Index Military Definitions

objective. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The physical object of the action taken, e.g., a definite tactical feature, the seizure and/or holding of which is essential to the commander's plan. See also target. 2The performance value that is desired by the user and which the program manager is attempting to obtain. The objective value represents an operationally meaningful, time critical, and cost effective increment above the performance threshold for each program parameter.

objective area. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defined geographical area within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces. This area is defined by competent authority for purposes of command and control. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The city or other geographical location where a civil disturbance is occurring or is anticipated, and where Federal Armed Forces are, or may be, employed.

objective force level. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The level of military forces that needs to be attained within a finite time frame and resource level to accomplish approved military objectives, missions, or tasks. See also military requirement.

objective test. [TR 350-70] A test whose scoring requires no human judgment.

objective value ORD requirement. [TP 71-9] That desired by the user (CBTDEV/TNGDEV) and which the PM is attempting to obtain. The objective value could represent an operationally meaningful, time critical, and cost effective increment above the threshold. Program objectives may be refined based on the results of each program phase. The spread between the objective and the threshold shall be individually set based on characteristics of the program (e.g., maturity, risk, etc.)

objectivity. [TR 350-70] In testing, the degree to which a test is scored the same by two or more individuals acting independently.

obligated balance. [DSMC] The amount of budget authority committed for specific purposes but not actually spent.

obligated reservist. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual who has a statutory requirement imposed by the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 or Section 651, Title 10 United States Code to serve on active duty in the armed forces or to serve while not on active duty in a reserve component for a period not to exceed that prescribed by the applicable statute.

obligation. [DSMC] A duty to make a future payment of money. The duty is incurred as soon as an order is placed, or a contract is awarded for the delivery of goods and the performance of services. The placement of an order is sufficient. An obligation legally encumbers a specified sum of money which will require outlay(s) or expenditures in the future.

obligation authority. 1[DSMC] A congressional authorization to procure goods and services within a specified amount by appropriation or other authorization. 2[DSMC] The administrative extension of such authority, as by apportionment or funding. 3[DSMC] The amount of authority so granted.

oblique air photograph. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air photograph taken with the camera axis directed between the horizontal and vertical planes. Commonly referred to as an oblique:

l high oblique. One in which the apparent horizon appears.

l low oblique. One in which the apparent horizon does not appear.

oblique air photograph strip. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Photographic strip composed of oblique air photographs.

obliquity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The characteristic in wide-angle or oblique photography which portrays the terrain and objects at such an angle and range that details necessary for interpretation are seriously masked or are at a very small scale, rendering interpretation difficult or impossible.

observation helicopter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Helicopter used primarily for observation and reconnaissance, but which may be used for other roles.

observation interview. [TR 350-70] A dialogue wherein a job holder is observed in the job environment performing all or a substantial part of the job. The job-holder performs the job while the analyst asks questions and observes.

observation post. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A position from which military observations are made, or fire directed and adjusted, and which possesses appropriate communications; may be airborne.

observed fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire for which the point of impact or burst can be seen by an observer. The fire can be controlled and adjusted on the basis of observation. See also fire.

observed fire procedures. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A standardized procedure for use in adjusting indirect fire on a target.

observer identification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the first element of a call for fire to establish communication and to identify the observer/spotter.

observer-target line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An imaginary straight line from the observer/spotter to the target. See also spotting line.

observer-target range. The distance along an imaginary straight line from the observer/spotter to the target.

obstacle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Obstacles can exist naturally or can be manmade, or can be a combination of both.

obstacle belt. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A brigade-level command and control measure, normally given graphically, to show where within an obstacle zone the ground tactical commander plans to limit friendly obstacle employment and focus the defense. It assigns an intent to the obstacle plan and provides the necessary guidance on the overall effect of obstacles within a belt. See also obstacle.

obstacle restricted areas. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command and control measure used to limit the type or number of obstacles within an area. See also obstacle.

obstacle zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A division-level command and control measure, normally done graphically, to designate specific land areas where lower echelons are allowed to employ tactical obstacles. See also obstacle.

obstructor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a device laid with the sole object of obstructing or damaging mechanical minesweeping equipment.

occupation currency. See military currency.

occupational analysis. Relates to data interpretation regarding an occupational designator Air Force specialty (AFS), military occupational skill (MOS), rating or Navy enlisted code (NEC) to determine what jobs and tasks are performed within the occupation. Also may be used to assess the accuracy of classification and training documents.

Occupational Data, Analysis, Requirements, and Structure (ODARS) Program. [TR 350-70] A comprehensive system for collecting, processing, storing, and analyzing training and occupational information provided by job incumbents and their supervisors through the administration of survey questionnaires. ODARS provides empirical data for identifying individual critical tasks to training proponents.

occupational specialty. A group of duty positions that require closely related knowledge and skills.

occupational survey. 1[DoD] A means of collecting detailed training and occupational information to be used in an occupational analysis. 2[TRADOC] A system of collecting detailed military training and occupational information using computer processing, retrieval, and analysis.

occupied territory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Territory under the authority and effective control of a belligerent armed force. The term is not applicable to territory being administered pursuant to peace terms, treaty, or other agreement, express or implied, with the civil authority of the territory. See also civil affairs agreement.

ocean convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A convoy whose voyage lies, in general, outside the continental shelf. See also convoy.

ocean manifest. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A detailed listing of the entire cargo loaded into any one ship showing all pertinent data which will readily identify such cargo and where and how the cargo is stowed.

ocean station ship. A ship assigned to operate within a specified area to provide several services, including search and rescue, meteorological information, navigational aid, and communications facilities.

oceanography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The study of the sea, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the sea and its physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of sea water, and marine biology.

off camera. Performance or action that is not seen on the camera, during a shot, such as narration over film or videotape recording.

off-the-shelf. [DSMC] Procurement of existing systems or equipment without a research, development, test, and evaluation program or with minor development to make system suitable for DoD needs. May be commercial system/equipment or one already in DoD inventory. See nondevelopmental item (NDI).

off-the-shelf item. An item which has been developed and produced to military or commercial standards and specifications, is readily available for delivery from an industrial source, and may be procured without change to satisfy a military requirement.

offensive counter air operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation mounted to destroy, disrupt, or limit enemy air power as close to its source as possible.

offensive information operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The integrated use of assigned and supporting capabilities and activities, mutually supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decision makers to achieve or promote specific objectives. These capabilities and activities include, but are not limited to, operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical destruction and special information operations, and could include computer network attack. See also computer network attack; defensive information operations; electronic warfare; information operations; intelligence; military deception; operations security; psychological operations; special information operations.

offensive minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a minefield laid in enemy territorial water or waters under enemy control.

offer. Offer means a response to a solicitation that, if accepted, would bind the offeror to perform the resultant contract. Responses to invitations for bids (sealed bidding) are offers called bids or sealed bids;' responses to requests for proposals (negotiation) are offers called proposals; responses to requests for quotations (negotiation) are not offers and are called quotes.

offeror. An individual, agency, or business concern who submits a proposal in response to a [U.S.] Government request for proposal (RFP).

office application. Software packages that perform a variety of office support functions, such as word processing, desktop, spreadsheet calculations, electronic mail, facsimile transmission and receipt, document imaging, optical character reader (OCR), work flow and data management. These applications are generally those used to generate, convert, transmit or receive business documents.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-109. [DSMC] Establishes executive policy for the acquisition of major systems and applies to all executive branch agencies. Contains management principles for conduct of systems acquisition that are implemented for DoD by DoDD 5000.1 and DoD 5000.2-R.

Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) principal staff assistants (OSD PSAs). [DSMC] See principal staff assistants.

Officer Foundation Standards (OFS) System. A system that standardizes officer institutional training and provides a tool for use by commanders and individual officers. It supports officer training and leader development. Training products are distributed electronically.

officer in tactical command. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In maritime usage, the senior officer present eligible to assume command, or the officer to whom he has delegated tactical command.

officer of the deck (OOD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer of the deck under way has been designated by the commanding officer to be in charge of the ship, including its safe and proper operation. The officer of the deck reports directly to the commanding officer for the safe navigation and general operation of the ship, to the executive officer (and command duty officer if appointed) for carrying out the ship's routine, and to the navigator on sighting navigational landmarks and making course and speed changes.

official information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information which is owned by, produced for or by, or is subject to the control of the United States Government.

offset agreements. [DSMC] Any agreement made by DoD to purchase foreign items to offset some specific amount or percentage of that country's expenditures in the United States for U.S. defense items.

offset bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any bombing procedure which employs a reference or aiming point other than the actual target.

offset distance (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The distance the desired ground zero or actual ground zero is offset from the center of an area target or from a point target.

offset lasing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The technique of aiming a laser designator at a point other than the target and, after laser acquisition, moving the laser to designate the target for terminal attack guidance. See also laser target designator.

offset point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air interception, a point in space relative to a target's flight path toward which an interceptor is vectored and from which the final or a preliminary turn to attack heading is made.

offshore bulk fuel system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The system used for transferring fuel from points offshore to reception facilities on the beach. It consists of two subsystems: amphibious assault bulk fuel system and the offshore petroleum discharge system. See also amphibious assault bulk fuel system; offshore petroleum discharge system.

offshore patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A naval defense patrol operating in the outer areas of navigable coastal waters. It is a part of the naval local defense forces consisting of naval ships and aircraft and operates outside those areas assigned to the inshore patrol.

offshore petroleum discharge system (OPDS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Provides a semipermanent, all-weather facility for bulk transfer of petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) directly from an offshore tanker to a beach termination unit (BTU) located immediately inland from the high watermark. POL then is either transported inland or stored in the beach support area. Major offshore petroleum discharge systems (OPDS) components are: the OPDS tanker with booster pumps and spread mooring winches; a recoverable single anchor leg mooring (SALM) to accommodate tankers of up to 70,000 deadweight tons; ship to SALM hose lines; up to 4 miles of 6-inch (internal diameter) conduit for pumping to the beach; and two BTUs to interface with the shoreside systems. OPDS can support a two line system for multiproduct discharge, but ship standoff distance is reduced from 4 to 2 miles. Amphibious construction battalions install the OPDS with underwater construction team assistance. OPDS are embarked on selected ready reserve force tankers modified to support the system. See also facility; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; single anchor leg moor; system.

off-the-shelf item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item which has been developed and produced to military or commercial standards and specifications, is readily available for delivery from an industrial source, and may be procured without change to satisfy a military requirement.

oiler. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A naval or merchant tanker specially equipped and rigged for replenishing other ships at sea.

on berth. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Said of a ship when it is properly moored to a quay, wharf, jetty, pier, or buoy or when it is at anchor and available for loading or discharging passengers and cargo.

on hand. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of an item that is physically available in a storage location and contained in the accountable property book records of an issuing activity.

on station. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In air intercept usage, a code meaning, "I have reached my assigned station."

l In close air support and air interdiction, means airborne aircraft are in position to attack targets or to perform the mission designated by control agency.

on station time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time an aircraft can remain on station. May be determined by endurance or orders.

on target. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "My fire control director(s)/system(s) have acquired the indicated contact and is (are) tracking successfully."

on the deck. [JP 1-02] (DoD) At minimum altitude.

on-board training (OBT). Training provided at the command. Compare on-the-job training (OJT) and field training.

on-call. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A term used to signify that a prearranged concentration, air strike, or final protective fire may be called for.

l Preplanned, identified force or materiel requirements without designated time-phase and destination information. Such requirements will be called forward upon order of competent authority.

See also call for fire; call mission.

on-call resupply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A resupply mission planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area but not executed until requested by the operating team. See also automatic resupply; emergency resupply.

on-call target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)In artillery and naval gunfire support, a planned target other than a scheduled target on which fire is delivered when requested.

on-call target (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A planned nuclear target other than a scheduled nuclear target for which a need can be anticipated but which will be delivered upon request rather than at a specific time. Coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft are mandatory.

on-call wave. See wave.

on-scene commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The person designated to coordinate the rescue efforts at the rescue site.

on-the-job training (OJT). Training in designated job skills provided at the job sites.

on-the-job training (OJT) handbook. Provides data which supports self-paced independent student learning.

one day's supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit or quantity of supplies adopted as a standard of measurement, used in estimating the average daily expenditure under stated conditions. It may also be expressed in terms of a factor, e.g., rounds of ammunition per weapon per day.

one-look circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine circuit which requires actuation by a given influence once only.

one-station unit training (OSUT). [TR 350-70] Initial entry training conducted at one installation, in one unit, with the same cadre, using one program of instruction.

one-way video. [TR 350-70] A satellite based teletraining system broadcasting from a studio facility. Students are able to see the instructor, but the instructor cannot see the students. Two-way audio is usually provided via telephone lines. See two-way video.

one year appropriations. [DSMC] Appropriations generally used for current administrative, maintenance, and operational programs, including the procurement of items classified as expense. These appropriations are available for obligation for one fiscal year.

open. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Term used in a call for fire to indicate that the spotter or observer desires bursts to be separated by the maximum effective width of the burst of the shell fired.

open entry and exit. A course of instruction that has no fixed start or completion date. A course of instruction commences without waiting for additional students to form a class. The student can enter the course whenever he/she is available. The student will be able to exit upon successful completion of the course without waiting for a fixed schedule completion date.

open improved storage space. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Open area which has been graded and hard surfaced or prepared with topping of some suitable material so as to permit effective material handling operations. See also storage.

open route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A route not subject to traffic or movement control restrictions.

open sheaf. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lateral distribution of the fire of two or more pieces so that adjoining points of impact or points of burst are separated by the maximum effective width of burst of the type shell being used. See also converged sheaf; parallel sheaf; sheaf; special sheaf.

Open Skies. Proposal to allow mutual reconnaissance flights over the territory of the superpowers. Accepted after the end of the Cold War. Also used as name for the OC-135B equipped for this role.

open source intelligence(OSINT). Information of potential intelligence value that is available to the general public. See also intelligence.

open system. [DSMC] A system that implements specifications maintained by an open, public consensus process for interfaces, services, and support formats, to enable properly engineered components to be utilized across a wide range of systems with minimal change, to interoperate with other components on local and remote systems, and to interact with users in a manner that facilitates portability.

open systems acquisition of weapons systems. [DSMC] An integrated technical and business strategy that defines key interfaces for a system (or a piece of equipment under development) in accordance with those adopted by formal consensus bodies (recognized industry standards' bodies) as specifications and standards, or commonly accepted (de facto) standards (both company proprietary and non-proprietary) if they facilitate utilization of multiple suppliers.

open systems environment (OSE). [DSMC] A comprehensive set of interfaces, services and supporting formats, plus aspects of interoperability of application, as specified by information technology standards and profiles. An OSE enables information systems to be developed, operated and maintained independent of application specific technical solutions or vendor products.

open unimproved wet space. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That water area specifically allotted to and usable for storage of floating equipment. See also storage.

open-collar worker. One who works at home or telecommutes.

open-ended test item or open-ended response. A question that can be answered in a variety of ways (e.g., an essay).

open-source intelligence (OSINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information of potential intelligence value that is available to the general public. See also intelligence.

operating budget (OB). [DSMC] The annual budget of an activity stated in terms of budget classification code, functional/ subfunctional categories, and cost accounts. It contains estimates of the total value of resources required for the performance of the mission including reimbursable terms of total work units identified by cost accounts.

operating costs. [DSMC] Those program costs necessary to operate and maintain the capability. These costs include military personnel and operations and maintenance costs.

operating forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof. See also combat forces; combat service support elements; combat support elements.

operating level of supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantities of materiel required to sustain operations in the interval between requisitions or the arrival of successive shipments. These quantities should be based on the established replenishment period (monthly, quarterly, etc.) See also level of supply.

operating tempo (OPTEMPO). [TR 350-70] The annual operating miles/hours for systems in a particular unit required to execute the commander's training strategy. It is stated in terms of the miles/hours for the major system in a unit; however, all equipment generating significant operating and support cost has an established operating tempo.

Operating Time. [DSMC] The time during which the system is operating in a manner acceptable to the operator.

operation. 1[DSMC]

l The intentional changing of an object in any of its physical or chemical characteristics.

l The assembly or disassembly of parts or objects.

l The preparation of an object for another operation, transportation, inspection, or storage.

l Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information.

l Military action using deployed forces. The carrying out of a strategic, tactical, service, training, or administrative military mission — the process of carrying on combat, including movement, supply, attack, defense, and maneuvers needed to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A military action or the carrying out of a strategic, tactical, service, training, or administrative military mission; the process of carrying on combat, including movement, supply, attack, defense and maneuvers needed to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign.

operation and maintenance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Maintenance and repair of real property, operation of utilities, and provision of other services such as refuse collection and disposal, entomology, snow removal and ice alleviation.

Operation and Maintenance, Army (OMA). A funding term for moneys used to finance operating costs, service, and certain equipment.

operation annexes. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those amplifying instructions which are of such a nature, or are so voluminous or technical, as to make their inclusion in the body of the plan or order undesirable.

operation exposure guide. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum amount of nuclear radiation which the commander considers a unit may be permitted to receive while performing a particular mission or missions.

operation map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map showing the location and strength of friendly forces involved in an operation. It may indicate predicted movement and location of enemy forces. See also map.

operation order (OPORD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation.

operation plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any plan, except for the single integrated operation plan, for the conduct of military operations. Plans are prepared by combatant commanders in response to requirements established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and by commanders of subordinate commands in response to requirements tasked by the establishing unified commander. Operation plans are prepared in either a complete format (OPLAN) or as a concept plan (CONPLAN). The CONPLAN can be published with or without a time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) file.

l OPLAN - An operation plan for the conduct of joint operations that can be used as a basis for development of an operation order (OPORD). An OPLAN identifies the forces and supplies required to execute the CINC's Strategic Concept and a movement schedule of these resources to the theater of operations. The forces and supplies are identified in TPFDD files. OPLANs will include all phases of the tasked operation. The plan is prepared with the appropriate annexes, appendixes, and TPFDD files as described in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System manuals containing planning policies, procedures, and formats.

l CONPLAN - An operation plan in an abbreviated format that would require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains the CINC's Strategic Concept and those annexes and appendixes deemed necessary by the combatant commander to complete planning. Generally, detailed support requirements are not calculated and TPFDD files are not prepared.

l CONPLAN with TPFDD - A CONPLAN with TPFDD is the same as a CONPLAN except that it requires more detailed planning for phased deployment of forces.

See also operation order; time-phased force and deployment data.

operation process chart. [DSMC] Identifies the successive operations, in their required sequence, for producing a product (component).

operational and organizational (O&O) plan. Obsolete. See mission needs statement.

operational architecture (OA). [TP 71-9] OA contains text, graphic models to show functions and information required, graphic representations of how the Army organizes and equips to execute C4 processes, and a database to provide detailed characteristics about information exchanges, such as format voice/data/imagery), speed of service, perishability, and criticality. The OA will show relationships among organizations and functions in terms of the information they need, use, and exchange.

operational art. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of military forces to attain strategic and/or operational objectives through the design, organization, integration, and conduct of strategies, campaigns, major operations, and battles. Operational art translates the joint force commander's strategy into operational design, and, ultimately, tactical action, by integrating the key activities at all levels of war.

operational assessment (OA). [DSMC] An evaluation of operational effectiveness and operational suitability made by an independent operational test activity, with user support as required, on other than production systems. The focus of an OA is on significant trends noted in development efforts, programmatic voids, areas of risk, adequacy of requirements, and the ability of the program to support adequate operational testing. OA may be made at any time using technology demonstrators, prototypes, mock-ups, engineering development models, or simulations but will not substitute for the independent operational test and evaluation necessary to support full production decisions.

operational authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That authority exercised by a commander in the chain of command, defined further as combatant command (command authority), operational control, tactical control, or a support relationship. See also combatant command (command authority); in support of; operational control; support; tactical control.

operational availability (Ao). [DSMC] The degree (expressed in terms of 1.0 or 100 percent as the highest) to which one can expect an equipment or weapon systems to work properly when it is required. The equation is uptime over uptime plus downtime, expressed as Ao. It is the quantitative link between readiness objectives and supportability.

operational capability. [DSMC] The measure of the results of the mission, given the condition of the systems during the mission (dependability).

operational chain of command. The chain of command established for a particular operation or series of continuing operations. See also administrative chain of command; chain of command.

operational characteristics. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those military characteristics which pertain primarily to the functions to be performed by equipment, either alone or in conjunction with other equipment; e.g., for electronic equipment, operational characteristics include such items as frequency coverage, channeling, type of modulation, and character of emission.

operational constraints initially identified in the mission need statement (MNS). [DSMC] As a minimum, these constraints will consider the expected threat and natural environments, the possible modes of transportation into and within expected areas of operation, the expected electronic warfare environment, the potential for NATO application, operational manning limitations, and existing infrastructure support capabilities.

operational continuum. The strategic environment within each theater consists of a variety of conditions — political, economic, military — and a range of threats that result in a wide range of operations that can correspondingly occur in response to those conditions and threats. These operations are conducted within a continuum consisting of three general states: peacetime competition, conflict, and war. The operational continuum is intended to assist in the articulation of the strategic situations within a theater.

operational control (OPCON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Transferable command authority that may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Operational control may be delegated and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Operational control includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Operational control should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders. Operational control normally provides full authority to organize commands and forces and to employ those forces as the commander in operational control considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control does not, in and of itself, include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); tactical control.

operational control authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The naval commander responsible within a specified geographical area for the naval control of all merchant shipping under allied naval control.

operational decontamination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Decontamination carried out by an individual and/or a unit, restricted to specific parts of operationally essential equipment, materiel and/or working areas, in order to minimize contact and transfer hazards and to sustain operations. This may include decontamination of the individual beyond the scope of immediate decontamination, as well as decontamination of mission-essential spares and limited terrain decontamination. See also decontamination; immediate decontamination; thorough decontamination.

operational documentation (OPDOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Visual information documentation of activities to convey information about people, places, and things. It is general purpose documentation normally accomplished in peacetime. See also visual information documentation.

operational effectiveness. The overall degree of mission accomplishment of a system when used by representative personnel in the environment planned or expected (e.g., natural, electronic, threat, etc.) for operational employment of the system considering organization, doctrine, tactics, survivability, vulnerability, and threat (including countermeasures, initial nuclear weapons effects, NBC contamination threats).

operational environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences which affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander. Some examples are:

l permissive environment. Operational environment in which host country military and law enforcement agencies have control and the intent and capability to assist operations that a unit intends to conduct.

l uncertain environment. Operational environment in which host government forces, whether opposed to or receptive to operations that a unit intends to conduct, do not have totally effective control of the territory and population in the intended area of operations.

l hostile environment. Operational environment in which hostile forces have control and the intent and capability to effectively oppose or react to the operations a unit intends to conduct.

operational equipment. Actual equipment designed for use by operational units to accomplish their mission, as distinguished from that equipment designed only for training purposes.

operational evaluation. 1Operational (field) tryouts of the training system. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The test and analysis of a specific end item or system, insofar as practicable under Service operating conditions, in order to determine if quantity production is warranted considering: a. the increase in military effectiveness to be gained; and b. its effectiveness as compared with currently available items or systems, consideration being given to:

l personnel capabilities to maintain and operate the equipment;

l size, weight, and location considerations; and

l enemy capabilities in the field.

See also technical evaluation.

operational facility (OPFAC). [TP 71-9] The OPFAC is the Army’s tool for C4 appetite suppression. Items listed in the OPFAC have had their need validated by doctrine. Validated OPFAC requirements support the development of TOE.

operational flight trainer (OFT). See training device.

operational independent evaluator. This is a command or agency independent of the materiel developer or the user that conducts independent operational evaluations of Army systems, normally TECOM or TEXCOM.

operational intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations. See also intelligence; tactical intelligence; strategic intelligence.

operational level of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations. Activities at this level link tactics and strategy by establishing operational objectives needed to accomplish the strategic objectives, sequencing events to achieve the operational objectives, initiating actions, and applying resources to bring about and sustain these events. These activities imply a broader dimension of time or space than do tactics; they ensure the logistic and administrative support of tactical forces, and provide the means by which tactical successes are exploited to achieve strategic objectives. See also strategic level of war; tactical level of war.

operational missile. A missile which has been accepted by the using services for tactical and/or strategic use.

operational necessity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission associated with war or peacetime operations in which the consequences of an action justify the risk of loss of aircraft and crew. See also mission.

operational operating systems. The major functions performed by joint and combined operations forces to successfully execute campaigns and major operations in a theater or area of operations; these systems include movement and maneuver, fires, intelligence, protection, command and control, and support.

operational procedures. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The detailed methods by which headquarters and units carry out their operational tasks.

operational readiness. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The capability of a unit/formation, ship, weapon system or equipment to perform the missions or functions for which it is organized or designed. May be used in a general sense or to express a level or degree of readiness. See also combat readiness.

operational readiness evaluation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An evaluation of the operational capability and effectiveness of a unit or any portion thereof.

operational reliability and maintainability value. Any measure of reliability or maintainability that includes the combined effects of item design, quality, installation, environment, operation, maintenance, and repair.

operational requirement. See military requirement.

operational requirements. [DSMC] User-or user representative-generated validated needs developed to address mission area deficiencies, evolving threats, emerging technologies or weapon system cost improvements. Operational requirements form the foundation for weapon system unique specifications and contract requirements.

operational requirements document (ORD). [TR 350-70] A formatted statement containing performance (operational effectiveness and suitability) and related operational parameters for the proposed system. The operational requirements document will be initially prepared during Phase 0, Concept Exploration and Definition. It will be updated during Phase 1, Demonstration and Validation.

operational reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An emergency reserve of men and/or material established for the support of a specific operation. See also reserve supplies.

operational route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Land route allocated to a command for the conduct of a specific operation; derived from the corresponding basic military route network.

operational suitability (OS). [DSMC] The degree to which a system can be placed satisfactorily in field use with consideration being given to availability, compatibility, transportability, interoperability, reliability, wartime usage rates, maintainability, safety, human factors, manpower supportability, logistic supportability, natural environmental effects and impacts, documentation, and training requirements.

Operational Support Airlift (OSA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operational Support Airlift (OSA) missions are movements of high-priority passengers and cargo with time, place, or mission-sensitive requirements. OSA aircraft are those fixed-wing aircraft acquired and/or retained exclusively for OSA missions, as well as any other Department of Defense-owned or controlled aircraft, fixed- or rotary-wing, used for OSA purposes. See also aircraft; cargo.

operational system development. [DSMC] A funding category including research and development efforts directed toward development, engineering, and test of systems, support programs, vehicles and weapons that have been approved for production and deployment.

operational system development funds (6.7). A funding category, including the research development effort, directed towards development, engineering and test of systems, support programs, and vehicles and weapons that have been approved for production and deployment.

operational test (OT). An OT is a field test, under realistic combat conditions, of a combat system by representative military users. OT provides data to assess operating instructions, training programs, publications, and handbooks. It uses personnel with the same military occupational specialty as those who will operate, maintain, and support the system when deployed.

operational test and evaluation (OTE). [DSMC] The field test, under realistic conditions, of any item (or key component) of weapons, equipment, or munitions for the purpose of determining the effectiveness and suitability of the weapons, equipment, or munitions for use in combat by typical military users; and the evaluation of the results of such tests.

operational test plan (OTP). [DSMC] Documents specific operational test scenarios, objectives, measures of effectiveness, threat simulation, detailed resources, known test limitations and the methods for gathering, reducing, and analyzing data.

operational testing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A continuing process of evaluation which may be applied to either operational personnel or situations to determine their validity or reliability.

operational training. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Training that exercises previously acquired functional knowledge and system employment (operational) skills, to enhance proficiency and to identify deficiencies within a systematic training structure in the operational environment or in the simulated operational environment such as a trainer.

operational transition period. [DSMC] Begins with delivery of first production article and extends to program management responsibility transition.

operational trials. The determination of the validity of the training materials presented as a module or course based on using classes from target population.

operational utility evaluation. [DSMC] A U.S. Air Force document which helps acquisition decision makers ensure that marginal benefits, in terms of operational utility, are sound. Conducted during early system development by Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center to assess how well the system will meet user requirements.

operationally ready. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l As applied to a unit, ship, or weapon system--Capable of performing the missions or functions for which organized or designed. Incorporates both equipment readiness and personnel readiness.

l As applied to personnel--Available and qualified to perform assigned missions or functions.

operations and support (O&S) cost. [DSMC] Those resources required to operate and support a system, subsystem, or a major component during its useful life in the operational inventory.

operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The facility or location on an installation, base, or facility used by the commander to command, control, and coordinate all crisis activities. See also base defense operations center; command center.

operations in depth. The totality of the commander’s operations against the enemy — composed of deep, close, and rear operations which are usually conducted simultaneously in a manner that appears as one continuous operation against the enemy.

operations other than war (OOTW). [TP 525-5] Military operations during peacetime and a conflict that do not necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized forces. Obsolete, see stability and support operations (SASO).

operations research. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The analytical study of military problems undertaken to provide responsible commanders and staff agencies with a scientific basis for decision on action to improve military operations. Also known as operational research; operations analysis.

operations security (OPSEC). 1Protection of military operations and activities resulting from identification and subsequent elimination or control of indicators susceptible to hostile exploitation. The process of denying adversaries information about friendly capabilities and intentions by identifying, controlling, and protecting indicators associated with planning and conducting military operations and other activities. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A process of identifying critical information and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to:

l Identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems.

l Determine indicators hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information in time to be useful to adversaries.

l Select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation.

See also command and control warfare; operations security indicators; operations security measures; operations security planning guidance; operations security vulnerability.

operations security indicators. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Friendly detectable actions and open-source information that can be interpreted or pieced together by an adversary to derive critical information.

operations security measures. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Methods and means to gain and maintain essential secrecy about critical information. The following categories apply:

l action control. The objective is to eliminate indicators or the vulnerability of actions to exploitation by adversary intelligence systems. Select what actions to undertake; decide whether or not to execute actions; and determine the who, when, where, and how for actions necessary to accomplish tasks.

l countermeasures. The objective is to disrupt effective adversary information gathering or prevent their recognition of indicators when collected materials are processed. Use diversions, camouflage, concealment, jamming, threats, police powers, and force against adversary information gathering and processing capabilities.

l counteranalysis. The objective is to prevent accurate interpretations of indicators during adversary analysis of collected materials. This is done by confusing the adversary analyst through deception techniques such as covers.

operations security planning guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Guidance that serves as the blueprint for OPSEC planning by all functional elements throughout the organization. It defines the critical information that requires protection from adversary appreciations, taking into account friendly and adversary goals, estimated key adversary questions, probable adversary knowledge, desirable and harmful adversary appreciations, and pertinent intelligence system threats. It also should outline provisional operations security measures to ensure the requisite essential secrecy.

operations security vulnerability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A condition in which friendly actions provide operations security indicators that may be obtained and accurately evaluated by an adversary in time to provide a basis for effective adversary decision making.

operations to restore order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations intended to halt violence and support, reinstate, or establish civil authorities. They are designed to return an unstable and lawless environment to the point where indigenous police forces can effectively enforce the law and restore civil authority. See also operation; peace operations.

operator trainer. A trainer on which individuals learn the methods and procedures necessary to operate specific equipment (e.g., radar trainer, operational flight trainer).

operator training. Instruction in which students are taught the methods, procedures, and skills necessary to manipulate the controls of specific system/equipment.

opportune lift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of lift capability available for use after planned requirements have been met.

opportunity target. See target of opportunity.

opposite numbers. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Officers (including foreign) having corresponding duty assignments within their respective military services or establishments.

optical axis. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a lens element, the straight line which passes through the centers of curvature of the lens surfaces. In an optical system, the line formed by the coinciding principal axes of the series of optical elements.

optical disk. A disk whose information is read by a laser beam. Compare videodisk.

optical landing system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A shipboard gyrostabilized or shore-based device which indicates to the pilot displacement from a preselected glide path.

optical memory. Digital data stored on an optical disk used for mass storage of data.

optical mine hunting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of an optical system (e.g., television or towed diver) to detect and classify mines or mine-like objects on or protruding from the seabed.

optimum class size (OCS). [TR 350-70] The largest number of students in a class that can be trained with no degradation in training effectiveness. The constraining factor is the availability of equipment, facilities, and manpower . OCS serves as the basis for determining equipment and resource requirements.

optimum height. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The height of an explosion which will produce the maximum effect against a given target.

optimum height of burst. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) For nuclear weapons and for a particular target (or area), the height at which it is estimated a weapon of a specified energy yield will produce a certain desired effect over the maximum possible area.

optimum repair level analysis. [DSMC] A trade study conducted by a contractor as part of the system/ equipment engineering analysis process. A basis on which to evolve an optimum approach to repair recommendations concurrent with the design and development process. Also referred to as repair level analysis or level of repair analysis.

option. [DSMC] A contractual clause permitting an increase in the quantity of supplies beyond that originally stipulated or an extension in the time for which services on a time basis may be required.

orange commander. The officer designated to exercise operational control over orange forces for a specific period during an exercise.

Orange Crop. ESM system.

oranges (sour). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Weather is unsuitable for aircraft mission."

oranges (sweet). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Weather is suitable for aircraft mission."

orbit determination. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of describing the past, present, or predicted position of a satellite in terms of orbital parameters.

orbit point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographically or electronically defined location used in stationing aircraft in flight during tactical operations when a predetermined pattern is not established. See also holding point.

orbital injection. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of providing a space vehicle with sufficient velocity to establish an orbit.

orbiting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, means circling, or circle and search.

order. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A communication, written, oral, or by signal, which conveys instructions from a superior to a subordinate. In a broad sense, the terms order and command are synonymous. However, an order implies discretion as to the details of execution whereas a command does not.

order and shipping time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time elapsing between the initiation of stock replenishment action for a specific activity and the receipt by that activity of the materiel resulting from such action. Order and shipping time is applicable only to materiel within the supply system, and it is composed of the distinct elements, order time, and shipping time. See also level of supply.

order of battle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units, and equipment of any military force.

order process. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that provides information on how to obtain an information resource from a distributor.

order time. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The time elapsing between the initiation of stock replenishment action and submittal of requisition or order.

l The time elapsing between the submittal of requisition or order and shipment of materiel by the supplying activity.

See also order and shipping time.

ordering activity. [DSMC] An activity which originates a requisition or order for procurement, production, or performance of work or services by another activity.

ordinary priority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category of immediate mission request which is lower than urgent priority but takes precedence over search and attack priority, e.g., a target which is delaying a unit's advance but which is not causing casualties. See also immediate mission request; priority of immediate mission requests.

ordinary transport. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In railway terminology, a load whose size, weight or preparation does not entail special difficulties vis-à-vis the facilities or equipment of the railway systems to be used. See also exceptional transport.

ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Explosives, chemicals, pyrotechnics, and similar stores, e.g., bombs, guns and ammunition, flares, smoke, napalm.

organic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization. Organic parts of a unit are those listed in its table of organization for the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and are assigned to the administrative organizations of the operating forces for the Navy.

organization for embarkation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the administrative grouping of the landing force for the overseas movement. It includes, in any vessel or embarkation group, the task organization that is established for landing as well as additional forces embarked for purposes of transport, labor, or for distribution to achieve a maximum of security.

organization for landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the specific tactical grouping of the landing force for the assault.

organization of the ground. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The development of a defensive position by strengthening the natural defenses of the terrain and by assignment of the occupying troops to specific localities.

organizational (or unit) assessment. [TR 350-70] A process used by Army senior leaders to analyze and correlate evaluations of various functional systems (such as training, logistics, personnel, and force integration) to determine an organization’s capability to accomplish its wartime mission (or to accomplish military operations). (FM 25-101)

organizational equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Referring to method of use, signifies that equipment, other than individual equipment, which is used in furtherance of the common mission of an organization or unit. See also equipment.

organizational level maintenance. [DSMC] The maintenance and repair performed by the activity level (organization) which uses the system's equipment within the activity's capability.

organizational maintenance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That maintenance which is the responsibility of and performed by a using organization on its assigned equipment. Its phases normally consist of inspecting, servicing, lubricating, adjusting, and the replacing of parts, minor assemblies, and subassemblies.

organizational record. [TP 25-71] A record related to the tasks, functions, mission or operation of an organization. These records are divided into two subgroups, program and administrative records. Program records are those which relate to the mission and the specific functions for which an organization is responsible. Administrative records are those which relate to common support functions such as personnel, payroll, supply, station management, etc.

organizational requirements. [TP 71-9] Changes or additions to any of the Army’s TOE. These range from modifying the numbers or types of equipment in a current organization to documenting an entirely new organization through the force design process.

Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A network of 13 regional organized crime drug enforcement task forces designed to coordinate Federal law enforcement efforts to combat the national and international organizations that cultivate, process, and distribute illicit drugs.

origin. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Beginning point of a deployment where unit or non-unit-related cargo or personnel are located.

original budget. [DSMC] The budget established at, or near, the time the contract was signed, based on the negotiated contract cost.

original destination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval control of shipping, the original final destination of a convoy or an individual ship (whether in convoy or independent). This is particularly applicable to the original destination of a voyage begun in peacetime.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The first prime manufacturer of the equipment.

original negative. See generation (photography).

original positive. See generation (photography).

originating medical facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A medical facility that initially transfers a patient to another medical facility.

originating organization. [TP 25-71] Official name or code that reflects the office responsible for the creation of a document.

originator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The command by whose authority a message is sent. The responsibility of the originator includes the responsibility for the functions of the drafter and the releasing officer. See also drafter; releasing officer.

Orion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A four-engine, turboprop, all-weather, long-range, land-based antisubmarine aircraft. It is capable of carrying a varied assortment of search radar, nuclear depth charges, and homing torpedoes. It can be used for search, patrol, hunter-killer, and convoy escort operations. Designated as P-3. Electronic attack version is designated as EP-3.

oropesa sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a form of sweep in which a length of sweep wire is towed by a single ship, lateral displacement being caused by an otter and depth being controlled at the ship end by a kite and at the other end by a float and float wire.

orthomorphic projection. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A projection in which the scale, although varying throughout the map, is the same in all directions at any point, so that very small areas are represented by correct shape and bearings are correct.

oscillating mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine, hydrostatically controlled, which maintains a preset depth below the surface of the water independently of the rise and fall of the tide. See also mine.

OSD (Office of the Secretary of Defense) principal staff assistants (PSAs).[DoD 5000.1] The PSAs represent the user community in the functional area under their direction on acquisition and requirements matters. The OSD PSAs are the Under Secretaries of Defense (USDs), the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E), the Assistant Secretaries of Defense (ASDs), the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E), the General Counsel of the Department of Defense (GC, DoD), the Inspector General of the Department of Defense (IG, DoD), the Assistants to the Secretary of Defense (ATSDs), and the OSD Directors or equivalents, who report directly to the Secretary or the Deputy Secretary of Defense.

other activity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In the Air Force, a unit or activity that has little or no real property accountability over the real estate it occupies. Examples include Active, Guard, or Reserve Air Force units that are located on installations belonging to other services or leased office space that supports recruiting detachments, Civil Air Patrol, etc. See also installation complex; major installation; minor installation; support site.

other detainee (OD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Person in the custody of the US Armed Forces who has not been classified as an enemy prisoner of war (article 4, GPW), retained personnel (article 33, GPW), or civilian internee (article 78, GC). See also civilian internee; custody; detainee; prisoner of war; retained personnel.

other plant. [DSMC] That part of plant equipment, regardless of dollar value, which is used in, or in conjunction with, the manufacture of components or end items relative to maintenance, supply, processing, assembly, or research and development (R&D) operations, but excluding items categorized as industry plant equipment.

other war reserve materiel requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) This level consists of the war reserve materiel requirement less the prepositioned war reserve materiel requirement.

other war reserve materiel requirement, balance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the other war reserve materiel requirement which has not been acquired or funded. This level consists of the other war reserve materiel requirement less the other war reserve materiel requirement protectable.

other war reserve materiel requirement, protectable. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The portion of the other war reserve materiel requirement which is protected for purposes of procurement, funding, and inventory management.

other war reserve stock. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of an item acquired and placed in stock against the other war reserve materiel requirement.

otter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a device which, when towed, displaces itself sideways to a predetermined distance.

out-of-court settlement. [DSMC] An out-of-court settlement resolves a major issue, which during program review presents an alternative to a proposal in the program objectives memorandum. It is known as out-of-court because the issue was resolved outside the deliberation of the Defense Resources Board. The settlement reflects agreement reached through working-level negotiations between members of the services and the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

out-years. [DSMC] Normally, the years beyond the year being worked in the upcoming budget. If budget for fiscal year (FY) 96-97 is being prepared, out-years are FY98 and beyond. Also used to refer to years beyond the current program objectives memorandum (POM), e.g., POM covers 96-01, out-years are 02 and beyond.

outbound traffic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Traffic originating in continental United States destined for overseas or overseas traffic moving in a general direction away from continental United States.

outer fix. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A fix in the destination terminal area, other than the approach fix, to which aircraft are normally cleared by an air route traffic control center or a terminal area traffic control facility, and from which aircraft are cleared to the approach fix or final approach course.

outer landing ship areas. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, areas to which landing ships proceed initially after their arrival in the objective area. They are usually located on the flanks of the outer transport areas.

outer transport area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, an area inside the antisubmarine screen to which assault transports proceed initially after arrival in the objective area. See also inner transport area; transport area.

outfitting. See provisioning.

outlays. [DSMC] Actual expenditures. The disbursement of cash to liquidate a federal obligation.

outline map. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A map which represents just sufficient geographic information to permit the correlation of additional data placed upon it.

outline plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A preliminary plan which outlines the salient features or principles of a course of action prior to the initiation of detailed planning.

outline sheet. An instruction sheet that provides the student with an outline of the major teaching points in the topic.

outline test plan (OTP). An OTP is a resource document prepared for the Test Schedule and Review Committee (TSARC) (AR 15-38). It contains a listing of the necessary resources and administrative information required for support of a test. The OTP also contains the critical test issues and test conditions, prepared by the operational tester for submission to the TSARC. OTPs for technical testing are prepared when user troops are required.

output. 1[DSMC] In contracting, the desired results from the contractor. 2[DSMC] In automated data processing, the result of what the computer is asked to do when activated.

output standard. [DSMC] Specifies the number of items or amount of services that should be produced in a specific amount of time by a specific method.

outsized cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single item of cargo, too large for palletization or containerization, that exceeds 1090 inches long by 111 inches wide by 105 inches high. Requires transport by sea or use of a C-5 or C-17 aircraft for transport by air. See also cargo; oversized cargo.

outsourcing. Contracting for goods and services required to conduct training.

over. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, used by a spotter or an observer to indicate that a burst(s) occurred beyond the target in relation to the spotting line.

over the beach operations. See logistics-over-the-shore operations.

over-the-horizon amphibious operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operational initiative launched from beyond visual and radar range of the shoreline.

over-the-horizon radar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A radar system that makes use of the atmospheric reflection and refraction phenomena to extend its range of detection beyond line of sight. Over-the-horizon radars may be either forward scatter or back scatter systems.

over-the-shoulder bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A special case of loft bombing where the bomb is released past the vertical in order that the bomb may be thrown back to the target. See also loft bombing; toss bombing.

overarching integrated product team (OIPT). TP 71-9] The OIPT is a team led by the appropriate OSD technical director, and composed of the PM, PEO, component staff, and USD(A&T) staff, the Joint Staff, and other OSD staff principals, or their representatives, involved in the oversight and review of a particular MDAP for which the USD(A&T) is MDA. The OIPT provides strategic guidance for the early resolution of issues, as well as oversight and review as the program proceeds through its acquisition life-cycle.

overhaul. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The restoration of an item to a completely serviceable condition as prescribed by maintenance serviceability standards. See also rebuild; repair.

overhead. [DSMC] See indirect costs.

overhead clearance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vertical distance between the route surface and any obstruction above it.

overlap. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In photography, the amount by which one photograph includes the same area covered by another, customarily expressed as a percentage. The overlap between successive air photographs on a flight line is called forward overlap. The overlap between photographs in adjacent parallel flight lines is called side overlap.

l In cartography, that portion of a map or chart which overlaps the area covered by another of the same series.

l In naval mine warfare, the width of that part of the swept path of a ship or formation which is also swept by an adjacent sweeper or formation or is reswept on the next adjacent lap.

overlap tell. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer of information to an adjacent facility concerning tracks detected in the adjacent facility's area of responsibility. See also track telling.

overlap zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated area on each side of a boundary between adjacent tactical air control systems wherein coordination and interaction between the systems is required.

overlay. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A printing or drawing on a transparent or semi-transparent medium at the same scale as a map, chart, etc., to show details not appearing or requiring special emphasis on the original.

overlearning. [TR 350-70] Practice beyond what is required for retention. Also called overtraining.

overpressure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The pressure resulting from the blast wave of an explosion. It is referred to as positive when it exceeds atmospheric pressure and negative during the passage of the wave when resulting pressures are less than atmospheric pressure.

overprint. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Information printed or stamped upon a map or chart, in addition to that originally printed, to show data of importance or special use.

overseas. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All locations, including Alaska and Hawaii, outside the continental United States.

overseas search and rescue region. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Overseas unified command areas (or portions thereof not included within the inland region or the maritime region).

oversight. [DSMC] Review activity by congressional committees of DoD programs to determine current status, if the law or other desires of the Congress are being followed, or a basis for possible future legislation.

oversized cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Large items of specific equipment such as a barge, side loadable warping tug, causeway section, powered, or causeway section, nonpowered. Requires transport by sea. See also cargo; outsized cargo.

overtraining. See overlearning.

overt behavior. [TR 350-70] Behavior which is observable and measurable. See covert behavior.

overt operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation conducted openly, without concealment. See also clandestine operation; covert operation.

overt peacetime psychological operations programs (OP3). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those programs developed by combatant commands, in coordination with the chiefs of US diplomatic missions, that plan, support, and provide for the conduct, during military operations other than war, of psychological operations in support of US regional objectives, policies, interests, and theater military missions. See also consolidation psychological operations; psychological operations.

overwhelming combat power. The ability to bring together, in combination, sufficient force to ensure success and deny the enemy any chance of escape or effective retaliation.

OWLKNEST. An Army Research Institute computer-based methodology that guides selection of the appropriate techniques for assessing operator workload in developing Army systems.