Network (FACNET) architecture. FACNET architecture means the Government-wide Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange (EC/EDI) operational capability for the acquisition of supplies and services that provides for electronic data interchange of acquisition information between the Government and the private sector, employs nationally and internationally recognized data formats, and provides universal user access.

Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). [DSMC] The regulation for use by federal executive agencies for acquisition of supplies and services with appropriated funds. The FAR is supplemented by the Military Departments and by DoD. The DoD supplement is called the DFARS (Defense FAR Supplement).

federal agency. Federal agency means any executive agency or any independent establishment in the legislative or judicial branch of the Government (except the Senate, the House of Representatives, the Architect of the Capitol, and any activities under the Architect's direction).

Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Appointed by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, on behalf of the President, to coordinate federal assistance to a state affected by a disaster or emergency. The source and level of the Federal Coordinating Officer will likely depend on the nature of the federal response.

Federal modal agencies. See transportation operating agencies.

Federal stock number. The federal stock number of an item of supply consists of the applicable 4-digit class code number for the federal supply classification plus a sequentially assigned 7-digit federal item identification number. The number shall be arranged as follows: 4210-196-5439. See also national stock number. Note: federal stock numbers were replaced by national stock numbers effective 30 September 1974.

Federal service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term applied to National Guard members and units when called to active duty to serve the Federal Government under Article I, Section 8 and Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution and the US Code, title 10. [JP 1-02] (DoD), sections 12401 to 12408. See also active duty; Reserve Components.

Federal Stock Number. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Federal Stock Number of an item of supply consists of the applicable 4-digit class code number from the Federal Supply Classification plus a sequentially assigned 7-digit Federal Item Identification Number. The number shall be arranged as follows: 4210-196-5439. See also national stock number. (Note: Federal Stock Numbers were replaced by National Stock Numbers effective 30 September 1974.)

Federal supply class management. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those functions of materiel management that can best be accomplished by federal supply classification, such as cataloging, characteristic screening, standardization, interchangeability and substitution grouping, multi-item specification management, and engineering support of the foregoing.

federal transport agencies. See transportation operating agencies.

federation of modeling and simulation. [TR 5-11] A system of interacting modeling and simulation with supporting infrastructure, based on a common understanding of the objects portrayed in the system.

feedback. 1[TR 350-70] Information and data, provided both within and outside the training system, that indicates the efficiency or effectiveness of the system or product. It is the data and information provided to the appropriate training proponent concerning the effectiveness and efficiency of the proponents training products. 2Information provided to a student concerning his/her training performance. 3Information to the instructional designer so that he/she can improve materials and procedures on the basis of student needs. 4Information to management system so it can monitor the internal and external integrity of the instruction and make appropriate revisions. 5Refers to the flow of data or information from one step in the SAT process to another.

feet dry. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In air operations, a code meaning, "I am, or contact designated is, over land."

l In landing craft air cushion (LCAC) operations, a code meaning "operations over land."

feet wet. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In air operations, a code meaning, "I am, or contact designated is, over water."

l In landing craft air cushion (LCAC) operations, a code meaning "operations over water."

feint. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In military deception, an offensive action involving contact with the adversary conducted for the purpose of deceiving the adversary as to the location and/or time of the actual main offensive action.

fenced funding. [DSMC] An identified aggregation of resources reviewed, approved, and managed as a distinct entity. The proposed program must be developed within directed resource limitations and the approved program must be implemented within specified resources.

fences. [DSMC] Fences, or resource levels, established for a particular program provide a way by which OSD or the Service headquarters can exert functional influence. Fences may just as appropriately be called ceilings and floors, used to protect resources.

fender. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An object, usually made of rope or rubber, hung over the side of a vessel to protect the sides from damage caused by impact with wharves or other craft.

ferret. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An aircraft, ship, or vehicle especially equipped for the detection, location, recording, and analyzing of electromagnetic radiation.

few (raid size). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage, seven or fewer aircraft. See also many (raid size).

fidelity. [TR 350-70] The degree to which a sensory stimulus accurately represents reality.

l In job performance measurement, the extent to which an objective (action, conditions, and standards) approximates those of a task.

l In training devices or simulators, the accuracy with which simulators reflect that which they simulate.

field army. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Administrative and tactical organization composed of a headquarters, certain organic Army troops, service support troops, a variable number of corps, and a variable number of divisions. See also Army corps.

field artillery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Equipment, supplies, ammunition, and personnel involved in the use of cannon, rocket, or surface-to-surface missile launchers. Field artillery cannons are classified according to caliber as:

l light – 120mm and less.

l medium – 121–160mm.

l heavy – 161–210mm.

l very heavy – greater than 210mm.

See also direct support artillery; general support artillery.

field artillery observer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A person who watches the effects of artillery fire, adjusts the center of impact of that fire onto a target, and reports the results to the firing agency. See also naval gunfire spotting team; spotter.

field control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A series of points whose relative positions and elevations are known. These positions are used in basic data in mapping and charting. Normally, these positions are established by survey methods, and are sometimes referred to as trig control or trigonometrical net(work). See also common control (artillery); control point; ground control.

field exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An exercise conducted in the field under simulated war conditions in which troops and armament of one side are actually present, while those of the other side may be imaginary or in outline. See also exercise.

field fortifications. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An emplacement or shelter of a temporary nature which can be constructed with reason able facility by units requiring no more than minor engineer supervisory and equipment participation.

field headquarters. See command post.

field manual (FM). [TR 350-70] A DA publication that contains doctrine that prescribes how the Army and its organizations function on the battlefield in terms of missions, organizations, personnel, and equipment. The level of detail should facilitate an understanding of what and how commanders and staffs execute their missions and tasks. FMs may also contain informational or reverence material relative to conducting military operations and training.

field of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The area which a weapon or a group of weapons may cover effectively with fire from a given position.

field of view. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In photography, the angle between two rays passing through the perspective center (rear nodal point) of a camera lens to the two opposite sides of the format. Not to be confused with "angle of view.". See also angle of view.

l The total solid angle available to the gunner when looking through the gunsight.

field of vision. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total solid angle available to the gunner from his or her normal position. See also field of view.

field press censorship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The security review of news material subject to the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces of the United States, including all information or material intended for dissemination to the public. See also censorship.

field services. Logistical soldier sustainment functions such as food preparation, water purification, bakery, clothing and light textile repair, laundry and bath, airdrop and parachute rigging, and mortuary affairs.

field standard. The video production standard that effectively describes the running speed of the video program. Field standard is related to the main power supply frequency. Where the power supply is 60 Hz, the field standard is 60 fields (or 30 frames) per second; this is the standard employed by National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) systems.

field survey. [TR 350-70] A school- or agency-prepared and administered survey conducted to collect task performance data to identify critical tasks. They do not include occupational surveys, covered under AR 611-3. When the survey is inter-command, it must be approved by the U.S. Total Army Personnel Command.

field test. [TR 350-70] A tryout of any training course on a representative sample of the target population to gather data on the effectiveness or errors of instruction, criterion test performance, and time required to complete the course.

field testing. [TR 350-70] The presentation of one course iteration to determine the ability of the Reserve Component Training Institution to present the instruction as designed and the success of the students in mastering the course objectives in the RC environment.

field training. [TR 350-70] Technical, operator, or other training conducted at operational locations on specific systems and associated direct support equipment.

field training exercise (FTX). [TR 350-70] Conducted under simulated combat conditions in the field. FTXs fully integrate the total force in a realistic combat environment. They involve combat arms, CS, and CSS units. FTXs encompass such training as battle drills, crew drills, and STXs to reinforce soldier and collective training integration. They are used to train the commander, staff, subordinate units, and slice elements. (FM 25-101) See exercise.

field user needs. The general and specific duties that will have to be taught to the trainee if he/she is to be able to adequately perform in a real world environment.

field validation. The point in training product development where the product is administered to a representative sample of the student target population. The intent is to exercise the product in a realistic environment to determine the administrative feasibility and the appropriateness of the product for the student target population.

fielding. [DSMC] See deploy/deployment.

fielding date. [TR 350-70] The date that equipment, training materials, or other support are required to be in the field to support training requirements. Also called ready for training (RFT) date.

fighter controller. See air controller.

fighter cover. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maintenance of a number of fighter aircraft over a specified area or force for the purpose of repelling hostile air activities. See also airborne alert; cover.

fighter direction aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An aircraft equipped and manned for directing fighter aircraft. See also combat information ship.

fighter direction ship. A ship equipped and manned for directing fighter aircraft operations. See also combat information ship.

fighter engagement zone. See weapon engagement zone.

fighter interceptor. See interceptor.

fighter sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive mission by fighter aircraft to seek out and destroy enemy aircraft or targets of opportunity in an allotted area of operations.

Fighting Falcon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single engine, supersonic, turbofan, all-weather multipurpose tactical fighter/bomber. It is capable of employing nuclear/non-nuclear weapons. Air superiority is its primary mission with air interdiction and close air support as secondary. An air refueling capability increases its flexibility. Designated as F-16.

fighting load. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Consists of items of individual clothing, equipment, weapons, and ammunition that are carried by, and are essential to, the effectiveness of the combat soldier and the accomplishment of the immediate mission of the unit when the soldier is on foot. See also existence load.

figure of merit. [DSMC] The numerical value assigned to a measure of effectiveness, parameter, or other figure, as a result of an analysis, synthesis, or estimating technique.

file. [TP 25-71] An aggregation of records, usually within a series, brought together because they relate to the same subject, activity or transaction. See record series.

file code. [TP 25-71] Record category code and extensions associated with a record indicating the specified arrangement in which it should be filed.

file plan. [TP 25-71] The records categorization scheme for an agency.

filler. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A substance carried in an ammunition container such as a projectile, mine, bomb, or grenade. A filler may be an explosive, chemical, or inert substance.

filler personnel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Individuals of suitable grade and skill initially required to bring a unit or organization to its authorized strength.

film badge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A photographic film packet to be carried by personnel, in the form of a badge, for measuring and permanently recording (usually) gamma ray dosage.

filter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In electronics, a device which transmits only part of the incident energy and may thereby change the spectral distribution of energy:

l High pass filters transmit energy above a certain frequency;

l Low pass filters transmit energy below a certain frequency;

l Band pass filters transmit energy of a certain bandwidth; d. Band stop filters transmit energy outside a specific frequency band.

filter center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The location in an aircraft control and warning system at which information from observation posts is filtered for further dissemination to air defense control centers and air defense direction centers.

final approach. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That part of an instrument approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished.

l In a non-precision approach it normally begins at the final approach fix or point and ends at the missed approach point or fix.

l In a precision approach the final approach commences at the glide path intercept point and ends at the decision height/altitude.

final assembly. [DSMC] The joining together of the major sections to perform a complete unit.

final bearing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The magnetic bearing assigned by an air operations center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center for final approach; an extension of the landing area centerline. See also air operations center; final approach; helicopter direction center.

final destination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval control of shipping, the final destination of a convoy or of an individual ship (whether in convoy or independent) irrespective of whether or not routing instructions have been issued.

final disposal procedures. See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

final plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A plan for which drafts have been coordinated and approved and which has been signed by or on behalf of a competent authority. See also operation plan.

final protective fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An immediately available prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas.

financial property accounting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The establishment and maintenance of property accounts in monetary terms; the rendition of property reports in monetary terms.

fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The command given to discharge a weapon(s).

l To detonate the main explosive charge by means of a firing system.

See also barrage fire; call fire; close supporting fire; counterfire; counterpreparation fire; covering fire; deep supporting fire; destruction fire; direct fire; direct supporting fire; distributed fire; grazing fire; harassing fire; indirect fire; neutralization fire; observed fire; preparation fire; radar fire; registration fire; scheduled fire; searching fire; supporting fire; suppressive fire; unobserved fire; zone fire.

fire barrage (specify). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An order to deliver a prearranged barrier of fire. Specification of the particular barrage may be by code name, numbering system, unit assignment, or other designated means.

fire capabilities chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chart, usually in the form of an overlay, showing the areas which can be reached by the fire of the bulk of the weapons of a unit.

fire control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The control of all operations in connection with the application of fire on a target.

fire control radar. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Radar used to provide target information inputs to a weapon fire control system.

fire control system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A group of interrelated fire control equipment and/or instruments designed for use with a weapon or group of weapons.

fire coordination. See fire support coordination.

fire coordination area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area with specified restraints into which fires in excess of those restraints will not be delivered without approval of the authority establishing the restraints.

fire direction center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communication personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. The fire direction center receives target intelligence and requests for fire, and translates them into appropriate fire direction.

fire for effect. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Fire which is delivered after the mean point of impact or burst is within the desired distance of the target or adjusting/ranging point.

l Term in a call for fire to indicate the adjustment/ranging is satisfactory and fire for effect is desired.

fire message. See call for fire.

fire mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Specific assignment given to a fire unit as part of a definite plan.

l Order used to alert the weapon/battery area and indicate that the message following is a call for fire.

fire plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A tactical plan for using the weapons of a unit or formation so that their fire will be coordinated.

fire storm. Stationary mass fire, generally in buildup urban areas, generating strong, rushing winds from all sides; the winds keep the fires from spreading while adding fresh oxygen to increase their intensity.

fire support. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operation forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives. See also fires. 2Fire support is a clearly defined, systemic, and positive command and control means that defines the support and relationship of a fire support unit to a supported unit. There are four standard missions: direct support, reinforcing, general support-reinforcing, and general support. Each standard fire support mission includes seven codified inherent responsibilities that specify priorities of calls for fire, zone of fire, observer team/fire support team coordinator requirements, liaison officer requirements, communications requirements, positioning authority, and fire planning requirements.

fire support area (FSA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An appropriate maneuver area assigned to fire support ships by the naval force commander from which they can deliver gunfire support to an amphibious operation. See also amphibious operation; fire support; naval support area.

fire support coordinating measure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A measure employed by land or amphibious commanders to facilitate the rapid engagement of targets and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly forces. See also fire support coordination.

fire support coordination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The planning and executing of fire so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of weapons.

fire support coordination center (FSCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single location in which are centralized communications facilities and personnel incident to the coordination of all forms of fire support. See also fire; fire support; fire support coodination; support; supporting arms coordination center.

fire support coordination line (FSCL). JP 1-02] (DoD) A fire support coordination measure that is established and adjusted by appropriate land or amphibious force commanders within their boundaries in consultation with superior, subordinate, supporting, and affected commanders. Fire support coordination lines (FSCLs) facilitate the expeditious attack of surface targets of opportunity beyond the coordinating measure. An FSCL does not divide an area of operations by defining a boundary between close and deep operations or a zone for close air support. The FSCL applies to all fires of air, land, and sea-based weapon systems using any type of ammunition. Forces attacking targets beyond an FSCL must inform all affected commanders in sufficient time to allow necessary reaction to avoid fratricide. Supporting elements attacking targets beyond the FSCL must ensure that the attack will not produce adverse effects on, or to the rear of, the line. Short of an FSCL, all air-to-ground and surface-to-surface attack operations are controlled by the appropriate land or amphibious force commander. The FSCL should follow well defined terrain features. Coordination of attacks beyond the FSCL is especially critical to commanders of air, land, and special operations forces. In exceptional circumstances, the inability to conduct this coordination will not preclude the attack of targets beyond the FSCL. However, failure to do so may increase the risk of fratricide and could waste limited resources. See also fire support; fires.

fire support element (FSE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the force tactical operations center at every echelon above company or troop (to corps) that is responsible for targeting coordination and for integrating fires delivered on surface targets by fire-support means under the control, or in support, of the force. See also fire; fire support; force; support.

fire support group. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A temporary grouping of ships under a single commander charged with supporting troop operations ashore by naval gunfire. A fire support group may be further subdivided into fire support units and fire support elements.

fire support officer (FSO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Senior field artillery officer assigned to Army maneuver battalions and brigades. Advises commander on fire-support matters. See also field artillery; fire; fire support; support.

fire support station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An exact location at sea within a fire support area from which a fire support ship delivers fire.

fire support team (FIST). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army team provided by the field artillery component to each maneuver company and troop to plan and coordinate all indirect fire means available to the unit, including mortars, field artillery, close air support, and naval gunfire. See also close air support; field artillery; fire; fire support; support.

fire task. See fire mission.

fire time. See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment).

fireball. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The luminous sphere of hot gases which forms a few millionths of a second after detonation of a nuclear weapon and immediately starts expanding and cooling.

Firebee. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A remotely controlled target drone powered by a turbojet engine. It achieves high subsonic speeds and is designed to be ground launched or air launched. It is used to test, train, and evaluate weapon systems employing surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. Designated as BQM-34./ MQM-34D RPV

Firebee II. The Ryan BQM-34E/F, a supersonic development of the Ryan 147

firepower. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The amount of fire which may be delivered by a position, unit, or weapon system.

l Ability to deliver fire.

firepower umbrella. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area of specified dimensions defining the boundaries of the airspace over a naval force at sea within which the fire of ships' antiaircraft weapons can endanger aircraft, and within which special procedures have been established for the identification and operation of friendly aircraft. See also air defense operations area.

fires. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The effects of lethal or nonlethal weapons.

firing area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a sweeper-sweep combination it is the horizontal area at the depth of a particular mine in which the mine will detonate. The firing area has exactly the same dimensions as the interception area but will lie astern of it unless the mine detonates immediately when actuated.

firing chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Map, photo map, or grid sheet showing the relative horizontal and vertical positions of batteries, base points, base point lines, check points, targets, and other details needed in preparing firing data.

firing circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In land operations, an electrical circuit and/or pyrotechnic loop designed to detonate connected charges from a firing point.

l In naval mine warfare, that part of a mine circuit which either completes the detonator circuit or operates a ship counter.

firing mechanism. See firing circuit.

firing point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That point in the firing circuit where the device employed to initiate the detonation of the charges is located.

firing system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In demolition, a system composed of elements designed to fire the main charge or charges.

firm-fixed price. [TR 350-70] A firm-fixed price contract provides for a price that is not subject to any adjustments on the basis of the contractor’s cost or experience in performing the contract. Maximum risk and responsibility for all costs and resulting profit or loss is placed on the contractor.

firmware. [DSMC] The combination of a hardware device and computer instructions or computer data that reside as read-only software on the hardware device. The software cannot be readily modified under program control.

first article. [DSMC] First article includes preproduction models, initial production samples, test samples, first lots, pilot models, and pilot lots; and approval involves testing and evaluating the first article for conformance with specified contract requirements before or in the initial stage of production under a contract.

first article testing (FAT). [DSMC] [DSMC] Production testing that is planned, conducted, and monitored by the materiel developer. FAT includes preproduction and initial production testing conducted to ensure that the contractor can furnish a product that meets the established technical criteria.

first draft materials. Any materials (book, film, etc.) which are not yet committed to their final form. First draft refers to the fact that the materials are still in rough form and will be revised on the basis of test results and other data.

first generation negative. See generation (photography).

first generation positive. See generation (photography).

first light. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The beginning of morning nautical twilight; i.e., when the center of the morning sun is 12 degrees below the horizon.

first salvo at. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In naval gunfire support, a portion of a ship's message to an observer or spotter to indicate that because of proximity to troops, the ship will not fire at the target but offset the first salvo a specific distance from the target.

first strike. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The first offensive move of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.)

first unit equipped (FUE). [TR 350-70] This is the date the first user unit receives a new system.

first unit equipped date (FUED). The scheduled date a system or end item and its agreed upon support elements are issued to the designed initial operational capability unit and training specified in the new equipment training plan has been accomplished

fiscal guidance. The annual guidance issued by the Secretary of Defense which provides the fiscal constraints that must be observed by DoD Components in the formulation of force structures and the Five-Year Defense Program (FYDP). This guidance directs the Office of the Secretary of Defense in reviewing proposed programs.

fiscal year (FY). [DSMC] U.S. Government: 1 October to 30 September (12 months).

fission. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process whereby the nucleus of a heavy element splits into (generally) two nuclei of lighter elements, with the release of substantial amounts of energy.

fission products. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A general term for the complex mixture of substances produced as a result of nuclear fission.

fission to yield ratio. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ratio of the yield derived from nuclear fission to the total yield; it is frequently expressed in percent.

fitness for use. [DSMC] The effectiveness of the design, manufacturing, and support processes in delivering a system that meets the operational requirements under all anticipated operational conditions.

fitted mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge, a primer, detonator, and firing system. See also exercise filled mine; explosive filled mine.

Five-Year Defense Program (FYDP). The publication that records, summarizes, and displays the decisions that have been approved by the Secretary of Defense, constituting the DoD program.

fix. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A position determined from terrestrial, electronic, or astronomical data.

fixed ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Ammunition in which the cartridge case is permanently attached to the projectile. See also munition.

fixed capital property. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Assets of a permanent character having continuing value.

l As used in military establishments, includes real estate and equipment installed or in use, either in productive plants or in field operations.

Synonymous with fixed assets.

fixed costs. [DSMC] Costs that do not vary with the volume of business, such as property taxes, insurance, depreciation, security, and minimum water and utility fees.

fixed medical treatment facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A medical treatment facility which is designed to operate for an extended period of time at a specific site.

fixed port. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Water terminals with an improved network of cargo-handling facilities designed for the transfer of oceangoing freight. See also port; water terminal.

fixed price incentive contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD)A fixed price type of contract with provision for the adjustment of profit and price by a formula based on the relationship that final negotiated total cost bears to negotiated target cost as adjusted by approved changes.

fixed price type contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD)A type of contract that generally provides for a firm price or, under appropriate circumstances, may provide for an adjustable price for the supplies or services being procured. Fixed price contracts are of several types so designed as to facilitate proper pricing under varying circumstances.

fixed repetition. The design element that repeats a segment of training material in the same way to increase learning.

fixed sample. When testing the effectiveness of a lesson, a preset sample of students is selected in advance. Decisions are based on the outcome of that preset sample.

fixed sequence. Refers to [task] elements that are always done in the same order.

fixed sequence task. A task that follows the same steps each time that it is performed.

fixed station patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) One in which each scout maintains station relative to an assigned point on a barrier line while searching the surrounding area. Scouts are not stationary but remain underway and patrol near the center of their assigned stations. A scout is a surface ship, submarine, or aircraft.

fixer network. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A combination of radio or radar direction-finding installations which, operating in conjunction, are capable of plotting the position relative to the ground of an aircraft in flight.

fixer system. See fixer network.

flag days (red or green). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Red flag days are those during which movement requirements cannot be met; green flag days are those during which the requisite amount or a surplus of transportation capability exists.

flag officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term applied to an officer holding the rank of general, lieutenant general, major general, or brigadier general in the U.S. Army, Air Force or Marine Corps or admiral, vice admiral, rear admiral or commodore in the U.S. Navy or Coast Guard.

flame field expedients (FFE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Simple, handmade devices used to produce flame or illumination.

flame thrower. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A weapon that projects incendiary fuel and has provision for ignition of this fuel.

flammable cargo. See inflammable cargo.

flank guard. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A security element operating to the flank of a moving or stationary force to protect it from enemy ground observation, direct fire, and surprise attack.

flanking attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive maneuver directed at the flank of an enemy. See also frontal attack.

flare. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The change in the flight path of an aircraft so as to reduce the rate of descent for touchdown.

flare dud. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nuclear weapon that when launched at a target, detonates with anticipated yield but at an altitude appreciably greater than intended. This is not a dud insofar as yield is concerned, but it is a dud with respect to the effects on the target and the normal operation of the weapon.

flash blindness. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Impairment of vision resulting from an intense flash of light. It includes temporary or permanent loss of visual functions and may be associated with retinal burns. See also dazzle.

flash burn. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A burn caused by excessive exposure (of bare skin) to thermal radiation.

flash message. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category of precedence reserved for initial enemy contact messages or operational combat messages of extreme urgency. Brevity is mandatory. See also precedence.

flash ranging. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Finding the position of the burst of a projectile or of an enemy gun by observing its flash.

flash report. Not to be used. See in-flight report.

flash suppresser. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Device attached to the muzzle of the weapon which reduces the amount of visible light or flash created by burning propellant gases.

flash-to-bang time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time from light being first observed until the sound of the nuclear detonation is heard.

flat. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In photography, lacking in contrast.

flatrack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Portable, open-topped, open-sided units that fit into existing below-deck container cell guides and provide a capability for container ships to carry oversized cargo and wheeled and tracked vehicles. See also cargo.

flatted cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo placed in the bottom of the holds, covered with planks and dunnage, and held for future use. Flatted cargo usually has room left above it for the loading of vehicles that may be moved without interfering with the flatted cargo. Frequently, flatted cargo serves in lieu of ballast. Sometimes called understowed cargo. See also cargo.

fleet. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organization of ships, aircraft, marine forces, and shore-based fleet activities all under the command of a commander or commander in chief who may exercise operational as well as administrative control. See also major fleet; numbered fleet.

fleet ballistic missile submarine. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nuclear-powered submarine designed to deliver ballistic missile attacks against assigned targets from either a submerged or surfaced condition. Designated as SSBN.

fleet in being. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A fleet (force) that avoids decisive action, but, because of its strength and location, causes or necessitates counter-concentrations and so reduces the number of opposing units available for operations elsewhere.

fleet Marine force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A balanced force of combined arms comprising land, air, and service elements of the U.S. Marine Corps. A fleet Marine force is an integral part of a U.S. fleet and has the status of a type command.

Flexible Deterrent Option (FDO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A planning construct intended to facilitate early decision by laying out a wide range of interrelated response paths that begin with deterrent-oriented options carefully tailored to send the right signal. The Flexible Deterrent Option is the means by which the various deterrent options available to a commander (such as economic, diplomatic, political, and military measures) are implemented into the planning process. See also deterrent options.

flexible Information Dissemination System (FINDS). The FINDS sends imagery and data to the tactical warfighter. It uses a common data link to interoperate with all services. It can relay from ARS-/JSIPS-/ Guardrail-/ MIST-type processor to a FINDS remote terminal.

flexible response. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The capability of military forces for effective reaction to any enemy threat or attack with actions appropriate and adaptable to the circumstances existing.

flexible sustainment (FS). [DSMC] A concept that provides procedural freedom to optimize life cycle costs through trade-offs which are accomplished either during initial or follow-on acquisition. The principal elements of FS are reliability based logistics (RBL) techniques and trigger based item management (TBIM). Both of these processes attempt to take maximum advantage of commercial industry capabilities and practices. See reliability based logistics (RBL) and trigger based item management (TBIM).

flicker. The shaky or shivering effect (usually unwanted) on a video still or freeze frame caused when both fields of a video picture frame are not identically matched with fields from adjacent frames. As the video equipment attempts to display the still or freeze frame, the adjacent pictures alternate.

flight. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In Navy and Marine Corps usage, a specified group of aircraft usually engaged in a common mission.

l The basic tactical unit in the Air Force, consisting of four or more aircraft in two or more elements. 3. A single aircraft airborne on a nonoperational mission.

flight advisory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A message dispatched to aircraft in flight or to interested stations to advise of any deviation or irregularity.

flight deck. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In certain airplanes, an elevated compartment occupied by the crew for operating the airplane in flight.

l The upper deck of an aircraft carrier that serves as a runway.

flight deck officer (FDO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Officer responsible for the safe movement of aircraft on or about the flight deck of an aviation-capable ship. See also aviation ship; flight deck.

flight following. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The task of maintaining contact with specified aircraft for the purpose of determining en route progress and/or flight termination.

flight information center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service.

flight information region. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. See also air traffic control center; area control center.

flight information service. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.

flight levels. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Surfaces of constant atmospheric pressure which are related to a specific pressure datum, 1013.2 Mb (29.92 in), and are separated by specific pressure intervals. (Flight levels are expressed in three digits that represent hundreds of feet; e.g., flight level 250 represents a barometric altimeter indication of 25,000 feet and flight level 255 is an indication of 25,500 feet.)

flight operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The element of the tactical Army air traffic regulation system which provides for aircraft flight following, separation of aircraft under instrument conditions, and identification of friendly aircraft to friendly air defense agencies.

flight path. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The line connecting the successive positions occupied, or to be occupied, by an aircraft, missile, or space vehicle as it moves through air or space.

flight plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Specified information provided to air traffic services units relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.

flight plan correlation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A means of identifying aircraft by association with known flight plans.

flight profile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The flight path of an aircraft expressed in terms of altitude, speed, range, and maneuver.

flight quarters. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship configuration that assigns and stations personnel at critical positions to conduct safe flight operations.

flight readiness firing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A missile system test of short duration conducted with the propulsion system operating while the missile is secured to the launcher. Such a test is performed to determine the readiness of the missile system and launch facilities prior to flight test.

flight surgeon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A physician specially trained in aviator medical practice whose primary duty is the medical examination and medical care of aircrew.

flight test. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Test of an aircraft, rocket, missile, or other vehicle by actual flight or launching. Flight tests are planned to achieve specific test objectives and gain operational information.

flight visibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The average forward horizontal distance from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night.

float. [DSMC] The period of time that an activity may be delayed without becoming a critical activity.

floating base support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A form of logistic support in which supplies, repairs, maintenance, and other services are provided in harbor or at an anchorage for operating forces from ships.

floating craft company. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A company-sized unit made up of various watercraft teams such as tugs, barges, and barge cranes. See also watercraft.

floating dump. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Emergency supplies preloaded in landing craft, amphibious vehicles, or in landing ships. Floating dumps are located in the vicinity of the appropriate control officer who directs their landing as requested by the troop commander concerned.

floating mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine visible on the surface. See also drifting mine; free mine; watching mine; mine.

floating reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In an amphibious operation, reserve troops which remain embarked until needed. See also general reserve.

flooder. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a buoyant mine which, on operation after a preset time, floods the mine case and causes it to sink to the bottom.

flotation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The capability of a vehicle to float in water.

flow diagram. 1[TR 350-70] In training development, a graphic representation of actions or events required to accomplish a task (i.e., lesson development). It is frequently accompanied by a narrative description. The flow diagram provides instructions and sequencing for accomplishing tasks and goals. The flow diagram provides specific instructions and precise sequencing for accomplishing tasks and goals. In contracts, a flow diagram visually depicts the actions or events required of each participant involved in developing extension training materials. It is frequently accompanied by a narrative description and provides instructions and sequencing for extension training material developers. 2[DoD] A graphic representation of actions/ events required in accomplishment of task (e.g., lesson development). 3[DSMC] The paths of movement of workers and/or materials super-imposed on a graphical representation of the work area.

flow process chart. [DSMC] A graphical representation of the sequence of all operations, transportation, inspections, delays, and storage occurring during a process or procedure.

flow time. [DSMC] The time required for a defined amount of work to be completed.

flowchart. 1[TR 350-70] A graphic representation of the sequence of a specific activity, operation, or algorithm. 2[DSMC] A graphical explanation of a particular process. In a production process, it usually includes symbols to allow recognition of operations, inspections, storage, etc.

fly-in echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Includes the balance of the initial assault force, not included in the assault echelon, and some aviation support equipment. See also assault; assault echelon; echelon.

fly(ing) at speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Fly at (mach__/__) indicated air speed," or, "My indicated air speed is (__ knots/mach __)."

flyaway costs. [DSMC] Costs related to the development and production of a useable end item of military hardware. Includes the cost of creating the basic unit (airframe, hull, chassis, etc.), an allowance for changes, propulsion equipment, electronics, armament, and other installed government-furnished equipment, and nonrecurring start-up production costs. Equates to rollaway and sailaway costs.

flying spot scanner. A device that uses a moving spot of light to scan a sample space, with the intensity of the transmitted or reflected light being sensed by a photoelectric transducer. Used to transfer slides or film to videotape.

foam path. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A path of fire extinguisher foam laid on a runway to assist aircraft in an emergency landing.

focal length. See calibrated focal length; equivalent focal length; nominal focal length.

focal plane. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The plane, perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens, in which images of points in the object field of the lens are focused.

focal point. [DSMC] In a particular organization (e.g., the headquarters of a major command) the principal point of contact for coordination and exchange of information related to cost/schedule control system criteria implementation or surveillance.

focused logistics. [DSMC] A Joint Chiefs of Staff initiative which seeks the fusion of information, logistics, and transportation technologies to provide rapid crisis response by allowing for the tracking and shifting of assets enroute and the delivery of tailored logistics and sustainment packages directly at the strategic, operational, or tactical level of operations.

folded optics. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any optical system containing reflecting components for the purpose of reducing the physical length of the system or for the purpose of changing the path of the optical axis.

follow-on operational test and evaluation (FOTE). An FOTE is that operational test and evaluation conducted as necessary after the full production decision, during production and deployment of the system. An FOTE is conducted to assess system training and logistics, to verify correction of deficiencies, if required, and to ensure that initial production items meet operational effectiveness and suitability thresholds. An FOTE will be scheduled and programmed as a normal part of the acquisition program. The operational independent evaluation (IE) will make maximum use of both production and preproduction qualification tests and other data sources (e.g., sample data collection, field user surveys) to assess FOTE issues, minimizing the requirement for follow-on operational testing. FOT&E is still used but is obsolete.

follow-on reinforcement units. Primarily National Guard divisions, brigades, and associated EAD and EAC support elements that are trained and deployed for protracted operations. These forces include units that replace or augment forward-presence units that have deployed to other regions for protracted operations

follow-on training. Training conducted after initial training.

follow-up. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the landing of reinforcements and stores after the assault and assault follow-on echelons have been landed. See also assault; assault follow-on echelon.

follow-up activities. The work events that occur after a course of instruction has been completed.

follow-up echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air transport operations, elements moved into the objective area after the assault echelon.

follow-up shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Ships not originally a part of the amphibious task force but which deliver troops and supplies to the objective area after the assault phase has begun.

follow-up supplies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Supplies delivered after the initial landings or airdrop to resupply units until routine supply procedures can be instituted. These supplies may be delivered either automatically or on an on-call basis and are prepared for delivery by supporting supply units. See also resupply; routine supplies; supplies.

footprint. 1The floor or desk area taken up by a piece of hardware. 2[IBM] The audit trail (if any) left by a crashed program (often in plural, footprints).

FOOTPRINT. 1[DAPE-MR] FOOTPRINT is a tool developed to quickly project the manpower, personnel, and training (MPT) characteristics of each military occupational specialty (MOS) and career management field (CMF) for enlisted personnel; branch/functional area (BR/FA) and AOC for commissioned officers; and BR and MOS for warrant officers. It contains a wealth of information useful in performing analyses and developing a TAD. 2[TR 350-70] The manpower, personnel, and training (MTP) relational database that supports MANPRINT.

l It is used as an analysis tool, i.e., to develop an MOS MTP profile which can be used in developing a target audience description.

l Future enhancements to the database will include active, reserve, and national guard data, ODARS critical task data, proponent critical task database, and commissioned and warrant officer and civilian personnel data.

force. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An aggregation of military personnel, weapon systems, vehicles and necessary support, or combination thereof.

l A major subdivision of a fleet.

force analysis. The determination, within projected resource constraints, of the most effective mix of units (including weapons) to carry out Army missions and functions. It involves a total Army force structure of Army components and major force categories (such as division forces). It addresses the full spectrum of time considered by the Defense Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System. Both programmed and conceptual forces are considered.

force beddown. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The provision of expedient facilities for troop support to provide a platform for the projection of force. These facilities may include modular or kit-type facility substitutes. See also facility substitutes.

force closure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The point in time when a supported commander determines that sufficient personnel and equipment resources are in the assigned area of operations to carry out assigned tasks.

force combat air patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A patrol of fighters maintained over the task force to destroy enemy aircraft that threaten the force. See also combat air patrol.

force development. The integration of allocated and projected Army resources into a time-phased program to develop a force that is properly organized, equipped, trained, and supported to carry out the Army missions and functions world-wide. This includes force planning, programming, analysis, structuring, combat, and training developments.

force development test and experimentation (FDTE). FDTE is conducted early on to support the force development and materiel development process by examining the effectiveness of existing or proposed concepts of training, logistics, doctrine, organization, and materiel. FDTE can be scheduled as needed during any phase of the materiel acquisition process. FDTE may be related to, combined with, or used to supplement operational testing (OT). During the requirements formulation effort, FDTE may be used to determine essential and desirable capabilities or characteristic of proposed systems. Prior to Milestone II, FDTE will be used to assist in refining concepts of employment, logistics, training, organization, and may be used in lieu of OT when operational issues are adequately addressed. FDTE also includes field experiments designed to gather data through instrumentation to address a training development problem or to support simulations, models, wargames, and other analytical studies. Requirements for FDTE may also be generated by the results of combat developments, training developments, or training effectiveness analysis testing/ studies (AR 713).

force integration staff officer (FISO). An individual assigned to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations and Plans (ODCSOPS) to serve as the HQDA user representatives for a specific system. The FISO provides continuous coordination necessary for the integration of a new system into the Army force structure.

force levels. [DSMC] Number of aircraft, ships, troops, and other forces that are required to accomplish assigned tasks or missions. Normally identified by specified aircraft model, ship type, Army divisions, etc.

force list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A total list of forces required by an operation plan, including assigned forces, augmentation forces, and other forces to be employed in support of the plan.

force management. The control of resources employed by the Army for force development. It includes force planning and programming.

force module (FM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A grouping of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces, with their accompanying supplies and the required non-unit resupply and personnel necessary to sustain forces for a minimum of 30 days. The elements of force modules are linked together or are uniquely identified so that they may be extracted from or adjusted as an entity in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System data bases to enhance flexibility and usefulness of the operation plan during a crisis. See also force module package.

force module package (FMP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A force module with a specific functional orientation (e.g., air superiority, close air support, reconnaissance, ground defense) that include combat, associated combat support, and combat service support forces. Additionally, force module packages will contain sustainment in accordance with logistic policy contained in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan Annex B. See also force module.

force multiplier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A capability that, when added to and employed by a combat force, significantly increases the combat potential of that force and thus enhances the probability of successful mission accomplishment.

force planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities. It is primarily the responsibility of the Military Departments and Services and is conducted under the administrative control that runs from the Secretary of Defense to the Military Departments and Services.

force programming. The translation of Office of the Secretary of Defense planning and program guidance into a comprehensive and detailed allocation of forces, manpower, and fiscal resources for a five-year period. Program developments are published each year in the program objective memorandum (POM). It presents to OSD the Army’s proposal for a balanced allocation of its resources within certain constraints.

force projection. [TP 525-5] The movement of military forces from CONUS or a theater in response to requirements of war or operations other than war. Force-projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces, to redeployment to CONUS or home theater, to subsequent demobilization.

force protection. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Security program designed to protect Service members, civilian employees, family members, facilities, and equipment, in all locations and situations, accomplished through planned and integrated application of combatting terrorism, physical security, operations security, personal protective services, and supported by intelligence, counterintelligence, and other security programs. See also combating terrorism; operations security; physical security; security; terrorism.

force rendezvous. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A checkpoint at which formations of aircraft or ships join and become part of the main force. Also called group rendezvous.

force requirement number (FRN). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An alphanumeric code used to uniquely identify force entries in a given operation plan time-phased force and deployment data.

force shortfall. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A deficiency in the number of types of units available for planning within the time required for the performance of an assigned task.

force sourcing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The identification of the actual units, their origins, ports of embarkation, and movement characteristics to satisfy the time-phased force requirements of a supported commander.

force structure. [DSMC] The composition of a Service, or all Services together, in terms of the number of major combat and support units, and their relationship to each other. See military capability.

force structuring. The composition of a force, by number and types of TOE units and organizations, within given guidance. The unit and organizations prescribed by competent authority are used.

force tabs. [JP 1-02] (DoD) With reference to war plans, the statement of time-phased deployments of major combat units by major commands and geographical areas.

force tracking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The identification of units and their specific modes of transport during movement to an objective area.

forces. [DSMC] Broadly, the fighting elements (combatant) of the overall defense structure; units, equipment, etc., shown in the future years defense program. See airborne force; armed forces; blue forces; combined force; covering force; garrison force; Navy cargo handling force; task force; underway replenishment force.

forces in being. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Forces classified as being in state of readiness "A" or "B" as prescribed in the appropriate military committee document.

fordability. See deep fording; shallow fording.

foreign assistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Assistance ranging from the sale of military equipment to donations of food and medical supplies to aid survivors of natural and manmade disasters; United States assistance takes three forms--development assistance, humanitarian assistance, and security assistance. See also foreign disaster; humanitarian assistance; natural disaster; security assistance.

Foreign Comparative Testing (FCT) Program. [DSMC] A DoD test and evaluation program that is prescribed in Title 10 U.S.C.2350a(g), and is centrally managed by the Director, Test, Systems Engineering and Evaluation. It provides funding for U.S. T&E of selected equipment items and technologies developed by allied countries when such items and technologies are identified as having good potential to satisfy valid DoD requirements.

Foreign Counterintelligence Program (FCIP). This military component of the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) conducts counterintelligence activities in support of DoD components outside the U.S. in coordination with the CIA, and within the U.S. in coordination with the FBI, pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Attorney General and the Secretary of Defense.

foreign disaster. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An act of nature (such as a flood, drought, fire, hurricane, earthquake, volcanic eruption, or epidemic), or an act of man (such as a riot, violence, civil strife, explosion, fire, or epidemic), which is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant United States foreign disaster relief to a foreign country, foreign persons, or to an international organization. See also disaster control; foreign disaster relief.

foreign disaster relief. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Prompt aid which can be used to alleviate the suffering of foreign disaster victims. Normally it includes humanitarian services and transportation; the provision of food, clothing, medicine, beds and bedding; temporary shelter and housing; the furnishing of medical materiel, medical and technical personnel; and making repairs to essential services. See also disaster control; foreign disaster.

foreign disclosure. [TR 350-70] The conveying of classified military information (CMI) and controlled unclassified information (CUI) through oral or visual means to an authorized representative of a foreign government.

foreign disclosure officer (FDO). [TR 350-70] Department of the Army (DA) member designated in writing to oversee and control coordination of specific disclosures of classified military information (CMI) and controlled unclassified information (CUI). FDOs are authorized for appointment to the lowest command level that is the proponent for Army-created, developed, or derived CMI and CUI.

foreign instrumentation signals intelligence (FISINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Technical information and intelligence information derived from the intercept of foreign instrumentation signals by other than the intended recipients. Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence is a category of signals intelligence. Note: Foreign instrumentation signals include but are not limited to signals from telemetry, beaconry, electronic interrogators, tracking/fusing/ arming/firing command systems, and video data links. See also telemetry intelligence; signals intelligence.

foreign intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information relating to capabilities, intentions, and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons, but not including counterintelligence, except for information on international terrorist activities. See also intelligence.

foreign internal defense (FID). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. See also internal defense and development.

Foreign Materiel Program. The Army program for exploiting, developing, or providing foreign military materiel, commercial representations of foreign materiel with potential military application, related foreign documents in the Army inventory, and exploitation reports on this materiel of value to U.S. intelligence, research and development, test and evaluation, and military planning, operations, and training. This includes planning concerning intelligence and non-intelligence acquisition requirements, management of signature and similar programs, participation in evacuation efforts, and support to the Opposing Forces Program.

foreign military sales (FMS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of United States security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended. This assistance differs from the Military Assistance Program and the International Military Education and Training Program in that the recipient provides reimbursement for defense articles and services transferred from the U.S. that includes cash sales from stocks (inventories, services, training) by the DoD.

foreign military sales trainees. Foreign nationals receiving training conducted by the Department of Defense on a reimbursable basis, at the country's request.

foreign object damage (FOD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Rags, pieces of paper, line, articles of clothing, nuts, bolts, or tools that, when misplaced or caught by air currents normally found around aircraft operations (jet blast, rotor or prop wash, engine intake), cause damage to aircraft systems or weapons or injury to personnel.

foreign SIGINT collector (FSC/EW). A foreign entity employing electromagnetic and SIGINT techniques to target friendly forces for the purposes of detecting, exploiting, or subverting the C-E environment of the friendly commander.

foreign training. [TR 350-70] The training of foreign nationals under the provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. This training is also called the Military Assistance Program. It is funded through grants or foreign military sales. It includes resident training, on-the-job training, a mobile training team, field training services, and incountry training.

foreign weapon. [DSMC] For the purpose of the foreign comparative testing program, a foreign weapon is any conventional item of military equipment, system, subsystem, munitions, or major component manufactured by a friendly or neutral country that is available or soon to be available for procurement by the U.S. Government.

foreshore. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of a beach extending from the low water (datum) shoreline to the limit of normal high water wave wash.

form, fit, and function data. [DSMC] Technical data pertaining to items, components, or processes for the purpose of identifying source, size, configuration, mating and attachment characteristics, functional characteristics, and performance requirements.

form lines. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Lines resembling contours, but representing no actual elevations, which have been sketched from visual observation or from inadequate or unreliable map sources, to show collectively the configuration of the terrain.

formal agreement. [DSMC] A memorandum of understanding (MOU), a memorandum of agreement (MOA), or the equivalent, as defined in DoDD 5530.3.

formal course. Training course outlined in formal training syllabus which accepts a student with prescribed entry prerequisites and ensures that each graduate possesses the knowledge, skills, and levels of proficiency set forth in the course objectives or training standards.

formal in-process review (IPR). A review conducted when a formal life cycle or other major decision is required for nonmajor systems/items.

formal lecture. A structured and often rehearsed teaching session with no verbal participation by students. See informal lecture.

formal on-the-job training (FOJT). This type of training takes place in the actual work situation.

formal training. [TR 350-70] Training (including special training) in an officially designated course conducted or administered in accordance with appropriate course outline and training objectives. The course may be resident or nonresident.

format. 1The desired organization, structure, or arrangement of the content of a data product. This term relates to the shape, size, makeup, style, physical organization, and typographic make-up (e.g., line length, type face, and size) of the data product. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In photography, the size and/or shape of a negative or of the print therefrom.

l In cartography, the shape and size of a map or chart.

format code. [TP 25-71] Codes indicating the logical structure of a record Graphics Interchange Format (gif) A compressed graphics file format used to upload, download, and store graphics sent via modem to and from on-line services. It is designed to minimize file transfer time over phone lines.

formation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An ordered arrangement of troops and/or vehicles for a specific purpose.

l An ordered arrangement of two or more ships, units, or aircraft proceeding together under a commander.

formative evaluation. An evaluation that provides information about the effectiveness of training materials to meet the training objectives and the student acceptance of training materials as they are being developed.

formatted message text. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A message text composed of several sets ordered in a specified sequence, each set characterized by an identifier and containing information of a specified type, coded and arranged in an ordered sequence of character fields in accordance with the NATO message text formatting rules. It is designed to permit both manual and automated handling and processing. See also free form message text; structured message text.

formerly restricted data. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information removed from the restricted data category upon a joint determination by the Department of Energy (or antecedent agencies) and Department of Defense that such information relates primarily to the military utilization of atomic weapons and that such information can be adequately safeguarded as classified defense information (Section 142d, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended). See also restricted data.

FORSCOM Automated Intelligence Support Activity (FAISA). FORSCOM's access to national databases.

Forum for Armaments Cooperation. [DSMC] A formal body of accredited national representatives of two or more nations, with a definable membership and charter, meeting periodically — with proceedings of meetings documented for participants — for information exchange and discussion to harmonize operational concepts, doctrine, and procedures; standardize materiel requirements; explore opportunities for cooperative research, development, and acquisition; and/or agree on specific cooperative projects.

forward aeromedical evacuation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That phase of evacuation which provides airlift for patients between points within the battlefield, from the battlefield to the initial point of treatment, and to subsequent points of treatment within the combat zone.

forward air control post. A highly mobile U.S. Air Force tactical air control system radar facility subordinate to the control and reporting center and/or post used to extend radar coverage and control in the forward combat area.

forward air controller. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer (aviator/pilot) member of the tactical air control party who, from a forward ground or airborne position, controls aircraft in close air support of ground troops.

forward area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area in proximity to combat.

forward arming and refueling point (FARP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A temporary facility, organized, equipped, and deployed by an aviation commander, and normally located in the main battle area closer to the area of operation than the aviation unit's combat service area, to provide fuel and ammunition necessary for the employment of aviation maneuver units in combat. The forward arming and refueling point permits combat aircraft to rapidly refuel and rearm simultaneously.

forward edge of the battle area (FEBA). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The foremost limits of a series of areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding the areas in which the covering or screening forces are operating, designated to coordinate fire support, the positioning of forces, or the maneuver of units.

forward financing. [DSMC] A procedure to use X-year money (primarily research, development, test, and evaluation (RDTE)) in year X + 1. Primarily a USAF term. See forward funding.

forward funding. [DSMC] Carry-over of research, development, test, and evaluation funding (budget authority) into a second year of appropriations availability. Requires permission from high authority.

forward line of own troops (FLOT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line which indicates the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a specific time. The forward line of own troops normally identifies the forward location of covering and screening forces.

forward looking infrared (FLIR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image for day or night viewing.

forward motion compensation. See image motion compensation.

forward oblique air photograph. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Oblique photography of the terrain ahead of the aircraft.

forward observer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An observer operating with front line troops and trained to adjust ground or naval gunfire and pass back battlefield information. In the absence of a forward air controller, the observer may control close air support strikes. See also spotter.

forward operating base (FOB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An airfield used to support tactical operations without establishing full support facilities. The base may be used for an extended time period. Support by a main operating base will be required to provide backup support for a forward operating base.

forward operations base (FOB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In special operations, a base usually located in friendly territory or afloat that is established to extend command and control or communications or to provide support for training and tactical operations. Facilities may be established for temporary or longer duration operations and may include an airfield or an unimproved airstrip, an anchorage, or a pier. A forward operations base may be the location of special operations component headquarters or a smaller unit that is controlled and/or supported by a main operations base. See also advanced operations base; main operations base.

forward overlap. See overlap.

forward pricing. [DSMC] Prospective pricing of overhead and labor parts.

forward recovery mission profile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission profile that involves the recovery of an aircraft at a neutral/friendly forward area airfield or landing site.

forward slope. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any slope which descends towards the enemy.

forward tell. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer of information to a higher level of command. See also track telling.

forward-presence units. The U.S. Active Component forces and Reserve forces assigned or deployed overseas in a specific theater.

four-round illumination diamond. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of distributing the fire of illumination shells which, by a combination of lateral spread and range spread, provides illumination of a large area.

fox away. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Missile has fired or been released from aircraft."

fragmentary order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An abbreviated form of an operation order, usually issued on a day-to-day basis, that eliminates the need for restating information contained in a basic operation order. It may be issued in sections.

frame. 1In programmed instruction, each portion of material to which the student makes a response. A frame may vary in size from a single incomplete sentence, question, or instruction to perform some response, up to a sizable paragraph. Also called an exercise, a step, or an item of information. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In photography, any single exposure contained within a continuous sequence of photographs.

frame (video). A single, complete video picture composed of two interlaced fields totaling 525 lines (National Television Standards Committee (NTSC)), running at 1/30 second. A single frame is a Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) video-disk reference point.

frame address. A code that indicates the location of a frame on either a videotape or videodisk. Each frame has a frame address. A frame address is put on each disk or tape in the form of a frame address code.

frame address code. A code located in the vertical interval of a video frame.

frame buffer. A memory device that stores the contents of an image pixel by pixel. Frame buffers are used to refresh a raster image. Sometimes they incorporate local processing ability. The depth of the frame buffer is the number of bits per pixel, which determines the number of colors or intensities that can be displayed.

frame grabber. A device that stores one complete video frame.

frame number. A number that indicates the frame address.

frame oriented. A method in which a designer/developer works directly on designing the screens that comprise the basis of the finished interactive courseware.

frame rate. The speed at which frames are scanned; 30 frames per second for National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) and 24 frames per second for film.

frame storer. A device that stores one complete video frame.

fratricide. The employment of friendly weapons and munitions with the intent to kill the enemy or destroy his equipment or facilities, which results in unforeseen and unintentional death or injury of friendly personnel.

freak. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage, a word meaning frequency in megacycles.

freddie. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage, a controlling unit.

free air anomaly. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The difference between observed gravity and theoretical gravity that has been computed for latitude and corrected for elevation of the station above or below the geoid, by application of the normal rate of change of gravity for change of elevation, as in free air.

free air overpressure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The unreflected pressure, in excess of the ambient atmospheric pressure, created in the air by the blast wave from an explosion. See also overpressure.

free drop. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The dropping of equipment or supplies from an aircraft without the use of parachutes. See also airdrop; air movement; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

free fall. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A parachute maneuver in which the parachute is manually activated at the discretion of the jumper or automatically at a preset altitude. See also airdrop; air movement; free drop; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

free field overpressure. See free air overpressure.

free-fire area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specific area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters. See also area; fire.

free form message text. A message text without prescribed format arrangements. It is intended for fast drafting as well as manual handling and processing. See also formatted message text; structured message text.

free issue. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Materiel provided for use or consumption without charge to the fund or fund subdivision that finances the activity to which issued.

free lance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Self-control of aircraft is being employed."

free mail. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Correspondence of a personal nature that weighs less than 11 ounces, to include audio and video recording tapes, from a member of the Armed Forces or designated civilian, mailed postage free from a Secretary of Defense approved free mail zone.

free mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a moored mine whose mooring has parted or been cut.

free play exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An exercise to test the capabilities of forces under simulated contingency and/or wartime conditions, limited only by those artificialities or restrictions required by peacetime safety regulations. See also controlled exercise, exercise.

free rocket. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A rocket not subject to guidance or control in flight.

freeware. [DoD] Software that is distributed by its author without charge. A general term for software that is made available to users on terms other than conventional sales. Also called open software.

freeze frame. A single stopped frame from a motion sequence. A single frame from a motion sequence displayed as a still image. Unlike a still frame, a freeze frame is not a picture originally shot to appear on its own, but is one frame taken from a longer moving sequence.

freight consolidating activity. [JP 1-02] A transportation activity that receives less than carload/truckload shipments of materiel for the purpose of assembling them into carload/ truckload lots for onward movement to the ultimate consignee or to a freight distributing activity or other break bulk point. See also freight distributing activity.

freight distributing activity. [JP 1-02] A transportation activity that receives and unloads consolidated carloads/truckloads of less than carload/truckload shipments of material and forwards the individual shipments to the ultimate consignee. See also freight consolidating activity.

frequency deconfliction. [JP 1-02] A systematic management procedure to coordinate the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for operations, communications, and intelligence functions. Frequency deconfliction is one element of electromagnetic spectrum management. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum management.

frequency of performance. 1[TR 350-70] A statistical rating collected when conducting a job analysis survey that indicates how often a task is performed. 2[DoD] How often a task is performed.

fresh target. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A request or command sent by the observer or spotter to the firing ship to indicate that fire will be shifted from the original target to a new target by spots (corrections) applied to the computer solution being generated.

friction. The accumulation of chance errors, unexpected difficulties, enemy actions, and confusion of battle.

friendly. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A contact positively identified as friendly. See also bogey; hostile.

friendly fire.[JP 1-02] (DoD) In casualty reporting, a casualty circumstance applicable to persons killed in action or wounded in action mistakenly or accidentally by friendly forces actively engaged with the enemy, who are directing fire at a hostile force or what is thought to be a hostile force. See also casualty.

frigate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A warship designed to operate independently, or with strike, antisubmarine warfare, or amphibious forces against submarine, air, and surface threats. (Normal armament consists of 3-inch and 5-inch dual-purpose guns and advanced antisubmarine warfare weapons.) Designated as FF. See also guided missile frigate.

front. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The lateral space occupied by an element measured from the extremity of one flank to the extremity of the other flank.

l The direction of the enemy.

l The line of contact of two opposing forces.

l When a combat situation does not exist or is not assumed, the direction toward which the command is faced.

front end analysis. Refers to job analysis, selection of tasks for training, and development of job performance measures.

front end/up front. [DSMC] Planning or resource commitment at the beginning of the development process to anticipate later requirements and reduce future problems. See early-on.

front matter. Data required at the beginning of a document to provide purpose, identification, foreword, and other data not included in the body of the document.

frontal attack. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive maneuver in which the main action is directed against the front of the enemy forces. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, an attack by an interceptor aircraft that terminates with a heading crossing angle greater than 135 degrees.

frustrated cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any shipment of supplies and/or equipment which while en route to destination is stopped prior to receipt and for which further disposition instructions must be obtained.

full and open competition. [DSMC] All responsible sources are eligible to compete. The standard for competition in contracting. Required by the Competition in Contracting Act (1984).

full beam spread. See indirect illumination.

full charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The larger of the two propelling charges available for naval guns.

full duplex. Simultaneous, two-way independent transmission.

full FACENET. Full FACNET means an agency has certified that it has implemented all of the FACNET functions outlined in MILSPEC 4.504, and more than 75 percent of eligible contracts (not otherwise exempted from FACNET) in amounts exceeding the micro-purchase threshold, but not exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold, were entered into by the agency during the preceding fiscal year using an interim FACNET certified electronic automated information system.

full funding. [DSMC] The annual appropriation of funds for the total estimated costs to be incurred in the delivery of a given quantity of a usable end item. A budget rule applied to procurement and military construction.

full mission capable (FMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Material condition of an aircraft or training device indicating that it can perform all of its missions. See also mission capable; partial mission capable; partial mission capable, maintenance; partial mission capable, supply.

full mobilization. See mobilization.

full operational capability (FOC). The full attainment of the capability to effectively employ a weapon, item of equipment, or system of approved specific characteristics, which is manned and operated by a trained, equipped, and supported military unit or force.

full rate production. [DSMC] Contracting for economic production quantities following stabilization of the system design and validation of the production process.

full scale simulator. A device that allows simulation of tasks related to applicable crew members for a given operational requirement. It is capable of simulating the operational environment (e.g., audio, visual, and tactile) to achieve maximum realism and training effectiveness.

full-dimensional operations. [TP 525-5] The application of all capabilities available to an Army commander to accomplish his mission decisively and at the least cost across the full range of possible operations.

full-frame identification. The process during film-to-tape transfer whereby picture cues are inserted in the vertical interval of the master tape to identify the first video field that corresponds to a new film frame.

full-frame time code. See Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) Time Code.

full-motion video. Video that is displayed such that on-screen motion appears to be smooth and continuous. Also called continuous motion video.

full-up, system-level test. [DoD] A LFT&E Strategy for a covered system, major munitions program, or missile program, or covered product improvement program shall include Full-up, System-level tests. The term "Full-up, System-level Test" is that testing that fully satisfies the statutory requirement for "realistic survivability testing" or "realistic lethality testing" as defined in Section 2366, Title 10, USC.

full-up test. [DoD] A vulnerability test conducted on a complete or partial system loaded or equipped with all dangerous materials (including flammables and explosives) that would normally be on board in combat (configured for combat). All critical subsystems, which could contribute to the test outcome, must be operating (e.g., hydraulic and electrical power) under realistic conditions. For lethality testing, the munitions or missile must be production-representative. The target must be representative of the class of systems that includes the threat, and be sufficiently realistic to demonstrate the lethal effects the weapon is designed to produce. This testing alone may not satisfy . See full-up, system-level test:

Fulton Recovery System. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method used for quickly extracting personnel from isolated areas that consists of a kit containing a harness, tow line, and helium-inflated balloon dropped to an individual(s) by a specially designed aircraft that is capable of snaring the tow line and extracting the harnessed individual(s) from the area. See also recovery.

functional analysis/allocation (FA/A). [DSMC] The examination of a function to identify all sub-functions necessary to the accomplishment of that function, and the identification of functional relationships and interfaces and the capturing of those relationships in a functional architecture. The subsequent flowdown of upper-level performance requirements to lower-level sub-functions.

functional area. 1[TR 350-70] A branch of service governed by a proponent TRADOC service school (Armor, Infantry, Signal, Intelligence, Field Artillery, and so on). 2[DoD] A named category, descriptive of a subject under which tasks are listed. The title given a functional area is descriptive of a subject in which the assigned proponent is recognized as the technical expert.

functional baseline. [DSMC] Documentation describing a system's/segments functional characteristics and the verification required to demonstrate the achievement of those specified functional characteristics. The system or segment specification establishes the functional baseline. See system specification.

functional component command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command normally, but not necessarily, composed of forces of two or more Military Departments which may be established across the range of military operations to perform particular operational missions that may be of short duration or may extend over a period of time. See also component; Service component command.

functional component commander. A military commander responsible for the employment and sustainment of assigned forces normally, but not necessarily, composed of forces of two or more services which may be established in peacetime or war to perform particular operational missions that may extend over a period of time.

functional configuration audit (FCA). [DSMC] The formal examination of functional characteristics that test data for configuration item, prior to acceptance, to verify that the item has achieved the performance specified in its functional or allocated configuration identification.

functional configuration identification. [DSMC] The current approved or conditionally approved technical documentation for a system or configuration item as set forth in a functional specification and documents referenced therein.

functional course. [TR 350-70] A course designed to train soldiers to perform the critical tasks and supporting skills and knowledge required to perform the specialty or functional job. It may provide training which qualifies soldiers for award of an additional skill identifier, special qualifications identifier, or skill identifier.

functional expert. An individual who is an expert in a MANPRINT-related functional area (e.g., logistics, testing).

functional/formal qualification review (FQR). [DSMC] A systems level configuration audit conducted after system testing is completed to ensure that performance requirements of the system specification have been met.

functional grouping. Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or equipment are presented together.

functional management. [DSMC] The process of planning, organizing, coordinating, controlling, and directing efforts within a structure which groups responsibilities according to the type of work to be performed.

functional plans. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Plans involving the conduct of military operations in a peacetime or permissive environment developed by combatant commanders to address requirements such as disaster relief, nation assistance, logistics, communications, surveillance, protection of US citizens, nuclear weapon recovery and evacuation, and continuity of operations, or similar discrete tasks. They may be developed in response to the requirements of the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan, at the initiative of the CINC, or as tasked by the supported combatant commander, Joint Staff, Service, or Defense agency. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff review of CINC-initiated plans is not normally required.

functional proponent (FP). The representative of the Army agency responsible for the subject area in which Information mission area (IMA) resources are utilized or to be utilized for Major Automated Information System Review Council (MAISRC) level systems.

functional purchase description (FPD). The FPD describes the minimum essential physical, functional, and other characteristics necessary to meet the stated requirements; what, if any, production testing must be performed; quality assurance, delivery schedule, logistic and maintenance support provisions, training support, technical manual and training material needs, configuration change control, and special conditions as appropriate.

functional specialists. [DSMC] Specialists who assist and exercise surveillance over lower levels of management. (For example, logisticians, test and evaluation experts, etc.)

functional standing committees (FSC). [TR 350-70] The FSCs are established under SBT Management to provide ongoing training management for maximum efficiency and quality. Participating members include Functional Chiefs Representatives (FCR) of civilian career programs, functional and personnel proponents, SB Training Providers, selected MACOM and DoD representatives, and Subject Matter Experts who make decisions in regard to the training needs of the customer.

functional support. [DSMC] Systematized methodologies and procedures, or a common set of standards applied to materiel acquisition programs, which include but are not limited to personnel, technical requirements, security, automated data processing, cost analysis, training, safety, audit, logistics, product assurance, reliability, equal employment opportunity, obligation planning and reporting, industrial preparedness, value engineering, test, public affairs, legal, inspector general, mobilization, contracting, international cooperation, and small business.

functional (traditional) organization. [DSMC] The classic organization. Typically a service or one product structure, with clear lines of authority in functional areas reporting ultimately to one head. Military services are functional organizations. See hierarchical organization.

functional training strategy. A unit, individual, or institutional training strategy developed by a functional area proponent (TRADOC service school) as part of the overall CATS concept. Strategies are tailored for the AC and RC and may differ between MACOMs. Unit training strategies are specific to unit type by MTOE/TOE.

functions. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The appropriate or assigned duties, responsibilities, missions, or tasks of an individual, office, or organization. As defined in the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, the term function includes functions, powers, and duties (5 United States Code 171n (a)).

fund availability. [DSMC] The status of obligation authority.

funding profile. [DSMC] Program funding, usually displayed in columnar spread sheet format by years, starting with previous year through current year and out-years.

funding wedge. [DSMC] Initial funding estimate used to get a program recognized in the future years defense program (FYDP).

fund subdivision. [DSMC] A segment of an appropriation or other fund, created by funding action as an administrative means of controlling obligations and expenditures within an agency.

fuse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which initiates an explosive train. See also boresafe fuse; impact action fuse; proximity fuse; self-destroying fuse; shuttered fuse; time fuse.

fuse (specify). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a command or request to indicate the type of fuse action desired; i.e., delay, quick, time, proximity.

fuse cavity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A recess in a charge for receiving a fuse.

fusion. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The process whereby the nuclei of light elements combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element, with the release of tremendous amounts of energy.

l In intelligence usage, the process of examining all sources of intelligence and information to derive a complete assessment of activity.

fusion center. In intelligence usage, a physical location to accomplish fusion. It normally has sufficient intelligence automated data processing capability to assist in the process.

future combined arms training strategy. Strategies which reflect changes caused by changing threat, technology, budget, and mission. These future combined arms training strategies also forecast changes in the mix and type of training resources needed for future training so that the Army has a sound acquisition plan for these resources. Future strategies are normally developed out to ten years in the future, through the second year of the extended planning period of the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES). They may identify projected or planned training aids, devices, simulations, and simulators (TADSS) in addition to those currently available.

future operational capability (FOC). [TP 71] FOCs are structured statements of capabilities required to achieve the ideas articulated in a concept. These statements identify areas needed to maintain military dominance over the operational environment in which it will be required to operate. FOCs cover a time period of 3 – 15 years into the future.

Future Years Defense Program (FYDP). [DSMC] (Formerly the Five Year Defense Program). The official DoD document which summarizes forces and resources associated with programs approved by the Secretary of Defense. Its three parts are the organizations affected, appropriations accounts (research, development, test, and evaluation, operations and maintenance, etc.), and the 11 major force programs (strategic forces, airlift/sealift, R & D, etc.). R&D is Program 06. Under the current planning, programming, and budgeting system (PPBS) cycle, the FYDP is updated when the services submit their program objective memorandum's (POMs) to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (May/June), when the services submit their budgets to OSD (Sept), and when the President submits the national budget to the Congress (Feb). The primary data element in the FYDP is the program element.