Index Military Definitions

S-bend distortion. See S-curve distortion.

S-curve distortion. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The distortion in the image produced by a scanning sensor which results from the forward displacement of the sensor during the time of lateral scan.

S-Day. See times.

S-rating. sustainability rating

sabot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Lightweight carrier in which a subcaliber projectile is centered to permit firing the projectile in the larger caliber weapon. The carrier fills the bore of the weapon from which the projectile is fired; it is normally discarded a short distance from the muzzle.

sabotage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An act or acts with intent to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national defense of a country by willfully injuring or destroying, or attempting to injure or destroy, any national defense or war material, premises or utilities, to include human and natural resources.

sabotage alert team. See security alert team.

saboteur. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One who commits sabotage. See also antiterrorism; countersabotage; sabotage.

safe anchorage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An anchorage considered safe from enemy attack to which merchant ships may be ordered to proceed when the shipping movement policy is implemented. See also refuge area.

safe area. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated area in hostile territory that offers the evader or escapee a reasonable chance of avoiding capture and of surviving until he can be evacuated. 2That area in the center of a screen that is sure to be displayed on all receivers and monitors. The outer edge of a screen (about 10 percent of the total picture) is not represented in the same way on all televisions and monitors.

SAFE area intelligence description (SAID). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, an in-depth, all-source evasion study designed to assist the recovery of military personnel from a selected area for evasion under hostile conditions. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; hostile; recovery operations; selected area for evasion (SAFE).

safe burst height. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The height of burst at or above which the level of fallout, or damage to ground installations is at a predetermined level acceptable to the military commander. See also types of burst.

safe current. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the maximum current that can be supplied to a sweep in a given waveform and pulse cycle which does not produce a danger area with respect to the mines being swept for.

safe depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the shallowest depth of water in which a ship will not actuate a bottom mine of the type under consideration. Safe depth is usually quoted for conditions of ship upright, calm sea and a given speed.

safe distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the horizontal range from the edge of the explosion damage area to the center of the sweeper.

safe haven. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Designated area(s) to which noncombatants of the United States Government's responsibility, and commercial vehicles and materiel, may be evacuated during a domestic or other valid emergency.

l Temporary storage provided Department of Energy classified shipment transporters at Department of Defense facilities in order to assure safety and security of nuclear material and/or nonnuclear classified material. Also includes parking for commercial vehicles containing Class A or Class B explosives.

l A protected body of water or the well deck of an amphibious ship used by small craft operating offshore for refuge from storms or heavy seas.

safe house. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An innocent-appearing house or premises established by an organization for the purpose of conducting clandestine or covert activity in relative security.

safe separation distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The minimum distance between the delivery system and the weapon beyond which the hazards associated with functioning (detonation) are acceptable.

safe speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the speed at which a particular ship can proceed without actuating a given influence mine, at the depth under consideration, within the damage area.

safe working load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In sea operations, the maximum load that can be safely applied to a fitting, and normally shown on a label plate adjacent to the fitting. See also static test load.

Safeguard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) ABM defense system for Washington DC and Grand Forks AFB. In agreement with SALT I it was deactivated one day after it became operational, on 1 October 1975.

safety and arming mechanism. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A dual function device which prevents the unintended activation of a main charge or propulsion unit prior to arming but allows activation thereafter upon receipt of the appropriate stimuli.

safety and health hazard and analysis. This is the documented quantitative determination of system safety and health hazards. It includes the evaluation of hazard severity, hazard probability, operational constraints, and the identification of required precautions, protective devices, and training requirements/restrictions.

safety angle. See angle of safety.

safety assessment report (SAR). A formal summary of the safety data collected during the design and development of the system. In it, the materiel developer summarizes the hazard potential of the item, provides a risk assessment, and recommends corrective procedures to reduce these hazards to an acceptable level.

safety device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which prevents unintentional functioning.

safety distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In road transport, the distance between vehicles traveling in column specified by the command in light of safety requirements.

safety fuse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A pyrotechnic contained in a flexible and weatherproof sheath burning at a timed and constant rate, used to transmit a flame to the detonator.

safety height. See altitude; minimum safe altitude.

safety lane. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Specified sea lane designated for use in transit by submarine and surface ships to prevent attack by friendly forces.

safety level of supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of materiel, in addition to the operating level of supply, required to be on hand to permit continuous operations in the event of minor interruption of normal replenishment or unpredictable fluctuations in demand. See also level of supply.

safety line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, demarcation line for trip wire or wire-actuated mines in a minefield. It serves to protect the laying personnel. After the minefield is laid this line is neither marked on the ground nor plotted on the minefield record.

safety pin. See arming wire.

safety release. A safety release documents the safety precautions to be taken by the operational tester to avoid system damage and personal injury. It is based on developmental testing and/or a safety assessment report.

safety wire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A cable, wire, or lanyard attached to the aircraft and routed to an expendable aircraft store to prevent arming initiation prior to store release. See also arming wire.

safety zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area (land, sea, or air) reserved for noncombat operations of friendly aircraft, surface ships, submarines or ground forces.

safety-in-training. [TR 350-70] Deals with what we train, i.e., it is a requirement to incorporate training safety into Army training. To do this, the training developer integrates safety requirements and risk management into training and training products, i.e., they identify and incorporate hazards (risk exposure) and prevention (risk control techniques) into individual training products (soldier training publications, lesson plans, etc.).

safing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) As applied to weapons and ammunition, the changing from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition.

safing and arming mechanism. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mechanism whose primary purpose is to prevent an unintended functioning of the main charge of the ammunition prior to completion of the arming delay and, in turn, allow the explosive train of the ammunition to function after arming.

sailaway costs. [DSMC] See flyaway costs.

Saint. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A satellite inspector system designed to demonstrate the feasibility of intercepting, inspecting, and reporting on the characteristics of satellites in orbit.

salted weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nuclear weapon which has, in addition to its normal components, certain elements or isotopes which capture neutrons at the time of the explosion and produce radioactive products over and above the usual radioactive weapon debris. See also minimum residual radioactivity weapon.

salvage. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Property that has some value in excess of its basic material content but which is in such condition that it has no reasonable prospect of use for any purpose as a unit and its repair or rehabilitation for use as a unit is clearly impractical.

l The saving or rescuing of condemned, discarded, or abandoned property, and of materials contained therein for reuse, refabrication, or scrapping.

salvage group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, a naval task organization designated and equipped to rescue personnel and to salvage equipment and material.

salvage operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The recovery, evacuation, and reclamation of damaged, discarded, condemned, or abandoned allied or enemy materiel, ships, craft, and floating equipment for reuse, repair, refabrication, or scrapping.

l Naval salvage operations include harbor and channel clearance, diving, hazardous towing and rescue tug services and the recovery of materiel, ships, craft, and floating equipment sunk offshore or elsewhere stranded.

salvo. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In naval gunfire support, a method of fire in which a number of weapons are fired at the same target simultaneously.

l In close air support/air interdiction operations, a method of delivery in which the release mechanisms are operated to release or fire all ordnance of a specific type simultaneously.

Sam-D. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army air defense artillery, surface-to-air missile system developed to replace Nike Hercules and the improved Hawk systems.

sample. 1[TR 350-70] A limited number of observations of a population used to make assumptions about the entire population. For example, all soldiers at Fort Monroe is a sample, though not random, of all soldiers in the Army. A sample is a subset of a group or population. 2A portion or small segment of the students for whom instruction is designed.

sample data collection (SDC). A method for obtaining information on the performance and maintainability of an item of equipment. Data are obtained directly from observations made in the field. An effort is made to see that the sample from which the feedback is obtained is representative of the total population.

sampling plan. Procedure for selecting a small but representative group from a larger population.

sanction enforcement/maritime intercept operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations which employ coercive measures to interdict the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area.

sanctuary. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) A nation or area near or contiguous to the combat area which by tacit agreement between the warring powers is exempt from attack and therefore serves as a refuge for staging, logistic, or other activities of the combatant powers. 2[TP 525-75] An area whose location provides relative high protection from direct actions by an adversary's tactical forces.

sanitize. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Revise a report or other document in such a fashion as to prevent identification of sources, or of the actual persons and places with which it is concerned, or of the means by which it was acquired. Usually involves deletion or substitution of names and other key details.

satellite and missile surveillance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The systematic observation of aerospace for the purpose of detecting, tracking, and characterizing objects, events, and phenomena associated with satellites and in-flight missiles, friendly and enemy. See also surveillance.

saturated colors. Strong, bright colors (particularly reds and oranges) which do not reproduce well on video, but tend to saturate the screen with color or bleed around the edges, producing a grayish, unclear image.

saturation. The degree of purity in a given color, measured by its freedom from mixture with white.

saunter. [JP 1-02] (DoD)In air intercept, a term meaning, "Fly at best endurance."

scalability. The ability to use the same application software on many different classes of hardware.

scale. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The ratio or fraction between the distance on a map, chart or photograph and the corresponding distance on the surface of the Earth.

l In media selection, some materials must represent actual objects and accurately represent the dimensions of those objects. A model may, for example, be full scale, half scale, or on a 1 to 10 scale with the actual object.

See also conversion scale; graphic scale; photographic scale; principal scale.

scale (photographic). See photographic scale.

scaling law. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mathematical relationship which permits the effects of a nuclear explosion of given energy yield to be determined as a function of distance from the explosion (or from ground zero) provided the corresponding effect is known as a function of distance for a reference explosion, e.g., of 1-kiloton energy yield.

scan. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In air intercept, a term meaning: "Search sector indicated and report any contacts."

l The path periodically followed by a radiation beam.

l In electronics intelligence, the motion of an electronic beam through space looking for a target. Scanning is produced by the motion of the antenna or by lobe switching. See also electronics intelligence.

scan line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The line produced on a recording medium frame by a single sweep of a scanner.

scan period. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The period taken by a radar, sonar, etc., to complete a scan pattern and return to a starting point.

scan rate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The rate at which individual scans are recorded.

scan type. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The path made in space by a point on the radar beam; for example, circular, helical, conical, spiral, or sector.

scatterable mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, a mine laid without regard to classical pattern and which is designed to be delivered by aircraft, artillery, missile, ground dispenser, or by hand. Once laid, it normally has a limited life. See also mine.

scene of action commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In antisubmarine warfare, the commander at the scene of contact. He is usually in a ship, or may be in a fixed wing aircraft, helicopter, or submarine.

scenario. A logical and realistic presentation of mission objectives and specific mission tasks required by the formal training syllabus in corresponding mission lesson plans.

scenario-oriented recurring evaluation systems. This is an evaluation technique and framework used to identify performance shortfalls and to address organization, doctrine, tactics, training, and materiel.

schedule. [DSMC] Series of things to be done in sequence of events within given period; a timetable.

schedule of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Groups of fires or series of fires fired in a definite sequence according to a definite program. The time of starting the schedule may be ON CALL. For identification purposes schedules may be referred to by a code name or other designation.

schedule of targets. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, individual targets, groups or series of targets to be fired on, in a definite sequence according to a definite program.

scheduled arrival date. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The projected arrival date of a specified movement requirement at a specified location.

scheduled fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of prearranged fire executed at a predetermined time.

scheduled maintenance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Periodic prescribed inspection and/or servicing of equipment accomplished on a calendar, mileage, or hours of operation basis. See also organizational maintenance.

schedule risk. [DSMC] The risk that a program will not meet its acquisition strategy schedule objectives or major milestones established by the acquisition authority.

scheduled service (air transport). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A routine air transport service operated in accordance with a timetable.

scheduled speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The planned sustained speed of a convoy through the water which determines the speed classification of that convoy. See also convoy speed; critical speed; declared speed.

scheduled target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a planned target on which fire is to be delivered at a specific time.

scheduled target (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A planned target on which a nuclear weapon is to be delivered at a specific time during the operation of the supported force. The time is specified in terms of minutes before or after a designated time or in terms of the accomplishment of a predetermined movement or task. Coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft are mandatory.

scheduled wave. See wave.

schedules. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The carrier itinerary which may involve cargo and passengers.

scheduling. [DSMC] The prescribing of when and where each operation necessary to the manufacture of a product is to be performed.

scheduling and movement capability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The capability required by Joint Operation Planning and Execution System planners and operators to allow for review and update of scheduling and movement data before and during implementation of a deployment operation.

schemas. An individual's organization of knowledge. Schemas may take the form of scripts (a kind of story or scenario that organizes information) or frames (a structure that looks like a table or matrix into which information fits).

scheme of maneuver. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The tactical plan to be executed by a force in order to seize assigned objectives.

science and technology (S&T) program. [DSMC] Consists of projects in basic research, applied research, and advanced technology development.

scientific and technical intelligence (S&TI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign scientific and technical information which covers foreign developments in basic applied research and in applied engineering techniques and scientific and technical characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of all foreign military systems and materiel, the research and development related thereto, and the production methods employed for their manufacture.

scientific intelligence. See scientific and technical intelligence.

SCOPE DIAL. Base telecommunications modernization (USAF)

Scope Light. Boeing EC-135H and EC-135P, ABNCP aircraft

scram. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage, a code meaning, "Am about to open fire. Friendly units keep clear or get clear of indicated contact, bogey or area." Direction of withdrawal may be indicated. Type of fire may be indicated (e.g., scram proximity: "Am about to open fire with proximity-fused ammunition" scram mushroom: "Am about to fire a special weapon.").

scram mushroom. See scram.

scram proximity. See scram.

scramble. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An order directing takeoff of aircraft as quickly as possible, usually followed by mission instructions.

screen. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An arrangement of ships, aircraft and/or submarines to protect a main body or convoy.

l In cartography, a sheet of transparent film, glass or plastic carrying a "ruling" or other regularly repeated pattern which may be used in conjunction with a mask, either photographically or photomechanically, to produce areas of the pattern. See also halftone screen.

l In surveillance, camouflage and concealment, any natural or artificial material, opaque to surveillance sensor(s), interposed between the sensor(s) and the object to be camouflaged or concealed. See also concealment.

l A security element whose primary task is to observe, identify and report information, and which only fights in self-protection. See also flank guard; guard.

screening group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, a task organization of ships that furnishes protection to the task force en route to the objective area and during operations in the objective area.

scribing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, a method of preparing a map or chart by cutting the lines into a prepared coating.

script. The detailed plan, including a numbered list of each scene or frame showing description, talent, props, audio, narration, sound effects, camera angle, image size, and all that is necessary to produce an audiovisual program. It is a printed narration with instructions and cues used to develop video presentations for programs or program segments. See programming script.

script storyboard (SSB). A combination storyboard and audiovisual script. It is a detailed description of an individual or series of frames containing important script features of scene description, reference information, text displayed, audio content, camera directions, special effects, program flow, programming function information, production information, post-production information, props needed, graphics needed, and special notes. See storyboard.

scrolling. Moving the display up or down on the screen.

scrub (budget). [DSMC] A review of the budget with an eye toward adjusting or reprogramming funding to meet current priorities. Periodic, but done at least annually (e.g. mid-FY).

Sea Cobra. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single-rotor, dual-crew, light attack helicopter armed with a variety of machine guns, rockets, grenade launchers, and anti-tank missiles. It is used for attack helicopter support. Designated as AH-1J.

sea control operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of naval forces, supported by land and air forces, as appropriate, to achieve military objectives in vital sea areas. Such operations include destruction of enemy naval forces, suppression of enemy sea commerce, protection of vital sea lanes, and establishment of local military superiority in areas of naval operations. See also land control operations.

sea echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A portion of the assault shipping which withdraws from, or remains out of, the transport area during an amphibious landing and operates in designated areas to seaward in an on-call or unscheduled status.

sea echelon area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, an area to seaward of a transport area from which assault shipping is phased into the transport area, and to which assault shipping withdraws from the transport area.

sea echelon plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the plan for reduction of concentration of amphibious shipping in the transport area, to minimize losses due to enemy attack by mass destruction weapons and to reduce the area to be swept of mines.

sea frontier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The naval command of a coastal frontier, including the coastal zone in addition to the land area of the coastal frontier and the adjacent sea areas.

Sea King. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single-rotor, medium-lift helicopter used for air/sea rescue and personnel/cargo transport in support of aircraft carrier operations. Some versions are equipped for antisubmarine operations. Designated as H-3.

Sea Knight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin-rotor, medium-lift helicopter used for personnel and cargo transport. Designated as H-46.

sea projection operations. See land, sea, or aerospace projection operations.

Sea Skimmer. Renamed Sea Skipper.

Sea Skipper. Modification program to convert the supersonic Beechcraft AQM-37 target drone for simulated anti-shipping attacks.

Sea Sprite. A single rotor light lift helicopter used for air/sea rescue, personnel/cargo transport and antisubmarine operations from naval vessels Designated as H-2.

Sea Stallion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single-rotor heavy-lift helicopter used for personnel/cargo transport. Designated as CH-53. A mine countermeasures-equipped version is designated as RH-53.

sea state. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A scale that categorizes the force of progressively higher seas by wave height. This scale is mathematically co-related to the Pierson-Moskowitz scale and the relationship of wind to waves. See also Pierson-Moskowitz scale.

sea superiority. That degree of dominance in the sea battle of one force over another that permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.

sea supremacy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That degree of sea superiority wherein the opposing force is incapable of effective interference.

sea surveillance. The systematic observation of surface and subsurface sea areas by all available and practicable means primarily for the purpose of locating, identifying and determining the movements of ships, submarines, and other vehicles, friendly and enemy, proceeding on or under the surface of the world's seas and oceans. See also surveillance.

sea surveillance system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system for collecting, reporting, correlating and presenting information supporting and derived from the task of sea surveillance.

sea-air-land team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A naval force specially organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations in maritime, littoral, and riverine environments. Also called SEAL team.

sea-launched ballistic missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ballistic missile launched from a submarine or surface ship.

Seabee. construction battalion (CB).

SEAL team. See sea-air-land team.

sealed bidding. [DSMC] This term replaces formal advertising. See two-step sealed bids.

sealed cabin. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The occupied space of an aircraft characterized by walls which do not allow any gaseous exchange between the ambient atmosphere and the inside atmosphere and containing its own ways of regenerating the inside atmosphere.

Sealift Enhancement Program (SEP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Special equipment and modifications which adapt merchant-type dry cargo ships and tankers to specific military missions. They are typically installed on Ready Reserve Force ships or ships under Military Sealift Command control. Sealift enhancements fall into three categories: productivity, survivability, and operational enhancements. See also Military Sealift Command; Ready Reserve; Ready Reserve Force.

sealift readiness program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A formal agreement, pursuant to the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, as amended, between U.S.-flag, dry-cargo carriers and the government for the acquisition of ships and related equipment under conditions of less that full mobilization.

seamless C4I environment. [CJCSI 6212.01A] An electronic environment that allows data to be accessed by the warfighter without regard to physical or electronic boundaries.

Sidewinder Expanded Acquisition Mode (SEAM). An upgrade of the guidance systems for the AIM-9.

search. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An operation to locate an enemy force known or believed to be at sea.

l A systematic reconnaissance of a defined area, so that all parts of the area have passed within visibility.

l To distribute gunfire over an area in depth by successive changes in gun elevation.

2In computing, the process of rapidly accessing a specific address, identified by its unique sequential reference number.

search and attack priority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lowest category of immediate mission request involving suspected targets related to the enemy tactical or logistical capabilities, e.g., those which are not inhibiting a unit's advance but by their fleeting nature and tactical importance should be located and destroyed. See also immediate mission request; priority of immediate mission requests.

search and rescue (SAR). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of aircraft, surface craft, submarines, specialized rescue teams, and equipment to search for and rescue personnel in distress on land or at sea. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue mission coordinator; component search and rescue controller; duckbutt; isolated personnel; joint combat search and rescue operation; joint search and rescue center; joint search and rescue center director; rescue coordination center; search and rescue mission coordinator.

search and rescue alert notice (ALNOT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An alerting message used for United States domestic flights. It corresponds to the declaration of the alert phase. See also search and rescue incident classification, subpart 1.

search and rescue coordinator. The designated search and rescue representative of the area commander with overall responsibility and authority for operation of the joint rescue coordination center, and for joint search and rescue operations within the geographical area assigned.

search and rescue incident classification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Three emergency phases into which an incident may be classified or progress, according to the seriousness of the incident and its requirement for rescue service:

l uncertainty phase. Doubt exists as to the safety of a craft or person because of knowledge of possible difficulties or because of lack of information concerning progress or position.

l alert phase. Apprehension exists for the safety of a craft or person because of definite information that serious difficulties exist that do not amount to a distress or because of a continued lack of information concerning progress or position.

l distress phase. Immediate assistance is required by a craft or person because of being threatened by grave or imminent danger or because of continued lack of information concerning progress or position after procedures for the alert phase have been executed.

search and rescue mission coordinator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designated person or organization selected to direct and coordinate support for a specific search and rescue mission. Also called SAR mission coordinator. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue mission coordinator; component search and rescue controller; search and rescue.

search and rescue region. See inland search and rescue region; maritime search and rescue region; overseas search and rescue region.

search attack unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designation given to one or more ships separately organized or detached from a formation as a tactical unit to search for and destroy submarines.

search jammer. See automatic search jammer.

search mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air operations, an air reconnaissance by one or more aircraft dispatched to locate an object or objects known or suspected to be in a specific area.

search radius. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In search and rescue operations, a radius centered on a datum point having a length equal to the total probable error plus an additional safety length to ensure a greater than 50 percent probability that the target is in the search area.

search sweeping. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the operation of sweeping a sample of route or area to determine whether poised mines are present.

searched channel. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the whole or part of a route or a path which has been searched, swept or hunted, the width of the channel being specified.

searching fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire distributed in depth by successive changes in the elevation of a gun. See also fire.

seavan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Commercial or Government owned (or leased) shipping containers which are moved via ocean transportation without bogey wheels attached, i.e., lifted on and off the ship.

seaward launch point(SLP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated point off the coast from which special operations forces will launch to proceed to the beach to conduct operations. See also seaward recovery point.

seaward recovery point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated point off the coast to which special operations forces will proceed for recovery by submarine, or other means of recovery.

second source. [DSMC] Execution of established acquisition strategy to qualify two producers for the part or system. Sometimes called dual sourcing.

second strike. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The first counterblow of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.)

secondary armament. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In ships with multiple-size guns installed, that battery consisting of guns next largest to those of the main battery.

secondary censorship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Armed forces censorship performed on the personal communications of officers, civilian employees, and accompanying civilians of the Armed Forces of the United States, and on those personal communications of enlisted personnel of the Armed Forces not subject to Armed Forces primary censorship or those requiring reexamination. See also censorship.

secondary imagery dissemination. See electronic imagery dissemination.

secondary imagery dissemination system. See electronic imagery dissemination.

secondary port. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A port one or more berths, normally at quays, which can accommodate ocean-going ships for discharge. See also port.

secondary rescue facilities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Local airbase-ready aircraft, crash boats, and other air, surface, subsurface, and ground elements suitable for rescue missions including government and privately operated units and facilities.

secondary road. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A road supplementing a main road, usually wide enough and suitable for two-way all-weather traffic at moderate or slow speeds.

secondary targets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Alternative targets of lower publicity value that are attacked when the primary target is unattainable. See also antiterrorism; primary target.

secondary wave breaker system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A series of waves superimposed on another series and differing in height, period, or angle of approach to the beach.

secret. See security classification.

Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Worldwide secret-level packet switch network that uses high-speed internet protocol routers and high-capacity Defense Information Systems Network circuitry. See also Defense Information Systems Network.

Secretary of Defense decision memorandum (SDDM). An SDDM documents each Secretary of Defense decision and established program goals and thresholds. A SDDM is used to reaffirm established needs and program objectives, authorize exceptions to acquisition policy, and provide direction and guidance for the next phase of the acquisition cycle.

Secretary of a military department. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Secretary of the Air Force, Army or Navy; or the Commandant of the Coast Guard when operating as a Department of Transportation Agency.

section. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l As applied to ships or naval aircraft, a tactical subdivision of a division. It is normally one-half of a division in the case of ships, and two aircraft in the case of aircraft.

l A subdivision of an office, installation, territory, works, or organization; especially a major subdivision of a staff.

l A tactical unit of the Army and Marine Corps. A section is smaller than a platoon and larger than a squad. In some organizations the section, rather than the squad, is the basic tactical unit.

l An area in a warehouse extending from one wall to the next; usually the largest subdivision of one floor.

sector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An area designated by boundaries within which a unit operates, and for which it is responsible.

l One of the subdivisions of a coastal frontier. See also area of influence; zone of action.

sector of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defined area which is required to be covered by the fire of individual or crew served weapons or the weapons of a unit.

sector scan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Scan in which the antenna oscillates through a selected angle.

secure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In an operational context, to gain possession of a position or terrain feature, with or without force, and to make such disposition as will prevent, as far as possible, its destruction or loss by enemy action. See also denial measure.

security. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Measures taken by a military unit, an activity or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness.

l A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences.

l With respect to classified matter, it is the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security.

See also national security.

security alert team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Two or more security force members who form the initial reinforcing element responding to security alarms, emergencies, or irregularities.

security assistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Groups of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives.

security assistance organization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All Department of Defense elements located in a foreign country with assigned responsibilities for carrying out security assistance management functions. It includes military assistance advisory groups, military missions and groups, offices of defense and military cooperation, liaison groups, and defense attaché personnel designated to perform security assistance functions. See also security assistance.

security certification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A certification issued by competent national authority to indicate that a person has been investigated and is eligible for access to classified matter to the extent stated in the certification. (Note: The DoD definition does not use the word "national.")

security classification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category to which national security information and material is assigned to denote the degree of damage that unauthorized disclosure would cause to national defense or foreign relations of the United States and to denote the degree of protection required. There are three such categories:

l top secret. National security information or material which requires the highest degree of protection and the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security. Examples of exceptionally grave damage include armed hostilities against the United States or its allies; disruption of foreign relations vitally affecting the national security; the compromise of vital national defense plans or complex cryptologic and communications intelligence systems; the revelation of sensitive intelligence operations; and the disclosure of scientific or technological developments vital to national security.

l secret. National security information or material which requires a substantial degree of protection and the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the national security. Examples of serious damage include disruption of foreign relations significantly affecting the national security; significant impairment of a program or policy directly related to the national security; revelation of significant military plans or intelligence operations; and compromise of significant scientific or technological developments relating to national security.

l confidential. National security information or material which requires protection and the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause damage to the national security.

See also classification; security.

security clearance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An administrative determination by competent national authority that an individual is eligible, from a security stand-point, for access to classified information. (Note: The DoD definition does not use the word "national.")

security countermeasures. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those protective activities required to prevent espionage, sabotage, theft, or unauthorized use of classified or controlled information, systems, or material of the Department of Defense. See also counterintelligence.

security intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Intelligence on the identity, capabilities and intentions of hostile organizations or individuals who are or may be engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion or terrorism. See also counterintelligence; intelligence; security.

security review. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of reviewing news media products at some point, usually before transmission, to ensure that no oral, written, or visual information is filed for publication or broadcast that would divulge national security information or would jeopardize ongoing or future operations or that would threaten the safety of the members of the force. See also security.

security supporting assistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Program by which economic assistance is provided on a loan or grant basis, to selected foreign governments having unique security problems. The funds are used to finance imports of commodities, capital, or technical assistance in accordance with terms of a bilateral agreement; counterpart funds thereby generated may be used as budgetary support. These funds enable a recipient to devote more of its own resources to defense and security purposes than it otherwise could do without serious economic or political consequences.

sedition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Willfully advocating or teaching the duty or necessity of overthrowing the US government or any political subdivision by force or violence. See also counterintelligence.

Seek Igloo. The FPS-39 radar system, a ground-based radar now replacing older systems in the DEW line.

segment. [DSMC] A grouping of elements that are closely related and often physically interface. It consists of configuration items (CIs) produced by several contractors and integrated by one.

segmented training. Modification of existing formal courses into discrete portions.

seizures. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, includes drugs and conveyances seized by law enforcement authorities and drug-related assets (monetary instruments, etc.) confiscated based on evidence that they have been derived from or used in illegal narcotics activities. See also counterdrug operations; law enforcement agency.

selected acquisition report (SAR). A SAR is prepared for the Secretary of Defense by a DoD component to summarize current estimates of technical, schedule, and cost performance for a current program, compared to the original plans. Standard, comprehensive, summary status reports on major defense acquisition programs (acquisition category I) required for periodic submission to the Congress. They include key cost, schedule, and technical information.

selected area for evasion (SAFE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated area in hostile territory that offers evaders or escapees a reasonable chance of avoiding capture and of surviving until they can be evacuated. See also escapee; evader; hostile.

Selected Reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those units and individuals within the Ready Reserve designated by their respective services and approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as so essential to initial wartime missions that they have priority over all other Reserves. All Selected Reservists are in an active status. The Selected Reserve also includes persons performing initial active duty for training. See also Ready Reserve.

Selected Reserve strength. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total number of Guardsmen and reservists in the Selected Reserve who are subject to the 200K Presidential recall or mobilization under declaration of war or national emergency.

selective erase. Refers to the ability to erase part of a screen display without affecting other portions of the same screen display. Also called mode erase.

selective identification feature. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A capability which, when added to the basic Identification Friend or Foe system, provides the means to transmit, receive, and display selected coded replies.

selective jamming. See spot jamming.

selective loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The arrangement and stowage of equipment and supplies aboard ship in a manner designed to facilitate issues to units. See also loading.

selective mobilization. See mobilization.

selective release process. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process involving requesting, analyzing, and obtaining approval for release of weapons to obtain specific, limited damage on selected targets.

selective unloading. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, the controlled unloading from assault shipping, and movement ashore, of specific items of cargo at the request of the landing force commander. Normally, selective unloading parallels the landing of nonscheduled units during the initial unloading period of the ship-to-shore movement.

selenodesy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That branch of applied mathematics that determines, by observation and measurement, the exact positions of points and the figures and areas of large portions of the moon's surface, or the shape and size of the moon.

selenodetic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of or pertaining to, or determined by selenodesy.

self pacing. Mode of instruction whereby each student works through the instructional materials at his own rate of speed.

self-destroying fuse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fuse designed to burst a projectile before the end of its flight. See also fuse

self-development test (SDT). The SDT is a norm-referenced test composed of 100 multiple-choice questions on leadership, training management, and MOS knowledge. It allows noncommissioned officers to measure and guide their professional growth in the skills and competencies they need as leaders.

self-diagnostic. A procedure by which a system checks its own operations and identifies error conditions.

self-paced instruction. Instruction that permits progress at the student's rate of learning.

self-paced management plan. Arrangement whereby instruction is scheduled and conducted for individual students rather that groups of students.

self-protection depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The depth of water where the aggregate danger width relative to mines affected by a minesweeping technique is zero. Safe depth is a particular self-protection depth.

self-study. [TR 350-70] Individual study by which a soldier learns or reinforces previous learning, on his/her own.

self-study workbook/guide. A document containing a series of lessons arranged in discrete steps with self-test questions that allow the instructor to monitor the students' progress. It is used to guide the student through a controlled path of study and specific job tasks with a minimum amount of supervision. An instructional document that provides the student study material in support of objectives. This document contains the objectives, subobjectives, subject matter content, reference to adjunct reading or study material, review exercises with feedback, and directions to interact with training media including an instructor.

self-sustaining containership. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A containership with shipboard-installed cranes capable of loading and off-loading containers without assistance of port crane service. See also containership.

self-teaching exportable packages. Self instructional study units: generally sent to the student wherever he/she is stationed.

semi-active homing guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system of homing guidance wherein the receiver in the missile utilizes radiations from the target which has been illuminated by an outside source.

semi-active radar homing (SARH) missile guidance system. A missile that steers on the reflection of the radar beam transmitted by the aircraft.

semi-controlled mosaic. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mosaic composed of corrected or uncorrected prints laid so that major ground features match their geographical coordinates. See also mosaic.

semi-fixed ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Ammunition in which the cartridge case is not permanently attached to the projectile. See also munition.

semi-permanent joint task force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A joint task force which has been assigned an expanded or follow-on mission and will continue to conduct these operations in a specified area for an undetermined period of time. See also joint task force; mission; operation.

senior meteorological and oceanographic officer (SMO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Meteorological and oceanographic officer responsible for assisting the combatant commander and staff in developing and executing operational meteorological and oceanographic service concepts in support of a designated joint force. See also meteorological and oceanographic.

senior officer present afloat (SOPA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The senior line officer of the Navy, on active service, eligible for command at sea, who is present and in command of any unit of the operating forces afloat in the locality or within an area prescribed by competent authority. This officer is responsible for the administration of matters which collectively affect naval units of the operating forces afloat in the locality prescribed.

senior procurement executive (SPE). Senior procurement executive means the individual appointed pursuant to section 16(3) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 414(3)) who is responsible for management direction of the Service procurement system of the executive agency, including implementation of the unique acquisition policies, regulations, and standards of the executive agency. See Title 41 U.S.C.414, Executive Agency Responsibilities. The SPE for all nonService DoD Components is the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology. See Title 10 U.S.C.133, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology.

Senior Ruby. Sensor package carried by the U-2R; a radar emission monitoring system.

Senior Span. Datalink equipment carried by U-2Rs to relay data to satellites. A large radome on top of the aft fuselage.

Senior Spear. Sensor package carried by the U-2R, a radio signal monitoring system.

Senior Year Electro-optical Relay System (SYERS). Senior Year is the U-2R; SYERS is a CCD-camera, of which the image can be data-linked to a ground station.

sensitive. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Requiring special protection from disclosure which could cause embarrassment, compromise, or threat to the security of the sponsoring power. May be applied to an agency, installation, person, position, document, material, or activity.

sensitive compartmented information (SCI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) All information and materials bearing special community controls indicating restricted handling within present and future community intelligence collection programs and their end products for which community systems of compartmentation have been or will be formally established. (These controls are over and above the provisions of DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation.)

sensitive compartmented information facility (SCIF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An accredited area, room, group of rooms, or installation where sensitive compartmented information may be stored, used, discussed, and/or electronically processed. SCIF procedural and physical measures prevent the free access of persons unless they have been formally indoctrinated for the particular SCI authorized for use or storage within the SCIF. See also sensitive compartmented information.

sensor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An equipment which detects, and may indicate, and/or record objects and activities by means of energy or particles emitted, reflected, or modified by objects.

sensory stimulus. A capability (e.g., sound, motion, odor, color, scale representation) that activates a human sense.

Sentinel. A defense system for cities, abandoned in favor of Safeguard ABM.

separate loading ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Ammunition in which the projectile and charge are loaded into a gun separately. See also munition.

separation zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area between two adjacent horizontal or vertical areas into which units are not to proceed unless certain safety measures can be fulfilled.

sequence circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a circuit which requires actuation by a predetermined sequence of influences of predetermined magnitudes.

sequenced ejection system. See ejection systems.

sequel. Major operations that follow an initial major operation. Plans for sequels are based on the possible outcome — victory, stalemate, or defeat — of the current operation.

sequence. Two or more frames forming one visual unit (e.g., motion sequence, still-frame sequence).

sequencing. [TR 350-70] In training design, the proper ordering of instruction which allows the student to make the transition from one skill or body of knowledge to another and assures that supporting skills and knowledge are acquired before dependent performances are introduced.

sequential color with memory (SECAM). The color TV standard (Sequential Couleur A Memorie (SECAM)) developed by France, and subsequently adopted by the former USSR and its former satellite states, and in some parts of the Middle East and North Africa. It involves sending the three primary color signals sequentially, rather than nearly simultaneously (as the NTSC and PAL systems do).

sequential training. [TR 350-70] The ordering of training so that the learning of new or more complex skills/ knowledge is built on and reinforces previously learned material. See sequencing.

Sergeant. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile, inertially guided, solid-propellant, surface-to-surface missile, with nuclear warhead capability, designed to attack targets up to a range of 75 nautical miles. Designated as MGM-29A.

serial. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The sequential transmission of information, unit by unit, on a single channel. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) An element or a group of elements within a series which is given a numerical or alphabetical designation for convenience in planning, scheduling, and control.

serial assignment table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A table that is used in amphibious operations and shows the serial number, the title of the unit, the approximate number of personnel; the material, vehicles, or equipment in the serial; the number and type of landing craft and/or amphibious vehicles required to boat the serial; and the ship on which the serial is embarked.

seriously ill or injured (SII). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The casualty status of a person whose illness or injury is classified by medical authority to be of such severity that there is cause for immediate concern, but there is not imminent danger to life. See also casualty status.

seriously wounded. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A stretcher case. See also wounded.

service acquisition executive (SAE). See DoD Component acquisition executive.

service ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Ammunition intended for combat, rather than for training purposes.

Service component command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command consisting of the Service component commander and all those Service forces, such as individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations under the command, including the support forces that have been assigned to a combatant command, or further assigned to a subordinate unified command or joint task force. See also component; functional component command.

Service component command chaplain. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or designated by, the Service component commander. The component command chaplain is responsible for supervising and coordinating religious ministries within the purview of the component commander and may be supported by a staff of chaplains and enlisted religious support personnel. See also command chaplain; command chaplain of the combatant command; lay leader or lay reader; religious ministry support; religious ministry support plan; religious ministry support team.

service component commander. A service component command consists of those individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations of a single service that has been assigned to the unified command. The service component commander is the senior officer assigned to a unified command and qualified for command by the regulations of that service. His assignment is subject to the concurrence of the commander in chief. The service commander is responsible for all aspects of his force, to include logistics within the unified command.

service contract. [DSMC] One which calls directly for a contractor's time and effort rather than for a concrete end product.

service deployment plans and fielding plans. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Plans that describe the evolution from current capabilities to the full operational capability for new or modified C4I programs. Included are fielding schedules, plans, locations, and associated time-phased interoperability capabilities and requirements with current and planned systems of other DoD components or allies.

service environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All external conditions, whether natural or induced, to which items of materiel are likely to be subjected throughout their life cycle.

service force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A naval task organization that performs missions for the logistic support of operations.

service group. 1A segregated set of commands that relate to a specific functional area. For example, the videodisk service group contains commands for controlling videodisk players. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A major naval administration and/or tactical organization, consisting of the commander and the staff, designed to exercise operational control and administrative command of assigned squadrons and units in executing their tasks of providing logistic support of fleet operations.

service life. [DSMC] Quantifies the average or mean life of the item. There is no general formula for the computation. Often refers to the mean life between overhauls, the mandatory replacement time, or the total usefulness of the item in respect to the weapon it supports; that is, from first inception of the weapon until final phaseout.

service life extension program (SLEP). [DSMC] Modification(s) to fielded systems undertaken to extend the life of the system beyond what was previously planned.

service mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine capable of a destructive explosion.

service supplement. [DSMC] Information, instructions, or lists of items of supply applicable only to one military service.

service squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An administrative and/or tactical subdivision of a naval service force or service group, consisting of the commander and the staff, organized to exercise operational control and administrative command of assigned units in providing logistic support of fleet units as directed.

service test. JP 1-02] (DoD) A test of an item, system of materiel, or technique conducted under simulated or actual operational conditions to determine whether the specified military requirements or characteristics are satisfied. See also troop test.

service troops. JP 1-02] (DoD) Those units designed to render supply, maintenance, transportation, evacuation, hospitalization, and other services required by air and ground combat units to carry out effectively their mission in combat. See also combat service support elements; troops.

Service-unique container. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container procured or leased by a Service to meet Service-unique requirements. Also called component-owned container. See also common-use container; component-owned container.

Service-unique transportation assets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Transportation assets that are:

l Assigned to a Military Department for functions of the Secretaries of the Military Departments set forth in Sections 3013(b), 5013(b), and 8013(b) of Title 10 of the United States Code, including administrative functions (such as motor pools), intelligence functions, training functions, and maintenance functions;

l Assigned to the Department of the Army for the execution of the missions of the Army Corps of Engineers;

l Assigned to the Department of the Navy as the special mission support force of missile range instrumentation ships, ocean survey ships, cable ships, oceanographic research ships, acoustic research ships, and naval test support ships; the naval fleet auxiliary force of fleet ammunition ships, fleet stores ships, fleet ocean tugs, and fleet oilers; hospital ships; Marine Corps intermediate maintenance activity ships, Marine Corps helicopter support to senior Federal officials; and, prior to the complete discharge of cargo, maritime prepositioning ships;

l Assigned to the Department of the Air 28.*0- for search and rescue, weather reconnaissance, audiovisual services, and aeromedical evacuation functions, and transportation of senior Federal officials.

serviceability. [DSMC] A measure of the degree to which servicing of an item will be accomplished within a given time under specified conditions.

servicing. See common servicing; cross-servicing; joint servicing. See also inter-service support.

servo control. A device that converts a small mechanical force into a larger one; particularly in a control mechanism.

setup. [DSMC] Making ready or preparing for the performance of a job operation. It included the tear down to return the machine or work area it its original or normal condition.

setup time. [DSMC] The time required to arrange locating fixtures and equipment in order to begin productive work, including adjustments and takedown of the original setup.

severe damage. See nuclear damage.

severity. [TR 350-70] The expected consequence of an event in terms of degree of injury, property damage, or other mission-impairing factors (loss of combat power, adverse publicity, and so on) that could occur. (FM 101-5-1).

shaded relief. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A cartographic technique that provides an apparent three-dimensional configuration of the terrain on maps and charts by the use of graded shadows that would be cast by high ground if light were shining from the northwest. Shaded relief is usually used in combination with contours. See also hill shading.

shadow. See trailer aircraft.

Shadow. Sikorsky Helicopter Advanced Demonstrator of Operator Workload. An S-76 was modified with a single cockpit in front of the normal one.

shallow fording. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ability of a self-propelled gun or ground vehicle equipped with built-in waterproofing, with its wheels or tracks in contact with the ground, to negotiate a water obstacle without the use of a special waterproofing kit. See also deep fording; flotation.

shaped charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A charge shaped so as to concentrate its explosive force in a particular direction.

shaping. [TR 350-70] The process of gradually changing a student's behavior until it conforms to the desired behavior.

Shared Product Program. Department of Defense Intelligence Production Conference (DoDIPC) program that provides activities, responsibilities, and accountability among national, service, and theater production centers, less National Security Agency and Defense Mapping Agency, based on traditional roles as specified in Title X, the Unified Command Plan (UCP), and national-level military intelligence requirements forums. Replaces distributed production program, DPP.

shared task. See task.

sheaf. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In artillery and naval gunfire support, planned planes (lines) of fire that produce a desired pattern of bursts with rounds fired by two or more weapons.

shear link assembly. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device designed to break at a specified mechanical load.

sheet explosive. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Plastic explosive provided in a sheet form.

sheetlines. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those lines defining the geographic limits of the map or chart detail.

shelf life. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The length of time during which an item of supply, subject to deterioration or having a limited life which cannot be renewed, is considered serviceable while stored. See also storage life. 2[DSMC] The expected length of time in inventory (use) for a system, component, or subassembly.

shell (specify). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A command or request indicating the type of projectile to be used.

shelling report. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any report of enemy shelling containing information on caliber, direction, time, density and area shelled.

shelter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An International Organization for Standardization container outfitted with live- or work-in capability. See also International Organization for Standardization.

shielding. 1Protective covering that eliminates electro-magnetic and radio frequency interference. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Material of suitable thickness and physical characteristics used to protect personnel from radiation during the manufacture, handling, and transportation of fissionable and radioactive materials.

l Obstructions which tend to protect personnel or materials from the effects of a nuclear explosion.

shifting fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fire delivered at constant range at varying deflections; used to cover the width of a target that is too great to be covered by an open sheaf.

Shillelagh. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A missile system mounted on the main battle tank and assault reconnaissance vehicle for employment against enemy armor, troops, and field fortifications. Designated as MGM-51.

ship combat readiness. See combat ready.

ship counter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)In naval mine warfare, a device in a mine which prevents the mine from detonating until a preset number of actuations has taken place.

ship haven. See moving havens.

ship influence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the magnetic, acoustic and pressure effects of a ship, or a minesweep simulating a ship, which is detectable by a mine or other sensing devices.

ship will adjust. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In naval gunfire support, a method of control in which the ship can see the target and, with the concurrence of the spotter, will adjust.

ship-to-shore movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That portion of the assault phase of an amphibious operation which includes the deployment of the landing force from the assault shipping to designated landing areas.

shipping control. See naval control of shipping.

shipping designator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code word assigned to a particular overseas base, port, or area, for specific use as an address on shipments to the overseas location concerned. The code word is usually four letters and may be followed by a number to indicate a particular addressee.

shipping lane. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A term used to indicate the general flow of merchant shipping between two departure/terminal areas.

shipping time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time elapsing between the shipment of materiel by the supplying activity and receipt of materiel by the requiring activity. See also order and shipping time.

shoal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sandbank or bar that makes water shoal; i.e., a sand-bank that is not rocky and on which there is a water depth of 6 fathoms or less.

shock front. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The boundary between the pressure disturbance created by an explosion (in air, water, or earth) and the ambient atmosphere, water, or earth.

shock wave. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The continuously propagated pressure pulse formed by the blast from an explosion in air, under water or under ground. See also blast wave.

shoran. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A precise short-range electronic navigation system which uses the time of travel of pulse-type transmission from two or more fixed stations to measure slant-range distance from the stations. Also, in conjunction with a suitable computer, used in precision bombing. (This term is derived from the words short-range navigation.)

shore fire control party. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specially trained unit for control of naval gunfire in support of troops ashore. It consists of a spotting team to adjust fire and a naval gunfire liaison team to perform liaison functions for the supported battalion commander.

shore party. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A task organization of the landing force, formed for the purpose of facilitating the landing and movement off the beaches of troops, equipment, and supplies; for the evacuation from the beaches of casualties and enemy prisoners of war; and for facilitating the beaching, retraction, and salvaging of landing ships and craft. It comprises elements of both the naval and landing forces. Also called beach group. See also beachmaster unit; beach party; naval beach group.

shore-to-shore movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The assault movement of personnel and materiel directly from a shore staging area to the objective, involving no further transfers between types of craft or ships incident to the assault movement.

shoreline effect. See coastal refraction.

short. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, used by an observer to indicate that a burst(s) occurred short of the target in relation to the spotting line.

short round. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The unintentional or inadvertent delivery of ordnance on friendly troops, installations, or civilians by a friendly weapon system.

l A defective cartridge in which the projectile has been seated too deeply.

short scope buoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A buoy used as a navigational reference which remains nearly vertical over its sinker.

short supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item is in short supply when the total of stock on hand and anticipated receipts during a given period are less than the total estimated demand during that period.

short takeoff and landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ability of an aircraft to clear a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle within 1,500 feet (500 meters) of commencing takeoff or in landing, to stop within 1,500 feet (500 meters) after passing over a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle.

short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft (STOVL). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fixed-wing aircraft capable of clearing a 15-meter (50-foot) obstacle within 450 meters (1500 feet) of commencing takeoff run, and capable of landing vertically. See also short takeoff and landing; vertical and/or short takeoff and landing; vertical takeoff and landing.

short title. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A short, identifying combination of letters, and/or numbers assigned to a document or device for purposes of brevity and/or security.

short ton (S/T or STON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) 2,000 pounds.

short-range air defense engagement zone. See weapon engagement zone.

short-range attack missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-to-surface missile, armed with a nuclear warhead, launched from the B-52 and the FB-111 aircraft. The missile range, speed, and accuracy allow the carrier aircraft to standoff from its intended targets and launch missiles outside enemy defenses. Designated as AGM-69.

short-range ballistic missile(SRBM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ballistic missile with a range capability up to about 600 nautical miles.

short-range time period. When discussing budget, this normally refers to the current and budget years.

short-range training strategies. See training strategy.

short-range transport aircraft. See transport aircraft.

shortfall. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lack of forces, equipment, personnel, materiel, or capability, reflected as the difference between the resources identified as a plan requirement and those apportioned to a combatant commander for planning, that would adversely affect the command's ability to accomplish its mission.

shot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a report that indicates a gun, or guns, have been fired. See also rounds complete.

shot list. A list that specifies the video segments (e.g., video sequences and still shots) and sound tracks that will be produced, including instructions about the interface with the following shot. Shot lists are organized in a way to save production time. They are usually compiled from the storyboards. Identical to production list.

shot sequence. A term that identifies the order in which the video will be shot.

shot sheet. A list of every shot a particular camera has to take.

should-cost estimate. [DSMC] An estimate of contract price which reflects reasonably achievable contractor economy and efficiency. It is accomplished by a government team of procurement, contract administration, audit and engineering representatives performing an in-depth cost analysis at the contractor's and subcontractor's plants. It's purpose is to develop a realistic price objective for negotiation purposes.

show of force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation, designed to demonstrate US resolve, which involves increased visibility of United States deployed forces in an attempt to defuse a specific situation, that if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to United States interests or national objectives.

show stopper. [DSMC] An event or condition serious enough to halt or severely damage a program unless confronted and eliminated.

Shrike. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-launched antiradiation missile designed to home on and destroy radar emitters. Designated as AGM-45.

shuttered fuse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fuse in which inadvertent initiation of the detonator will not initiate either the booster or the burst charge. See also fuse.

shuttle bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Bombing of objectives using two bases. By this method, a bomber formation bombs its target, flies on to its second base, reloads, and returns to its home base, again bombing a target if required.

sick. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Equipment indicated is operating at reduced efficiency."

side looking airborne radar(SLAR). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airborne radar, viewing at right angles to the axis of the vehicle, which produces a presentation of terrain or moving targets.

side oblique air photograph. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An oblique photograph taken with the camera axis at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

side overlap. See overlap.

sidelay. Device on the feed board of a printing machine for controlling the lateral alignment of the printing paper.

side-looking airborne (modulated) multi-mission radar (SLAMMR). Radar fitted to a maritime surveillance version of the Boeing 737.

Sidewinder. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A solid-propellant, air-to-air missile with non-nuclear warhead and infrared, heat-seeking homer. Designated as AIM-9. The ground-to-air version is designated as Chaparral (MIM-72).

sighting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Actual visual contact. Does not include other contacts, which must be reported by type, e.g., radar and sonar contacts. See also contact report.

SIGINT direct service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A reporting procedure to provide signals intelligence (SIGINT) to a military commander or other authorized recipient in response to SIGINT requirements. The product may vary from recurring, serialized reports produced by the National Security Agency/Central Security Service to instantaneous aperiodic reports provided to the command or other recipient, usually from a fixed SIGINT activity engaged in collection and processing. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT direct service activity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A signals intelligence (SIGINT) activity composed of collection and associated resources that normally performs in a direct service role under the SIGINT operational control of the Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT direct support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The provision of signals intelligence (SIGINT) information to a military commander by a SIGINT direct support unit in response to SIGINT operational tasking levied by that commander. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT direct support unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A signals intelligence (SIGINT) unit, usually mobile, designed to perform a SIGINT direct support role for a military commander under delegated authority from the Director, National Security Agency/ Chief, Central Security Service. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT operational control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The authoritative direction of signals intelligence (SIGINT) activities, including tasking and allocation of effort, and the authoritative prescription of those uniform techniques and standards by which SIGINT information is collected, processed, and reported. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT operational tasking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The authoritative operational direction of and direct levying of signals intelligence (SIGINT) information needs by a military commander on designated SIGINT resources. These requirements are directive, irrespective of other priorities, and are conditioned only by the capability of those resources to produce such information. Operational tasking includes authority to deploy all or part of the SIGINT resources for which SIGINT operational tasking authority has been delegated. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT operational tasking authority (SOTA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military commander's authority to operationally direct and levy signals intelligence (SIGINT) requirements on designated SIGINT resources; includes authority to deploy and redeploy all or part of the SIGINT resources for which SIGINT operational tasking authority has been delegated. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT resources. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel and equipment of any unit, activity, or organizational element engaged in signals intelligence (SIGINT) activities. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT support plans. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Plans prepared by the National Security Agency/Central Security Service, in coordination with concerned elements of the United States SIGINT system, which specify how the resources of the system will be aligned in crisis or war to support military operations covered by certain JCS and unified and specified command operation plans. See also signals intelligence.

sign up. [DSMC] To Agree to, authorize, or permit to proceed on a proposal, document or program. See chop.

signal. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l As applied to electronics, any transmitted electrical impulse.

l Operationally, a type of message, the text of which consists of one or more letters, words, characters, signal flags, visual displays, or special sounds with prearranged meaning, and which is conveyed or transmitted by visual, acoustical, or electrical means.

signal center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A combination of signal communication facilities operated by the Army in the field and consisting of a communications center, telephone switching central and appropriate means of signal communications. See also communications center.

signal letters. See international call sign.

signal operation instructions. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a command. In Marine Corps usage, these instructions are designated communication operation instructions.

signal security. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A generic term that includes both communications security and electronics security. See also security.

signal-to-noise ratio. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time.

signals intelligence (SIGINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A category of intelligence comprising either individually or in combination all communications intelligence, electronics intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted.

l Intelligence derived from communications, electronics, and foreign instrumentation signals.

See also communications intelligence; electronics intelligence; intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence.

signals security (SIGSEC). A generic term that includes both communications security and electronics security. See also security.

signature. The identification of a military unit or activity resulting from the unique and detectable visual, imagery, electromagnetic, olfactory, or acoustical display of key equipment normally associated with that type unit or activity.

signature equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any item of equipment which reveals the type and nature of the unit or formation to which it belongs.

signed route. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A route along which a unit has placed directional signs bearing its unit identification symbol. The signs are for the unit's use only and must comply with movement regulations.

significant track. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, the track of an aircraft or missile which behaves in an unusual manner which warrants attention and could pose a threat to a defended area.

significant wave height. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The average height of the third of waves observed during a given period of time. Significant wave height is used for evaluating the impact of waves and breakers on watercraft in the open sea and surf zones. See also surf zone.

Silver Triangle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The South American region consisting of Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia that is historically known to be a major illegal drug production area.

simplified acquisition procedures. Simplified acquisition procedures are the methods prescribed in the FAR, Part 13, for making purchases of supplies or services.

simplified acquisition threshold. Simplified acquisition threshold means $100,000, except that in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States in support of a contingency operation (as defined in 10 U.S.C. 101(a)(13)) or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation (as defined in 10 U.S.C. 2302(7) and 41 U.S.C. 259(d)), the term means $200,000.

simulated performance. Interaction between the student and the computer whereby the student selects the correct procedure to achieve a stated objective or result in a simulated real-world situation.

simulation. 1[DSMC] A simulation is a method for implementing a model. It is the process of conducting experiments with a model for the purpose of understanding the behavior of the system modeled under selected conditions or of evaluating various strategies for the operation of the system within the limits imposed by developmental or operational criteria. Simulation may include the use of analog or digital devices, laboratory models, or "testbed" sites. Simulations are usually programmed for solution on a computer; however, in the broadest sense, military exercises, and wargames are also simulations. 2[TR 350-70]

l A method for implementing a model(s) over time.

l Any representation or imitation of reality, to include environment, facilities, equipment, mechanical and maneuver operations, motion, role playing, leadership, etc. It is the representation of salient features, operation, or environment of a system, subsystem, or scenario.

simulation fidelity. The degree of correspondence of an aspect(s) or element(s) of the model embedded in a trainer to those analogous characteristics of reality.

simulation sequence. A video production term that identifies the order in which the video will be presented to the student in the interactive courseware.

simulation/stimulation. A hybrid process where the training system may stimulate part or all of the system and simulates the remainder of the system and the environment.

simulative electromagnetic deception. See electromagnetic deception.

simulator. 1[TR 350-70]

l A device, computer program, or system that performs simulation.

l For training, a device which duplicates the essential features of a task situation and provides for direct practices.

l A physical model or simulation of a weapons system, set of weapons systems, or piece of equipment which endeavors to replicate some major aspect of the equipment’s operation.

2[DSMC] A generic term used to describe equipment used to represent weapon systems in development testing, operational testing, and training, e.g., a threat simulator has one or more characteristics which, when detected by human senses or man-made sensors, provide the appearance of an actual threat weapon system with a prescribed degree of fidelity.

simulator software. The computer programs necessary to enable the training device to perform the various functions. Simulator software includes all real-time programs necessary for student operation as a training device, diagnostic or other maintenance or support programs, debug, or software development tools to be used in correction of errors in the present programs or in future modifications. All other programs or material necessary to recreate, copy, maintain, support, and update any of the simulation software as well as any other applicable software or software procedures developed or produced during the period of the contract shall also be included. All computer vendor programs and commercially marketed programs as well as those programs developed, modified, or otherwise produced or provided by the manufacturer and the documentation are included in the simulator software.

simultaneous engagement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The concurrent engagement of hostile targets by combination of interceptor aircraft and surface-to-air missiles.

simultaneous operations. Two or more campaigns and complementary operations or activities within those campaigns occurring concurrently within the same theater.

single anchor leg moor (SALM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mooring facility dedicated to the offshore petroleum discharge system. Once installed, it permits a tanker to remain on station and pump in much higher sea states than is possible with a spread moor. See also offshore petroleum discharge system.

single department purchase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of purchase whereby one Military Department buys commodities for another Military Department or Departments. See also purchase.

single flow route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A route at least one-and-a-half lanes wide allowing the passage of a column of vehicles, and permitting isolated vehicles to pass or travel in the opposite direction at predetermined points. See also limited access route; double flow route.

single manager. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military department or agency designated by the Secretary of Defense to be responsible for management of specified commodities or common service activities on a Department of Defense-wide basis.

single manager for transportation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The United States Transportation Command is the Department of Defense single manager for transportation, other than Service-unique or theater-assigned transportation assets. See also Service-unique transportation assets; theater-assigned transportation assets; United States Transportation Command.

single port manager (SPM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) US Transportation Command, through its transporation component command, Military Traffic Management Command, is designated as the single port manager for all common-user seaports world-wide. The single port manager performs those functions necessary to support the strategic flow of the deploying forces' equipment and sustainment supply in the sealift port of embarkation and hand-off to the geographic commander in chief (CINC) in the sealift port of debarkation (SPOD). The single port manager is responsible for providing strategic deployment status information to the CINC and to workload the SPOD Port Operator base on the CINC's priorities and guidance. The single port manager is responsible through all phases of the theater port operations continuum, from a bare beach deployment to a commercial contract supported deployment. See also Military Traffic Management Command; transportation component command; United States Transportation Command.

single process initiative (SPI). [DSMC] The process for making block changes to existing contracts to replace multiple government-unique manufacturing and management systems with common facility-wide systems so as to unify the manufacturing and management requirements of these contracts on a facility-wide basis.

single-service manager. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A component commander, designated by the combatant commander, who has been assigned responsibility and delegated the authority to coordinate specific theater personnel support activities such as theater postal operations. See also component.

single-spot ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those ships certified to have less than three adjacent landing areas. See also spot.

sinker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a heavy weight to which a buoyant mine is moored. The sinker generally houses the mooring rope drum and depth-setting mechanism and for mines laid by ships, it also serves as a launching trolley.

site coordinator. [TR 350-70] The site coordinator manages and operates the equipment in the VTT suite. The site coordinator may be trained to function also as remote site facilitator.

situation assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Assessment produced by combining military geography, weather, and threat data to provide a comprehensive projection of the situation for the decision maker. See also assessment.

situation map. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A map showing the tactical or the administrative situation at a particular time. See also map.

situation report. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A report giving the situation in the area of a reporting unit or formation.

situational awareness. [TP 525-5] Ability to have accurate and real-time information of friendly, enemy, neutral, and noncombatant locations; a common, relevant picture of the battlefield scaled to specific level of interest and special needs.

situational training exercise (STX). [TR 350-70] Mission-related, limited exercises designed to train one collective task or a group of related tasks and drills through practice. STXs teach the standard, preferred method for carrying out the task. They are more flexible than drills and usually include drills, leader tasks, and soldier tasks. STXs may be modified based on the unit METL or expanded to meet special mission requirements. To ensure standardization, service schools develop STXs to teach the doctrinally preferred way to perform specific missions or tasks. (FM 25-101) See exercise.

skill. [TR 350-70] The ability to perform a job related activity that contributes to the effective performance of a task performance step.

skill level. 1[TRADOC] Identifies task proficiency or ability typically required for successful performance at the grade with which the skill level is associated. The skill levels, by grade, are shown below:

Skill levels

1

2

3

4

5

.

Enlisted

1/2

3/4

5

6

7

8/9

Warrant

1/2

3


4

5


Officer

1/2

3

4

5

6


2[DoD] A list of proficiency requirements for performance of a specific job, and the level of proficiency at which an individual qualifies in that occupational specialty/grade.

skill retention model. A model which provides a numerical score for an individual task used in predicting retention on that task. Of value for determining sustainment training requirements.

skills profiles. Concise listings of skills currently taught in a course.

skills transfer. An ability acquired for the performance of a task that may be used in the performance of a different task.

skim sweeping. JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the technique of wire sweeping to a fixed depth over deep-laid moored mines to cut any shallow enough to endanger surface shipping.

skin paint. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A radar indication caused by the reflected radar signal from an object.

skin tracking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The tracking of an object by means of a skin paint.

skip bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of aerial bombing in which a bomb is released from such a low altitude that it slides or glances along the surface of the water or ground and strikes the target at or above water level or ground level. See also minimum-altitude bombing.

skip it. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Do not attack"; "Cease attack"; "Cease interception."

skunkworks. [DSMC] A separate program management operation established to operate outside the normal process, either to expedite development or because of high security classification.

Skyhawk. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single-engine, turbojet attack aircraft designed to operate from aircraft carriers, and capable of delivering nuclear and/or non-nuclear weapons, providing troop support, or conducting reconnaissance missions. It can act as a tanker, and can itself be air refueled. It possesses a limited all-weather attack capability, and can operate from short, unprepared fields. Designated as A-4.

slant range. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The line of sight distance between two points, not at the same level relative to a specific datum.

slated items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Bulk petroleum and packaged bulk petroleum items that are requisitioned for overseas use by means of a consolidated requirement document, prepared and submitted through joint petroleum office channels. Packaged petroleum items are requisitioned in accordance with normal requisitioning procedures.

slice. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An average logistic planning factor used to obtain estimates of requirements for personnel and materiel. A personnel slice, e.g., generally consists of the total strength of the stated basic combatant elements, plus its proportionate share of all supporting and higher headquarters personnel.

slide-tape. A combination of visual slides and an audio tape synchronized so that the audio describes the content of the slides.

slightly wounded. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A casualty that is a sitting or a walking case. See also wounded.

slip indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays a measure of the resultant of the inertial and gravity forces in the lateral and normal plane of aircraft.

slow burning explosive (SBX). Bomb based on the use of dust explosions, found to be more effective against buildings than conventional explosives. A WWII development that did not become operational.

Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (SADBU). [DSMC] Program A program which embraces prime contracts, set-aside contracts, subcontracting, small disadvantaged business, women-owned small business, procurement technical assistance program, American Indian Program, National Industries for the Blind, National Industries for the Severely Handicapped, Puerto Rico Initiative, outreach programs and the Small Business Innovation Research Program.

small arms. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Man portable, individual, and crew-served weapon systems used mainly against personnel and lightly armored or unarmored equipment.

small arms ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Ammunition for small arms, i.e., all ammunition up to and including 20 millimeters (.787 inches).

small austere airfield (SAAF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Unsophisticated airfield, usually with a short runway, that is limited in one or a combination of the following: taxiway systems, ramp space, security, materials handling equipment, aircraft servicing, maintenance, navigation aids, weather observing sensors, and communications. See also airfield.

small group instruction (SGI). [TR 350-70] A means of delivering training which places the responsibility for leaning on the soldier through participation in small groups led by small group leaders who serve as role models throughout the course. SGI uses small group processes, methods, and techniques to stimulate learning.

small group leader (SGL). An instructor who facilitates role modeling, counseling, coaching, learning, and team building in SGI.

small group trial. [TR 350-70] In training development, the determination of the effectiveness of lesson material based on performance of a small representative sample (three to five) of soldiers from the target population.

small purchase. [DSMC] A purchase for no more than $100,000.

small-lot storage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Generally considered to be a quantity of less than one pallet stack, stacked to maximum storage height. Thus, the term refers to a lot consisting of from one container to two or more pallet loads, but is not of sufficient quantity to form a complete pallet column. See also storage.

small-scale map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map having a scale smaller than 1:600,000. See also map.

smart munitions. [DSMC] Munitions which think for themselves and have self-contained ability to search, detect, acquire, and engage targets. They will be delivered to target areas by guns, rockets or missiles, primarily aircraft with the carriers, (platforms) delivering from one to a multitude, and can perform new battlefield missions.

smart pull. [TP 525-75] Enables units to automatically access intelligence products and data bases electronically based upon their specific requirements.

smart push. [TP 525-75] Automatically provides intelligence to units based upon their stated requirements.

SMMP joint working group. Commonly referred to as the MANPRINT joint working group (MJWG), this organization manages MANPRINT issues during the materiel acquisition process. The MJWG also provides oversight to ensure accomplishment of the MANPRINT process.

smoke screen. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Cloud of smoke used to mask either friendly or enemy installations or maneuvers.

snagline mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A contact mine with a buoyant line attached to one of the horns or switches which may be caught up and pulled by the hull or propellers of a ship.

snap report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See joint tactical air reconnaissance/surveillance mission report.

snow. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning sweep jamming.

Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) Time Code. A standard SMPTE method of address-coding a videotape that gives an accurate frame count, retaining all frame numbers in a chronological order, rather than an accurate clock time. Also see time code. See full-frame time code. Also called nondrop frame time code.

sofar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The technique of fixing an explosion at sea by time difference of arrival of sound energy at several separate geographical locations. (The term is derived from the words sound, fixing, and ranging.)

soft data. [TR 350-70] Data obtained with test instruments having low reliability, such as attitude and opinion surveys. See hard data.

soft missile base. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A launching base that is not protected against a nuclear explosion.

soft skills. Skills needed to perform jobs where job requirements are defined in terms of expected outcomes, but the process(es) to achieve the outcomes may vary widely. Usually, an area of performance that does not have a definite beginning and end (i.e., counseling, supervising, and managing).

software. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system, e.g., compilers, library routines, manuals, and circuit diagrams. See computer software.

software development plan (SDP). [DSMC] A management plan usually generated by the developer outlining the software development effort.

software domain. [DSMC] A distinct functional area that can be supported by a class of software systems with similar requirements and capabilities. A domain may exist before there are software systems to support it.

software failure. [DSMC] The inability, due to a fault in the software, to perform an intended logical operation in the presence of the specified/data environment.

software logistics. [DSMC] See software support.

software maintainability. [DSMC] The probability that the software can be retained in or restored to a specified status in a prescribed period compatible with mission requirements.

software reliability. [DSMC] The probability that the required software will perform the intended logical operations for the prescribed mission(s) and periods(s) in the specified data/environment, without failure.

software reuse. [DSMC] The process of implementing or updating software systems using existing software assets.

software support. The sum of all activities that take place to ensure that implemented and fielded software continues to fully support the operational mission of the system. Software support includes predeployment software support and post-deployment software support.

software-intensive system. [DSMC] A system in which software represents the largest segment in one or more of the following criteria: system development cost, system development risk, system functionality, or development time.

soil shear strength. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum resistance of a soil to shearing stresses.

soldier requirements. [TP 71-9] Changes or additions to the Army’s MOS structure. These range from changes in the numbers of soldiers needed in an MOS to creation of an entirely new MOS and identifying the skills desired of these soldiers.

soldier survivability (MANPRINT domain). The design characteristics or operational requirements of a system that: reduce detectability by the enemy; reduce fratricide; facilitate cover and concealment; minimize likelihood and extent of injuries if engaged; and minimize physical and mental fatigue (a design concern shared with human factors engineering).

soldier survivability domain assessment. A report which addresses the system's ability to reduce fratricide, detectability, and probability of being attacked, as well as minimize system damage, soldier injury, and cognitive and physical fatigue. ARL-SLAD prepares this report.

soldier training publications (STP). [TR 350-70] Publications that contain critical tasks and other training information used to train soldiers. They serve to standardize individual training for the whole Army; provide information and guidance in conducting individual training in the unit; and aid the soldier, officer, noncommissioned officer (NCO), and commander in training critical tasks. They consist of SMs, SM/TGs, MQS/OFS manuals.

soldier-machine interface (SMI). [DSMC] Considerations through system analysis and psychophysiology of equipment designs and operational concepts to ensure they are compatible with capabilities and limitations of operators and maintainers. SMI is also called soldier-materiel interface and soldier-machine interaction. SMI is included in MANPRINT. See man-machine interface.

soldier's manual (SM). [TR 350-70] ADTLP publications that contain critical tasks and other training information used to train soldiers and serve to standardize individual training for the whole Army; provide information and guidance in conducting individual training in the unit; and aid the soldier, officer, noncommissioned officer (NCO), and commander in training critical tasks. They consist of SMs and SM/TGs.

Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks (SMCT). [TR 350-70] A document which contains the critical tasks which every soldier must be able to perform in order to fight and win on the battlefield. It provides the conditions, standards, and performance measures for each common soldier critical task.

soldierization. [TR 350-70] The process by which an initial entry soldier's appearance, behavior, values, attitudes, and standards become consistent with those of the Army. The individual gains the degree of technical competency necessary to make a meaningful contribution to the organization's efforts to meet collective goals and objectives.

sole source acquisition. [DSMC] A contract for the purchase of supplies or services that is entered into or proposed to be entered into by an agency after soliciting and negotiating with only one source.

solenoid sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a magnetic sweep consisting of a horizontal axis coil wound on a floating iron tube.

solicitation. A formal [U.S.] Government request for proposals or information to satisfy a stated need. See request for proposal and request for information.

solicitation document. [TR 350-70] The solicitation document describes the requirement of the Government clearly, accurately, and completely, to include terms and conditions of the procurement action. There are two main types of solicitation documentation - invitation for bid and request for proposal.

solid propellant, advanced ramjet, kinetic energy (SPARK). A small anti-tank missile with a solid, non-explosive penetrator warhead and a sold-fueled ramjet engine, and a projected speed of Mach 6.

sonar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sonic device used primarily for the detection and location of underwater objects. (This term is derived from the words sound, navigation, and ranging.)

sonic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of or pertaining to sound or the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

sonobuoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sonar device used to detect submerged submarines which when activated relays information by radio. It may be active directional or nondirectional, or it may be passive directional or nondirectional.

sortie. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air operations, an operational flight by one aircraft.

sortie allotment message (SORTIEALOT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The means by which the joint force commander allots excess sorties to meet requirements of his subordinate commanders which are expressed in their air employment/allocation plan.

sortie number. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A reference used to identify the images taken by all the sensors during one air reconnaissance sortie.

sortie plot. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An overlay representing the area on a map covered by imagery taken during one sortie.

sortie reference. See sortie number.

sorting. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l See triage.

l In counterdrug operations, the process involved in differentiating traffic which could be involved in drug trafficking from legitimate air traffic. Initial sorting criteria are established jointly by the US Coast Guard and US Customs Service, coordinated with Department of Defense counterparts, and disseminated as required. See also counterdrug operations.

source. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A person, thing, or activity from which intelligence information is obtained.

l In clandestine activities, a person (agent), normally a foreign national, in the employ of an intelligence activity for intelligence purposes.

l In interrogation activities, any person who furnishes intelligence information, either with or without the knowledge that the information is being used for intelligence purposes. In this context, a controlled source is in the employment or under the control of the intelligence activity and knows that the information is to be used for intelligence purposes. An uncontrolled source is a voluntary contributor of information and may or may not know that the information is to be used for intelligence purposes. See also agent; collection agency.

source document. A document listed in the Acquisition Management System and Data Requirements Control List (AMSDL) and Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DoDISS) that is applied in a solicitation or contract and establishes a data requirement which requires a Data Item Description to define the preparation requirements for data content and format.

source file. The file created from grouped source code.

source selection. [DSMC] The process wherein the requirements, facts, recommendations, and government policy relevant to an award decision in a competitive procurement of a system/project are examined and the decision made.

source selection advisory council (SSAC). [DSMC] Senior military or government civilian personnel designated by the source selection authority (SSA) to serve as staff and advisors during the source selection process. The SSA usually delegates the following duties to the SSAC — selecting/approving the source selection evaluation board membership, reviewing the evaluation criteria, and weighing these criteria.

source selection authority (SSA). [DSMC] The official designated to direct the source selection process, approve the selection plan, select the source(s), and announce contract award.

source selection board (SSB). The SSB reviews contractor proposals to determine if they satisfy the SPEC(s) and SOW.

source selection evaluation/source selection process (SSE/SSP). The process wherein the requirements, facts, recommendations, and [U.S.] Government policy relevant to an award decision in a competitive procurement of the system/project are examined and the decision made.

source selection evaluation board (SSEB). [DSMC] A group of military and/or government civilian personnel, represents functional and technical disciplines. The board is charged with evaluating proposals and developing summary facts and findings during source selection.

source selection plan (SSP). [DSMC] Proper planning in source selection is essential to assure fairness and timely selection of the most realistic proposal. Preliminary planning activities include preparation of the acquisition plan, draft request for proposal (RFP), and formal RFP, as well as the SSP. The SSP is written by the program office and approved by the source selection authority. Typically, the SSP consists of two parts. The first part describes the organization and responsibilities of the source selection team. The second part identifies the evaluation criteria and detailed procedures for proposal evaluation.

space assignment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An assignment to the individual departments/services by the appropriate transportation operating agency of movement capability which completely or partially satisfies the stated requirements of the departments/services for the operating month and that has been accepted by them without the necessity for referral to the Joint Transportation Board for allocation.

space cargo modified (SCM). Two C-5As, modified to carry Space Shuttle payloads. Officially designated C-5Cs.

space control operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations that provide freedom of action in space for friendly forces while, when directed, denying it to an enemy, and include the broad aspects of protection of U.S. and U.S. allied space systems and negation of enemy space systems. Space control operations encompass all elements of the space defense mission.

space defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy vehicles (including missiles) while in space, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. See also aerospace defense.

space environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The region beginning at the lower boundary of the Earth's ionosphere (approximately 50 km) and extending outward which contains solid particles (asteroids and meteoroids), energetic charged particles (ions, protons, electrons, etc.), and electromagnetic and ionizing radiation (x-rays, extreme ultraviolet, gamma rays, etc.). See also ionosphere.

space support operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations required to ensure that space control and support of terrestrial forces are maintained. They include activities such as launching and deploying space vehicles, maintaining and sustaining space vehicles while on orbit, and recovering space vehicles if required.

space systems. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All of the devices and organizations forming the space network. The network includes spacecraft, ground control stations, and associated terminals.

space weather. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to describe the environment and other natural phenomena occurring above 50 kilometers altitude.

Spacetrack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A global system of radar, optical and radiometric sensors linked to a computation and analysis center in the North American Air Defense Command combat operations center complex. The Spacetrack mission is detection, tracking, and cataloging of all manmade objects in orbit of the Earth. It is the Air Force portion of the North American Air Defense Command Space Detection and Tracking system. See also Spadats; Spasur.

Spadats. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A space detection and tracking system capable of detecting and tracking space vehicles from the Earth, and reporting the orbital characteristics of these vehicles to a central control facility. See also Spacetrack; Spasur.

span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment). That total period of time, resulting from a timer error, between the earliest and the latest possible detonation time.

l early time. The earliest possible time that an atomic demolition munition can detonate.

l fire time. That time the atomic demolition munition will detonate should the timers function precisely without error.

l late time. The latest possible time that an atomic demolition munition can detonate.

spare parts. Repairable components or assemblies used for maintenance replacement purposes in major end items of equipment.

spares. A term for both spare and repair parts.

spares acquisition integrated with production (SAIP). A procedure used to combine procurement of selected spares with procurement of identical items produced for installation on the primary system, subsystem, or equipment.

spares management improvement program (SMIP). [DSMC] Reforms, breakout, and other initiatives designed to result in savings or cost avoidance in spare parts management.

Sparrow. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-to-air solid-propellant missile with non-nuclear warhead and electronic-controlled homing. Designated as AIM-7. The ship-launched surface-to-air version is designated as Sea Sparrow (RIM-7).

Spartan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nuclear surface-to-air guided missile formerly deployed as part of the Safeguard ballistic missile defense weapon system. It is designed to intercept strategic ballistic reentry vehicles in the exoatmosphere.

spasm war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See general war.

Spasur. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operational space surveillance system with the mission to detect and determine the orbital elements of all manmade objects in orbit of the Earth. The mission is accomplished by means of a continuous fan of continuous wave energy beamed vertically across the continental United States and an associated computational facility. It is the Navy portion of the North American Air Defense Command Space Detection and Tracking System. See also Spacetrack; Spadats.

spatial reference. A Government Information Locator Service data element that provides the geographic areal domain of a data set or an information resource. The geographic names and coordinates can be used to define the bounds of coverage.

special (or project) equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Equipment not authorized in standard equipment publications but determined as essential in connection with a contemplated operation, function, or mission. See also equipment.

special access program (SAP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sensitive program, approved in writing by a head of agency with original top secret classification authority, which imposes need-to-know and access controls beyond those normally provided for access to confidential, secret, or top secret information. The level of controls is based on the criticality of the program and the assessed hostile intelligence threat. The program may be an acquisition program, an intelligence program, or an operations and support program.

special activities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives which are planned and executed so that the role of the U.S. Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly. They are also functions in support of such activities but are not intended to influence United States political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.

special agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A person, either United States military or civilian, who is a specialist in military security or the collection of intelligence or counterintelligence information.

special air operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air operation conducted in support of special operations and other clandestine, covert, and psychological activities.

special ammunition supply point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile supply point where special ammunition is stored and issued to delivery units.

special assignment airlift requirements. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Airlift requirements, including JCS-directed/ coordinated exercises, that require special consideration due to the number of passengers involved, weight or size of cargo, urgency of movement, sensitivity, or other valid factors that preclude the use of channel airlift.

special atomic demolition munition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A very low-yield, man-portable, atomic demolition munition that is detonated by a timer device.

special boat squadron (SBR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A permanent Navy echelon III major command to which two or more special boat units are assigned for some operational and all administrative purposes. The squadron is tasked with the training and deployment of these special boat units and may augment naval special warfare task groups and task units.

special boat unit(SBU). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those U.S. Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct or support naval special warfare, riverine warfare, coastal patrol and interdiction, and joint special operations with patrol boats or other combatant craft designed primarily for special operations support.

special cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo that requires special handling or protection, such as pyrotechnics, detonators, watches, and precision instruments. See also cargo.

special effects generator. An electronic image creation device that produces a variety of special effects wipe patterns.

special flight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air transport flight, other than a scheduled service, set up to move a specific load.

Special Forces (SF). U.S. Army forces organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct special operations. Special Forces have five primary missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, special reconnaissance, and counterterrorism. Counterterrorism is a special mission for specially organized, trained, and equipped special forces units designated in theater contingency plans.

Special Forces group (SFG). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A combat arms organization capable of planning, conducting, and supporting special operations activities in all operational environments in peace, conflict, and war. It consists of a group headquarters and headquarters company, a support company, and special forces battalions. The group can operate as a single unit, but normally the battalions plan and conduct operations from widely separated locations. The group provides general operational direction and synchronizes the activities of subordinate battalions. Although principally structured for unconventional warfare, special forces group units are capable of task-organizing to meet specific requirements.

Special Forces operations base (SFOB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command, control, and support base established and operated by a special forces group or battalion from organic and attached resources. The base commander and his staff coordinate and synchronize the activities of subordinate and forward-deployed forces. An SFOB is normally established for an extended period of time to support a series of operations.

special hazard. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In aircraft crash rescue and fire-fighting activities: fuels, materials, components or situations that could increase the risks normally associated with military aircraft accidents and could require special procedures, equipment or extinguishing agents.

special in-process review (IPR). This is a special IPR directed by HQDA, or the AMC approving authority, to consider issues needing resolution or requiring decision. A special IPR is not necessarily related to a particular development milestone. Special IPRs are normally used for nondevelopmental items (NDI) type classification.

special information operations (SIO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information operations that by their sensitive nature, due to their potential effect or impact, security requirements, or risk to the national security of the United States, require a special review and approval process. See also information; information operations; operation.

special interest target (SIT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, a contact that may be outside initial sorting criteria but still requires special handling, such as controlled deliveries or other unusual situations. See also suspect; track of interest.

special mission unit (SMU). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A generic term to represent a group of operations and support personnel from designated organizations that is task-organized to perform highly classified activities.

special operations (SO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations conducted by specially organized, trained, and equipped military and paramilitary forces to achieve military, political, economic, or informational objectives by unconventional military means in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive areas. These operations are conducted across the full range of military operations, independently or in coordination with operations of conventional, non-special operations forces. Political-military considerations frequently shape special operations, requiring clandestine, covert, or low visibility techniques and oversight at the national level. Special operations differ from conventional operations in degree of physical and political risk, operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets.

special operations combat control team (SCCCT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Under clandestine, covert, or low-visibility conditions, these teams establish and control air assault zones; assist aircraft by verbal control, positioning, and operating navigation aids; conduct limited offensive direct action and special reconnaissance operations; and assist in the insertion and extraction of special operations forces. See also combat control team.

special operations command (SOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subordinate unified or other joint command established by a joint force commander to plan, coordinate, conduct, and support joint special operations within the joint force commander's assigned operational area. See also special operations.

special operations forces (SOF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those active and reserve component forces of the military services designated by the Secretary of Defense and specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. See also Air Force special operations forces; Army special operations forces; Naval special warfare forces.

special operations liaison element (SOLE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A special operations liaison team provided by the joint force special operations component commander to the joint force air component commander (if designated) to coordinate, deconflict, and integrate special operations air and surface operations with conventional air operations. See also joint force air component commander; joint force special operations component commander; special operations.

special operations mission planning folder (SOMPF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The package that contains the materials required to execute a given special operations mission. It will include the mission tasking letter, mission tasking package, original feasibility assessment (as desired), initial assessment (as desired), target intelligence package, plan of execution, infiltration and exfiltration plan of execution, and other documentation as required or desired.

special operations naval mobile environment team (SONMET). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A team of Navy personnel organized, trained, and equipped to support Navalspecial warfare forces by providing weather, oceanographic, mapping, charting, and geodesy support.

special operations peculiar. Equipment, materials, supplies, and services required for special operations mission support for which there is no broad conventional force requirement. It often includes nondevelopmental or special category items incorporating evolving technology but may include stocks of obsolete weapons and equipment designed to support indigenous personnel who do not possess sophisticated operational capabilities.

special operations terminal attack controller (SOTAC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) USAF combat control personnel certified to perform the terminal attack control function in support of special operations forces missions. Special operations terminal attack controller operations emphasize the employment of night infrared, laser, and beacon tactics and equipment. See also special operations; special tactics team; terminal.

special operations weather team/tactical element (SOWT/TE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task-organized team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to collect critical weather observations from data-sparse areas. These teams are trained to operate independently in permissive or semi-permissive environments, or as augmentation to other special operations elements in nonpermissive environments, in direct support of special operations.

special operations wing (SOW). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Air Force special operations wing.

special operations-peculiar (SO-peculiar). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Equipment, material, supplies, and services required for special operations mission support for which there is no broad conventional force requirement. This includes standard items used by other DoD forces but modified for special operations forces (SOF); items initially designed for, or used by, SOF until adapted for use as Service-common by other DoD forces; and items approved by the Commander in Chief, US Special Operations Command (USCINCSOC) as critically urgent for the immediate accomplishment of a special operations mission but not normally procured by USCINCSOC. See also special operations.

special reconnaissance (SR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reconnaissance and surveillance actions conducted by special operations forces to obtain or verify, by visual observation or other collection methods, information concerning the capabilities, intentions, and activities of an actual or potential enemy or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. It includes target acquisition, area assessment, and post-strike reconnaissance.

special sheaf. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In artillery and naval gunfire support, any sheaf other than parallel, converged, or open.

special staff. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All staff officers having duties at a headquarters and not included in the general (coordinating) staff group or in the personal staff group. The special staff includes certain technical specialists and heads of services, e.g., quartermaster officer, antiaircraft officer, transportation officer, etc. See also staff.

special study group (SSG). An SSG is chartered by the combat developer and normally composed of representatives of HQDA, the combat developer, operational tester, materiel developer, logistician, trainer, and other project manager designees. It is convened during the requirements/technology base activities phase to conduct analysis, ensure inclusion of all alternatives within an analysis, monitor experimentation, or undertake other such tasks that may require concentration of special expertise for a short duration. It is normally chaired by a combat developer’s representative. The materiel developer’s representative on an SSG develops the acquisition strategy.

special tactics team (STT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) USAF special operations forces with combat controllers assigned. The combat controllers are certified air traffic controllers with additional qualifications as Special Operations Terminal Attack Controllers for fire support operations. See also air traffic controller; special operations; special operations forces; special operations terminal attack controller; tactics.

special task force (STF). An STF is chartered by the Chief of Staff of the Army and normally composed of the chartered STF director and representatives of the user, materiel developer, trainer, HQDA, combat developer, operational tester, logistician, and other project manager designees. It is convened during the concept exploration phase of the acquisition process to conduct in-depth investigation of the need for the system described in the initial requirements documents, and of alternative system designs. The STF monitors experimentation and arrives at a recommended approach to provide the system described in a validated requirement document. The materiel developer’s representative develops the system’s acquisition strategy.

special test equipment (STE). [DSMC] Single or multipurpose integrated test units engineered, designed, fabricated, or modified to accomplish special purpose testing.

special time allowance. [DSMC] A temporary time value applying to an operation in addition to or in place of a standard allowance in order to compensate for a specified, temporary, nonstandard production condition.

special tooling (ST). [DSMC] All jigs, dies, fixtures, molds, patterns, taps, gauges, other equipment and manufacturing aids, and replacements thereof, which are of specialized nature that, without substantial modification or alteration, their use is limited to the development or production of particular services.

special training. Any additional training that is required in order for the particular specialist to perform the maintenance on the system and assemblies concerned. This presumes the indicated specialist is fully qualified in their career field and is experienced on similar systems, assemblies, and support equipment.

special unloading berth. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Berths established in the vicinity of the approach lanes into which transports may move for unloading, thus reducing the running time for landing craft and assisting in the dispersion of transports.

special weapons. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term sometimes used to indicate weapons grouped for special procedures, for security, or other reasons. Specific terminology, e.g., nuclear weapons, guided missiles, is preferable.

special-equipment vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A vehicle consisting of a general-purpose chassis with special-purpose body and/or mounted equipments designed to meet a specialized requirement. See also vehicle.

special-purpose vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A vehicle incorporating a special chassis and designed to meet a specialized requirement. See also vehicle.

specialist intelligence report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category of specialized, technical reports used in the dissemination of intelligence. See also intelligence reporting.

specialization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An arrangement within an alliance wherein a member or group of members most suited by virtue of technical skills, location, or other qualifications assumes greater responsibility for a specific task or significant portion thereof for one or more other members.

specialty qualification indicator (SQI). [TR 350-70] An identification of warrant officer or enlisted skill in addition to those of a military occupational specialty used to identify the positions and personnel with those special requirements or qualifications. Special qualification indicators are authorized for most military occupational specialties.

specific intelligence collection requirement (SICR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An identified gap in intelligence holdings that may be satisfied only by collection action, and that has been validated by the appropriate requirements control authority.

specific search. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reconnaissance of a limited number of points for specific information.

specification. [TR 350-70] A contractual document which clearly and accurately describes the technical requirements for items, materials, or services and the procedures used to determine that the requirements have been met.

specified combatant command. See specified command.

specified command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) This is a command which has a broad continuing mission. It is established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense, with advice and assistance from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It is normally composed of forces from one service. Also called specified combatant command.

specified proponent. Commander or chief of any agency responsible for a designated area that does not fall within the purview of branch proponent. They have the same responsibilities as branch proponents.

spectrozonal photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A photographic technique whereby the natural spectral emissions of all objects are selectively filtered in order to image only those objects within a particular spectral band or zone and eliminate the unwanted background.

spectrum management. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Planning, coordinating, and managing joint use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures, with the objective of enabling electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without causing or suffering unacceptable interference. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare.

spectrum of threats. [TP 525-5] Arrayed potential threats across a spectrum from simple to complex in scope, doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, and soldiers.

spectrum of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term which encompasses the full range of conflict; cold, limited, and general war.

spectrum supremacy. [TP 525-5] Control over the required portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to enable the conduct of Force XXI Operations.

speed. See airspeed; convoy speed; critical speed; declared speed; maximum sustained speed (transport vehicle); scheduled speed; speed of advance; speed of sound.

speed of advance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval usage, the speed expected to be made good over the ground. See also pace; rate of march.

speed of sound. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The speed at which sound travels in a given medium under specified conditions. The speed of sound at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere is 1108 ft/second, 658 knots, 1215 km/hour. See also hypersonic; sonic; subsonic; supersonic; transonic.

spending committees. [DSMC] Standing committees of the House and Senate with jurisdiction over legislation that permits the obligation of funds. For most programs, the appropriations committees are spending committees. For some programs, authorization legislation permits the obligation of funds without an appropriation, and so the authorization committees have the spending power. Revenue-raising committees (House Ways and Means, and Senate Finance) at times also can be considered to be spending committees because of tax expenditures.

spillover. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The part of the laser spot that is not on the target because of beam divergence or standoff range, improper boresighting of laser designator, or poor operator illuminating procedures. See also laser spot.

spin stabilization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Directional stability of a projectile obtained by the action of gyroscopic forces that result from spinning of the body about its axis of symmetry.

spitting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air antisubmarine warfare operations, a code meaning, "I am about to lay, or am laying, sonobuoys. I may be out of radio contact for a few minutes." If transmitted from the submarine it indicates that the submarine has launched a sonobuoy.

splash. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In artillery and naval gunfire support, word transmitted to an observer or spotter five seconds before the estimated time of the impact of a salvo or round.

l In air interception, target destruction verified by visual or radar means.

splashed. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Enemy aircraft shot down," (followed by number and type).

split cameras. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An assembly of two cameras disposed at a fixed overlapping angle relative to each other.

split pair. See split vertical photography.

split vertical photography. Photographs taken simultaneously by two cameras mounted at an angle from the vertical, one tilted to the left and one to the right, to obtain a small side overlap.

split-based logistics. Dividing logistics management functions so that only those functions absolutely necessary are deployed, allowing some management functions to be accomplished from CONUS or another theater.

split-screen. The ability of a screen to be halved, quartered, or divided into virtually any shape or proportion with separate material displayed on each part.

split-up. See break-up.

spoiling attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tactical maneuver employed to seriously impair a hostile attack while the enemy is in the process of forming or assembling for an attack. Usually employed by armored units in defense by an attack on enemy assembly positions in front of a main line of resistance or battle position.

sponsor. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Military member or civilian employee with dependents. 2[DSMC] The office within Pentagon headquarters with cognizance over mission/warfare area, appropriations, or program.

sponsor's study director (SSD). [TR 5-11] The person appointed by the sponsor to ensure that the study objectives are met. The sponsor's study director represents the sponsor in establishing the requirement for the study, providing technical direction for the sponsor to the organization performing the study, and providing guidance to the studies advisory group (SAG), (contracting officer's representative (COR), or contracting officer. This person may be the chairperson of the SAG (see DA Pam 5-5).

sponsoring agency. [TR 5-11] The agency which sponsors the development or use of modeling and simulation utilizing either in-house, other government agency, or contract resources.

spoofer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "A contact employing electronic or tactical deception measures."

spot. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l To determine by observation, deviations of ordnance from the target for the purpose of supplying necessary information for the adjustment of fire.

l To place in a proper location.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) An approved shipboard helicopter landing site.

See also ordnance.

spot elevation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point on a map or chart whose elevation is noted.

spot jamming. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The jamming of a specific channel or frequency. See also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; jamming.

spot net. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radio communication net used by a spotter in calling fire.

spot report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A concise narrative report of essential information covering events or conditions that may have an immediate and significant effect on current planning and operations that is afforded the most expeditious means of transmission consistent with requisite security. (Note: In reconnaissance and surveillance usage, spot report is not to be used.) See joint tactical air reconnaissance/surveillance mission report.

spot size. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The size of the electron spot on the face of the cathode ray tube.

spotter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An observer stationed for the purpose of observing and reporting results of naval gunfire to the firing agency and who also may be employed in designating targets. See also field artillery observer; naval gunfire spotting team.

spotting. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A process of determining by visual or electronic observation, deviations of artillery or naval gunfire from the target in relation to a spotting line for the purpose of supplying necessary information for the adjustment or analysis of fire. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) An aircraft is parked in an approved shipboard landing site. See also spot; spotting line.

spotting line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any straight line to which the fall of shot of projectiles is related by an observer or a spotter. See also gun-target line; observer-target line.

spray dome. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The mound of water spray thrown up into the air when the shock wave from an underwater detonation of a nuclear weapon reaches the surface.

spreader bar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers or vehicles and breakbulk cargo.

spreading fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A notification by the spotter or the naval gunfire ship, depending on who is controlling the fire, to indicate that fire is about to be distributed over an area.

Sprint. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A high acceleration, nuclear surface-to-air guided missile formerly deployed as part of the Safeguard ballistic missile defense weapon system. It is designed to intercept strategic ballistic reentry vehicles in the endoatmosphere.

sprocket. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, an anti-sweep device included in a mine mooring to allow a sweep wire to pass through the mooring without parting the mine from its sinker.

squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An organization consisting of two or more divisions of ships, or two or more divisions (Navy) or flights of aircraft. It is normally, but not necessarily, composed of ships or aircraft of the same type.

l The basic administrative aviation unit of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force.

squawk. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Switch Identification Friend or Foe master control to 'normal' (Mode and Code as directed) position."

squawk flash. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Actuate Identification Friend or Foe I/P switch."

squawk low. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Switch Identification Friend or Foe master control to 'low' position."

squawk may day. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Switch Identification Friend or Foe master control to 'emergency' position."

squawk mike. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Actuate Identification Friend or Foe MIC switch and key transmitter as directed."

squawk standby. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Switch Identification Friend or Foe master control to 'standby' position."

squawking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Showing Identification Friend or Foe in Mode (and Code) indicated."

squib. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A small pyrotechnic device that may be used to fire the igniter in a rocket or for some similar purpose. Not to be confused with a detonator that explodes.

squirt. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air-to-air refueling, a means of providing visual detection of a nearby aircraft. In practice this is achieved by the donor aircraft dumping fuel and/or the receiver aircraft selecting afterburners, if so equipped.

staballoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Designates metal alloys made from high-density depleted uranium with other metals for use in kinetic energy penetrators for armor-piercing munitions. Several different metals such as titanium or molybdenum can be used for the purpose. The various staballoy metals have low radioactivity that is not considered to be a significant health hazard.

stability and support operations (SASO). Operations of today’s Army in hostile activities not called war (e.g., Somalia, Haiti, natural disaster). Formerly called operations other than war (OOTW) which is now obsolete.

Stability Augmentation System (SAS). Equipment installed in the B-52 to increase controllability in turbulence.

stabilized glide slope indicator (SGSI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An electrohydraulic optical landing aid for use on air-capable ships. With it, a pilot can visually establish and maintain the proper glide slope for a safe approach and landing. The visual acquisition range is approximately 3 miles at night under optimal conditions. See also air-capable ship.

stabilized patient. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A patient whose airway is secured, hemorrhage is controlled, shock treated, and fractures are immobilized. See also patient.

stable base film. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A particular type of film having a high stability in regard to shrinkage and stretching.

stable patient. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A patient for whom no inflight medical intervention is expected but the potential for medical intervention exists. See also patient.

staff. See combined staff; general staff; integrated staff; joint staff; parallel staff; special staff.

staff and faculty (S&F). [TR 350-70] The collective term given to all personnel involved in training and training development activities such as instructors, training developers, analysts, small group leaders, training facilitators, evaluators, training development middle managers, and senior training managers.

staff and faculty development (SFD). [TR 350-70] Refers to the process of ensuring that the total workforce (military, DA civilians, and contractors) can carry out their training and training development responsibilities through approved training programs, products, and courses which provide both basic and advanced technology training skills.

staff estimates. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Assessments of courses of action by the various staff elements of a command that serve as the foundation of the commander's estimate.

staff supervision. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of advising other staff officers and individuals subordinate to the commander of the commander's plans and policies, interpreting those plans and policies, assisting such subordinates in carrying them out, determining the extent to which they are being followed, and advising the commander thereof.

staffing. [DSMC] A statement of authorized personnel strength in a program office.

stage. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An element of the missile or propulsion system that generally separates from the missile at burnout or cut-off. Stages are numbered chronologically in order of burning.

l To process, in a specified area, troops which are in transit from one locality to another. See also marshalling; staging area.

2(NATO) The part of an air route from one air staging unit to the next.

staged crews. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Aircrews specifically positioned at intermediate airfields to take over aircraft operating on air routes, thus relieving complementary crews of flying fatigue and speeding up the flow rate of the aircraft concerned.

staging area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l amphibious or airborne. A general locality between the mounting area and the objective of an amphibious or airborne expedition, through which the expedition or parts thereof pass after mounting, or refueling, regrouping of ships, and/or exercise, inspection, and redistribution of troops.

l other movements. A general locality established for the concentration of troop units and transient personnel between movements over the lines of communications.

See also marshalling; stage.

staging base. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An advanced naval base for the anchoring, fueling, and refitting of transports and cargo ships, and for replenishing mobile service squadrons.

l A landing and takeoff area with minimum servicing, supply, and shelter provided for the temporary occupancy of military aircraft during the course of movement from one location to another.

stamper. A metal reverse mold disk made from a glass master disk that is used to produce final replicated disks.

stand alone. [DSMC] A system which performs its functions requiring little or no assistance from interfacing systems.

stand fast. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery, the order at which all action on the position ceases immediately.

standard. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An exact value, a physical entity, or an abstract concept, established and defined by authority, custom, or common consent to serve as a reference, model, or rule in measuring quantities or qualities, establishing practices or procedures, or evaluating results. A fixed quantity or quality. 2[TR 350-70] A statement which establishes a criteria for how well a task or learning objective must be performed. The standard specifies how well, completely, or accurately a process must be performed or product produced.

l The task standard reflects task performance requirements on the job.

lThe learning objective standard reflects the standard that must be achieved in the formal learning environment.

3[DSMC] In work measurement, any established or accepted rule, model, or criterion against which comparisons are made.

standard advanced base units. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel and materiel organized to function as advanced base units, including the functional components which are employed in the establishment of naval advanced bases. Such advanced base units may establish repair bases, supply bases, supply depots, airfields, air bases, or other naval shore establishments at overseas locations; e.g., Acorns, Cubs, Gropacs, and Lions.

Standard Arm. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-launched antiradiation missile designed to home on and destroy radar emitters. Designated as AGM-78.

Standard Army Training System (SATS). An automated management system for planning, managing, and resourcing unit and institutional Army training in support of Force XXI.

standard cost. [DSMC] The normal expected cost of an operation, process, or product including labor, material, and overhead charges, computed on the basis of past performance costs, estimates, or work measurement.

STANDARD DATA. [DSMC] Data that has been approved formally in accordance with the organization's data standardization procedures

standard deviation. [DSMC] The square root of the variance is the standard deviation; a measure of spread of data points about the mean. See mean deviation.

standard error of estimate. [DSMC] A measure of divergence in the actual values of the dependent variable from their regression estimates. (Also known as standard deviation from regression line.) The deviations of observations from the regression line are squared, summed, and divided by the number of observations.

standard industrial classification (SIC) code. [DSMC] An industrial classification method used to report price index changes. A code number is assigned to specific industry groups.

Standard Missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A shipboard, surface-to-surface/air missile with solid propellant rocket engine. It is equipped with non-nuclear warhead and semi-active or passive homing. Designated RIM-66 Medium Range (Tartar replacement) and RIM-67 Extended Range (Terrier replacement).

standard of performance. A statement that establishes criteria for how well a task or learning objective must be performed. The standard specifies how well, completely or accurately, a process must be performed or product produced. The standard reflects task requirements on the job or learning requirement in the classroom. A product standard is expressed in terms of accuracy, tolerance, completeness, format, clarity, errors, or quantity. A process standard is expressed in terms of sequence, completeness, accuracy or speed. Both product and process must be observable and measurable. See performance criteria/standard, standards statement, and task standard.

standard operating procedure. See standing operating procedure.

standard parallel. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A parallel on a map or chart along which the scale is as stated for that map or chart.

standard pattern. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In landmine warfare, the agreed pattern to which mines are normally laid.

standard route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval control of shipping, a preplanned single track, assigned a code name, connecting positions within the main shipping lanes.

standard software interface definition (SSID). An effort by the Interactive Multimedia Association (IMA) to standardize calls for software for videodisk systems. This standardization would render hardware transparent to the courseware. Courseware authors would write it into the header of their courseware.

Standard SSM (ARM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A surface-to-surface anti-radiation missile equipped with a conventional warhead. It is planned for anti-ship missions and is carried by the FFG-1 class, 8 DDG-2 class units and the PG 98 and 100. Designated as RGM-66D.

standard time data. [DSMC] A compilation of all the elements that are used for performing a given class of work with standard elemental time values for each element. The data are used as a basis for determining time standards on work similar to that from which the data were determined without making actual time studies.

standard use Army aircraft flight route (SAAFR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Routes established below the coordinating altitude to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets. Routes are normally located in the corps through brigade rear areas of operation and do not require approval by the airspace control authority.

standardization. 1[TR 350-70] As applicable to training means:

l The development and implementation of performance standards which the Army employs in training and in combat.

l Units and soldiers performing the same task will be trained to perform that task to the same standard.

l Training products are produced in one format by the training proponent and used by other training activities.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The process by which the Department of Defense achieves the closest practicable cooperation among the services and defense agencies for the most efficient use of research, development, and production resources, and agrees to adopt on the broadest possible basis the use of:

l Common or compatible operational, administrative, and logistic procedures;

l Common or compatible technical procedures and criteria.

l Common, compatible, or interchangeable supplies, components, weapons, or equipment.

l common or compatible tactical doctrine with corresponding organizational compatibility.

3[TP 71-9] The process of developing warfighting concepts, doctrines, procedures, and designs to achieve and maintain the most effective levels of compatibility, interoperability, interchangeability, and commonality in the fields of operations, administration, and material. Standardization is the process by which nations achieve the closest practicable cooperation among forces, the most efficient use of research, development, and production resources, and items.

standardization (NATO). [DSMC] The process by which NATO nations achieve the closest practicable cooperation among their forces; facilitate the most efficient use of research, development, and production resources; and agree to adopt on the broadest possible basis the use of common or compatible operational, administrative, and logistic procedures, common, compatible or interchangeable supplies, components, weapons or equipment, common or compatible technical procedures and criteria, and common or compatible tactical doctrine with corresponding organizational compatibility.

standardization agreement (STANAG). [DSMC] The record of an agreement among several or all the NATO member nations to adopt like or similar military equipment, ammunition, supplies and store; and operational, logistic, and administrative procedures. National acceptance of a NATO allied publication issued by the Military Agency for Standardization may be recorded as a STANAG.

standardization approach. [CJCSI 6212.01A] A statement(s) which demonstrates a commitment to use DoD approved standards. For example, "In order to achieve system(s) fielded to satisfy the requirements for this capability will conform with applicable information technology standards found in the DoD Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM)."

standardization plan. This plan assures that standardization will be applied in design, as appropriate during the development, to reduce cost of production and operational support.

standards. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Standards as referenced in this CJCSI are information technology (IT) standards. IT standards include standards for information processing, information content (such as standard data definitions) information formats, and information transfer. IT standards provide technical definitions for information system processes, procedures, practices, operations, services, interfaces, connectivity, interoperability, information formats, information content, interchange, and transmission or transfer. IT standards apply during the development, testing, fielding, enhancement, and life-cycle maintenance of DoD information systems. IT standards include trade association standards (e.g., IEEE standards), nongovernment national or international standards, Federal standards, military standards, and multinational treaty organization standardization agreements. They may take numerous forms including standards, handbooks, manuals, specifications, commercial item descriptions, and standardized drawings, all referred to collectively here as standards.

standards profile. [CJCSI 6212.01A] A standard profile is part of the request for proposal and is a set of one or more base standards and, where applicable, the identification of chosen classes, subsets, options, and parameters of those base standards necessary for accomplishing a particular function.

standards statement. A part of a criterion objective that describes the qualitative and quantitative criteria against which student performance or the product of that performance will be measured to determine successful learning. See performance criteria/standard, standard of performance, and task standard.

standby course. A course in which a capability for training exists, but student course entries have been temporarily discontinued.

Standby Reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those units and members of the Reserve Components (other than those in the Ready Reserve or Retired Reserve) who are liable for active duty only, as provided in the US Code, title 10. [JP 1-02] (DoD), sections 10151, 12301, and 12306. See also active duty; Ready Reserve; Reserve Components; Retired Reserve.

standing operating procedure (SOP). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A set of instructions covering those features of operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. The procedure is applicable unless ordered otherwise.

standing order. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A promulgated order which remains in force until amended or canceled.

Stargazer. Balloon flight at high (25000m) altitude for astronomical observations. (1962)

Starlifter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A large cargo transport powered by four turbo-fan engines, capable of intercontinental range with heavy payloads and airdrops. Designated as C-141.

state and regional defense airlift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The program for use during an emergency of civil aircraft other than air carrier aircraft.

state chicken. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "I am at a fuel state requiring recovery, tanker service, or diversion to an airfield."

state lamb. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "I do not have enough fuel for an intercept plus reserve required for carrier recovery."

state of readiness. See defense readiness conditions; weapons readiness state.

state of readiness state 1 – safe. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The state of a demolition target upon or within which the demolition charge has been placed and secured. The firing or initiating circuits have been installed, but not connected to the demolition charge. Detonators or initiators have not been connected nor installed. See also state of readiness state 2 – armed.

state of readiness state 2 – armed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The state of a demolition target in which the demolition charges are in place, the firing and priming circuits are installed and complete, ready for immediate firing. See also state of readiness state 1 – safe.

state of the art. [DSMC] The level to which technology and science at any designated cutoff time have been developed in a given industry or group of industries, as in "the missile's capabilities were determined by the state of the art at the time it went into production."

state tiger. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "I have sufficient fuel to complete my mission as assigned."

statement of need – clothing and individual equipment (SN-CIE). This is prepared specifically to support the development, planning, programming, budgeting, and fielding of all personal, optional, and organizational clothing, associated heraldics, and individual equipment.

statement of objective (SOO). 1[TR 350-70] A Government prepared document which is incorporated into the RFP that states the overall RFP objectives. The SOO is provided in the RFP in lieu of Government-written statement of work. 2[DSMC] That portion of a contract which establishes a broad description of the government's required performance objectives.

statement of work (SOW). 1[TR 350-70] A document that accurately describes the essential and technical requirements for items, materials, or services, including the standards used to determine whether the requirements have been met. The SOW establishes a standard for measuring performance both during contract performance and upon contract completion. 2[DSMC] That portion of a contract which establishes and defines all nonspecification requirements for contractors efforts either directly or with the use of specific cited documents.

static air temperature. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The temperature at a point at rest relative to the ambient air.

static line (air transport). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line attached to a parachute pack and to a strop or anchor cable in an aircraft so that when the load is dropped the parachute is deployed automatically.

static line cable. See anchor cable.

static marking. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Marks on photographic negatives and other imagery caused by unwanted discharges of static electricity.

static test load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In sea operations, twice the safe working load. See also safe working load.

station. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A general term meaning any military or naval activity at a fixed land location.

l A particular kind of activity to which other activities or individuals may come for a specific service, often of a technical nature, e.g., aid station.

l An assigned or prescribed position in a naval formation or cruising disposition; or an assigned area in an approach, contact, or battle disposition.

l Any place of duty or post or position in the field to which an individual, or group of individuals, or a unit may be assigned.

l One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment necessary at one location, for carrying on radio communication service. Each station will be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

station authentication. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A security measure designed to establish the authenticity of a transmitting or receiving station.

station time. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air transport operations, the time at which crews, passengers, and cargo are to be on board and ready for the flight.

statistical process control (SPC). [DSMC] The use of statistical techniques such as control charts to analyze a process or its outputs so as to take appropriate actions to achieve and maintain a state of statistical control and to improve the process capability.

status report. This is an annual report from the Secretary of Defense to the President highlighting the program objective memorandum (POM), issues identified, and the status of the resolution of these issues.

status-of-forces agreement (SOFA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An agreement which defines the legal position of a visiting military force deployed in the territory of a friendly state. Agreements delineating the status of visiting military forces may be bilateral or multilateral. Provisions pertaining to the status of visiting forces may be set forth in a separate agreement, or they may form a part of a more comprehensive agreement. These provisions describe how the authorities of a visiting force may control members of that force and the amenability of the force or its members to the local law or to the authority of local officials. To the extent that agreements delineate matters affecting the relations between a military force and civilian authorities and population, they may be considered as civil affairs agreements. See also civil affairs agreement.

stay behind. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Agent or agent organization established in a given country to be activated in the event of hostile overrun or other circumstances under which normal access would be denied.

stay behind force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A force which is left in position to conduct a specified mission when the remainder of the force withdraws or retires from the area.

steady. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Am on prescribed heading," or, "Straighten out immediately on present heading or heading indicated."

steer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air intercept, close air support and air interdiction, a code meaning, "Set magnetic heading indicated to reach me (or ________)."

stellar guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system wherein a guided missile may follow a predetermined course with reference primarily to the relative position of the missile and certain preselected celestial bodies. See also guidance.

stem. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The part of a multiple-choice test item which asks a question.

step frame. The facility to move through a video sequence frame-by-frame, forward or backward, either automatically or by using a remote control device. This can be used to examine a sequence of moving footage in close detail, or to employ a set of stills that have been recorded as single static frames.

stepped skills. Still frames selected to show a process, such as raising an antenna, at different points of completion.

stepped-up separation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vertical separation in a formation of aircraft measured from an aircraft ahead upward to the next aircraft behind or in echelon.

stereographic coverage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Photographic coverage with overlapping air photographs to provide a three-dimensional presentation of the picture; 60 percent overlap is considered normal and 53 percent is generally regarded as the minimum.

sterilize. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In naval mine warfare, to permanently render a mine incapable of firing by means of a device (e.g., sterilizer) within the mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To remove from material to be used in covert and clandestine operations, marks or devices which can identify it as emanating from the sponsoring nation or organization.

sterilizer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a device included in mines to render the mine permanently inoperative on expiration of a predetermined time after laying.

stern attack. In air intercept, an attack by an interceptor aircraft that terminates with a heading crossing angle of 45 degrees or less. See also heading crossing angle.

stick (air transport). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A number of paratroopers who jump from one aperture or door of an aircraft during one run over a drop zone.

stick commander (air transport). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated individual who controls parachutists from the time they enter the aircraft until their exit. See also jumpmaster.

still frame. A video image of any kind that is represented as a single, static image rather than as moving footage.

still-frame audio. A method of digitally recording and transmitting several seconds of voice-quality audio per individual disk frame, resulting in a potential for several hours of audio per disk. A buffer is used to store the audio information in order to deliver a limited amount of audio from each digitally encoded still-frame. Also called audio compression.

stimulants. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Controlled drugs which make the user feel stronger, more decisive, and self-possessed; includes cocaine and amphetamines.

stimulation. An excitation to activity caused by an event, situation, condition, signal, or cue to which a response must be made.

stimulator. [TR 350-70]

l A hardware device that injects or radiates signals into the sensor system(s) of operational equipment to imitate the effects of platforms, munitions, or environments that are not physically present.

l A battlefield entity consisting of hardware and/or software modules which injects signals directly into the actual sensor systems of an actual battlefield entity to simulate other battlefield entities in the virtual or constructive synthetic training environments.

stimulus. The event, situation, condition, signal, or cue to which a response must be made.

stimulus characteristics. Those basic qualities or capabilities of a medium that are required to carry out the intent of the learning activity (i.e., visual images, motion, color, and sound).

stimulus criteria. Those basic qualities or capabilities of a medium that are required to carry out the intent of the learning activity; for example, visual images, motion, color, and sound.

Stinger. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lightweight, man-portable, shoulder-fired, air defense artillery missile weapon for low altitude air defense of forward area combat troops. Designated FIM-92A.

stock control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Process of maintaining inventory data on the quantity, location, and condition of supplies and equipment due-in, on-hand, and due-out, to determine quantities of material and equipment available and/or required for issue and to facilitate distribution and management of materiel. See also inventory control.

stock coordination. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A supply management function exercised usually at department level that controls the assignment of material cognizance for items or categories of material to inventory managers.

stock footage. Film or video usually available for sale by the producers.

stock fund. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A revolving fund established to finance costs of inventories of supplies. It is authorized by specific provision of law to finance a continuing cycle of operations. Reimbursements and collections derived from such operations are available for use by the fund without further action by the Congress.

stock level. See level of supply.

stock number. See national stock number.

stock record account. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A basic record showing by item the receipt and issuance of property, the balances on hand and such other identifying or stock control data as may be required by proper authority.

stockage objective. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand to sustain current operations. It will consist of the sum of stocks represented by the operating level and the safety level. See also level of supply.

stockpile to target sequence. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The order of events involved in removing a nuclear weapon from storage, and assembling, testing, transporting, and delivering it on the target.

l A document that defines the logistical and employment concepts and related physical environments involved in the delivery of a nuclear weapon from the stockpile to the target. It may also define the logistical flow involved in moving nuclear weapons to and from the stockpile for quality assurance testing, modification and retrofit, and the recycling of limited life components.

stop squawk. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Turn identification friend or foe master control to off. "

stop-loss. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Presidential authority under Title 10 USC 12305 to suspend laws relating to promotion, retirement, or separation of any member of the Armed Forces determined essential to the national security of the United States ("laws relating to promotion" broadly includes, among others, grade tables, current general or flag officer authorizations, and E8/9 limits). This authority may be exercised by the President only if Reservists are serving on active duty under Title 10 authorities for Presidential Selected Reserve Callup, partial mobilization, or full mobilization. See also mobilization; Presidential Selected Reserve Callup Authority.

stopway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of a runway in the direction of takeoff designated and prepared by the competent authority as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an interrupted takeoff. It must be capable of supporting aircraft of approximately 23,000 kilograms (50,000 lbs.).

storage. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The retention of data in any form, usually for the purpose of orderly retrieval and documentation.

l A device consisting of electronic, electrostatic, electrical, hardware or other elements into which data may be entered, and from which data may be obtained as desired.

See also ammunition and toxic material open space; bin storage; bulk storage; igloo space; large-lot storage; medium-lot storage; open improved storage space; open unimproved wet space; small-lot storage.

storage device. Any device that stores information such as on disk or tape.

storage life. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The length of time for which an item of supply including explosives, given specific storage conditions, may be expected to remain serviceable and, if relevant, safe. See also shelf life.

storage or stowage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Storage is the act of placing material or ammunition and other supplies onboard the vessel. Stowage relates to the act of securing those items stored in such a manner that they do not shift or move during at-sea periods using methods and equipment as approved by higher authority. See also storage; stowage.

stores. See naval stores; supplies.

storyboard. 1[TR 350-70] A collection or series of small pictures or sketches arranged sequentially that describe the action and content in an audio-visual or visual-only production. 2[DoD] A layout and detailed graphic description of a single frame or series of frames, arranged sequentially. The frames describe the action and content of the Interactive Courseware (ICW) and specifies all details such as graphics, text, visuals, video, audio, and special effects. It is a graphic depiction that shows the ICW presentation. See script storyboard (SSB)

stowage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The method of placing cargo into a single hold or compartment of a ship to prevent damage, shifting, etc.

stowage diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A scaled drawing included in the loading plan of a vessel for each deck or platform showing the exact location of all cargo. See also stowage plan.

stowage factor. The number which expresses the space, in cubic feet, occupied by a long ton of any commodity as prepared for shipment, including all crating or packaging.

stowage plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A completed stowage diagram showing what materiel has been loaded and its stowage location in each hold, between-deck compartment, or other space in a ship, including deck space. Each port of discharge is indicated by colors or other appropriate means. Deck and between-deck cargo normally is shown in perspective, while cargo stowed in the lower hold is shown in profile, except that vehicles usually are shown in perspective regardless of stowage. See also stowage diagram.

strafing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The delivery of automatic weapons fire by aircraft on ground targets.

straggler. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any personnel, vehicles, ships or aircraft which, without apparent purpose or assigned mission, become separated from their unit, column or formation. 2(NATO) A ship separated from its convoy by more than 5 nautical miles, through inability to keep up, and unable to rejoin before dark, or over 10 nautical miles from its convoy whether or not it can rejoin before dark. See also romper.

stranger (bearing, distance, altitude). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "An unidentified aircraft, bearing, distance, and altitude as indicated relative to you."

strangle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Switch off equipment indicated."

strangle parrot. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "Switch off Identification Friend or Foe equipment."

strap-on technologies. [TP 525-5] Available technologies used to upgrade/enhance existing weapon systems.

strapping. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An operation by which supply containers, such as cartons or boxes, are reinforced by bands, metal straps, or wire, placed at specified intervals around them, drawn taut, and then sealed or clamped by a machine.

l Measurement of storage tanks and calculation of volume to provide tables for conversion of depth of product in linear units of measurement to volume of contents.

strategic advantage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The overall relative power relationship of opponents that enables one nation or group of nations effectively to control the course of a military/ political situation.

strategic air transport. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The movement of personnel and materiel by air in accordance with a strategic plan.

strategic air transport operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The carriage of passengers and cargo between theaters by means of:

l scheduled service.

l special flight.

l air logistic support.

l aeromedical evacuation.

strategic air warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Air combat and supporting operations designed to effect, through the systematic application of force to a selected series of vital targets, the progressive destruction and disintegration of the enemy's war-making capacity to a point where the enemy no longer retains the ability or the will to wage war. Vital targets may include key manufacturing systems, sources of raw material, critical material, stockpiles, power systems, transportation systems, communication facilities, concentration of uncommitted elements of enemy armed forces, key agricultural areas, and other such target systems.

strategic airlift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The common-user airlift linking theaters to the continental United States (CONUS) and to other theaters as well as the airlift within CONUS. These airlift assets are assigned to the Commander in Chief, United States Transportation Command. Due to the intertheater ranges usually involved, strategic airlift is normally comprised of the heavy, longer range, intercontinental airlift assets but may be augmented with shorter range aircraft when required. Also called intertheater airlift. See also theater airlift.

strategic Army forces. See United States Strategic Army Forces.

strategic concentration. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The assembly of designated forces in areas from which it is intended that operations of the assembled force shall begin so that they are best disposed to initiate the plan of campaign.

strategic concept. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The course of action accepted as the result of the estimate of the strategic situation. It is a statement of what is to be done in broad terms sufficiently flexible to permit its use in framing the military, diplomatic, economic, psychological and other measures which stem from it. See also basic undertakings.

strategic estimate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The estimate of the broad strategic factors that influence the determination of missions, objectives, and courses of action. The estimate is continuous and includes the strategic direction received from the National Command Authorities or the authoritative body of an alliance or coalition. See also commander's estimate of the situation; estimate; logistic estimate of the situation; national intelligence estimate.

strategic intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence that is required for the formulation of strategy, policy, and military plans and operations at national and theater levels. See also intelligence; operational intelligence; tactical intelligence.

strategic level of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The level of war at which a nation or group of nations determines national or alliance security objectives and develops and uses national resources to accomplish those objectives. Activities at this level establish national and alliance military objectives; sequence initiatives; define limits and assess risks for the use of military and other instruments of power; develop global or theater war plans to achieve those objectives; and provide armed forces and other capabilities in accordance with the strategic plan. See also operational level of war; tactical level of war.

strategic map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map of medium scale, or smaller, used for planning of operations, including the movement, concentration, and supply of troops. See also map.

strategic material (critical). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A material required for essential uses in a war emergency, the procurement of which in adequate quantity, quality, or time, is sufficiently uncertain, for any reason, to require prior provision of the supply thereof.

strategic mining. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A long-term mining operation designed to deny the enemy the use of specific sea routes or sea areas.

strategic mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission directed against one or more of a selected series of enemy targets with the purpose of progressive destruction and disintegration of the enemy's warmaking capacity and his will to make war. Targets include key manufacturing systems, sources of raw material, critical material, stockpiles, power systems, transportation systems, communication facilities, and other such target systems. As opposed to tactical operations, strategic operations are designed to have a long-range, rather than immediate, effect on the enemy and its military forces.

strategic mobility. 1Transportation actions using national assets, both military and civilian, in support of a force-projection mission. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The capability to deploy and sustain military forces worldwide in support of national strategy. See also mobility.

strategic plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan for the overall conduct of a war.

strategic psychological activities. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Planned psychological activities in peace and war which normally pursue objectives to gain the support and cooperation of friendly and neutral countries and to reduce the will and the capacity of hostile or potentially hostile countries to wage war.

strategic sealift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The afloat prepositioning and ocean movement of military material in support of U.S. and allied forces. Sealift forces include organic and commercially acquired shipping and shipping services, including chartered foreign-flag vessels.

strategic sealift forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Composed of ships, cargo handling and delivery systems, and the necessary operating personnel. They include US Navy, US Marine Corps and US Army elements with Active and Reserve components. Merchant marine vessels, manned by civilian mariners, may constitute part of this force. See also force.

strategic sealift shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Common-user ships of the Military Sealift Command (MSC) force including prepositioned ships after their prepositioning mission has been completed and they have been returned to the operational control of MSC. See also Military Sealift Command; Military Sealift Command force.

strategic transport aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo over long distances.

strategic vulnerability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The susceptibility of vital elements of national power to being seriously decreased or adversely changed by the application of actions within the capability of another nation to impose. Strategic vulnerability may pertain to political, geographic, economic, scientific, sociological, or military factors.

strategic warning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A warning prior to the initiation of a threatening act. See also strategic warning lead time; strategic warning post-decision time; strategic warning pre-decision time; tactical warning; warning; warning of war.

strategic warning lead time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That time between the receipt of strategic warning and the beginning of hostilities. This time may include two action periods: strategic warning pre-decision time and strategic warning post-decision time. See also commander's estimate of the situation; strategic concept; strategic warning.

strategic warning post-decision time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That time which begins after the decision, made at the highest levels of government(s) in response to strategic warning, is ordered executed and ends with the start of hostilities or termination of the threat. It is that part of strategic warning lead time available for executing pre-hostility actions to strengthen the national strategic posture; however, some preparatory actions may be initiated in the predecision period. See also strategic warning; strategic warning lead time.

strategic warning pre-decision time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That time which begins upon receipt of strategic warning and ends when a decision is ordered executed. It is that part of strategic warning lead time available to the highest levels of government(s) to determine that strategic course of action to be executed. See also strategic warning; strategic warning lead time.

strategy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The art and science of developing and using political, economic, psychological, and military forces as necessary during peace and war, to afford the maximum support to policies, in order to increase the probabilities and favorable consequences of victory and to lessen the chances of defeat. See also military strategy; national strategy.

strategy determination. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System function in which analysis of changing events in the international environment and the development of national strategy to respond to those events is conducted. In joint operation planning, the responsibility for recommending military strategy to the National Command Authorities lies with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and in concert with supported commanders. In the deliberate planning process, the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan is produced as a result of this process. In the Crisis Assessment Phase of the crisis action planning process, Crisis Action Planning procedures are used to formulate decisions for direct development of possible military courses of action.

Stratofortress. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An all-weather, intercontinental, strategic heavy bomber powered by eight turbojet engines. It is capable of delivering nuclear and non-nuclear bombs, air-to-surface missiles, and decoys. Its range is extended by in-flight refueling. Designated as B-52.

stratosphere. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere in which the change of temperature with height is relatively small. See also atmosphere.

Stratotanker. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A multipurpose aerial tanker-transport powered by four turbojet engines. It is equipped for high-speed, high-altitude refueling of bombers and fighters. Designated as KC-135.

strawman. [DSMC] A working draft copy circulated for comments or suggested changes.

stream. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Dispensing of chaff (solid/random interval/bursts).

stream takeoff. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Aircraft taking off in trail/column formation.

streamlining. [DSMC]

l An acquisition strategy communicating what is required in functional terms at the onset of program definition and risk reduction (PDRR) phase. Allows flexibility for application of contractor's expertise, judgment and creativity in meeting requirements. Ensures only cost-effective requirements are included in solicitation and contracts.

l Broadly used to denote efforts to shorten acquisition process.

strength. See economic potential.

strength group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A surface action group (unit) (element) composed of the heaviest combatant ships available with their aircraft and assigned screen.

stretch out. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A reduction in the delivery rate specified for a program without a reduction in the total quantity to be delivered.

stretch out (a program) procurement. [DSMC]

l Buying the originally intended number of end items (or close to it) over a longer period of time (e.g., 10 per year rather than 20).

l For the acquisition phase, taking longer to complete than originally planned, for technical or funding reasons.

stretcher. See litter.

strike. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An attack which is intended to inflict damage on, seize, or destroy an objective.

strike cruiser. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A warship designed to operate offensively with carrier strike forces or surface action groups against surface, air and subsurface threats. Planned armaments include the Aegis missile system, a major caliber gun, surface-to-surface missiles and advanced antisubmarine warfare weapons and sensors. Capability to operate helicopters or vertical takeoff and landing aircraft is planned.

strike force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A force composed of appropriate units necessary to conduct strikes, attack or assault operations. See also task force.

strike photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Air photographs taken during an air strike.

strikedown. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to describe the movement of aircraft from the flight deck to the hangar deck level. See also aircraft; flight deck.

strip marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, a marker, natural, artificial, or specially installed, located at the start and finish of a mine strip. See also marker.

strip plot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A portion of a map or overlay on which a number of photographs taken along a flight line is delineated without defining the outlines of individual prints.

strong point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A key point in a defensive position, usually strongly fortified and heavily armed with automatic weapons, around which other positions are grouped for its protection.

structure. 1[TRADOC] The complete set of relationships between parts of a learning program as displayed in a course map or learning plan. 2[DSMC] Involves the ways in which the tasks of the organization are divided (differentiated) and coordinated (integrated).

structure manning decision review (SMDR). [TR 350-70] An annual process that compares the total Army training requirements for a fiscal year with the training capability of a TRADOC school and resolves the differences.

structured message text. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A message text composed of paragraphs ordered in a specified sequence, each paragraph characterized by an identifier and containing information in free form. It is designed to facilitate manual handling and processing. See also formatted message text; free form message text.

structured question or structured response. A question that can only be answered in a specific way (e.g., yes/no, true/false).

student. An individual who has been placed in a learning situation in order to acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Also called learner and trainee.

student centered. Instruction that employs all the principles of criterion-referenced instruction to meet the needs of the student.

student centered instruction (SCI). An instructional process in which the content is determined by the student’s needs, the instructional materials are geared to the student’s abilities, and the instructional design makes the students active participants.

student centered instructional objective. A desired outcome of learning described in terms of student knowledge, skill, or attitude; proof of learning may be obtained through direct measurement of limited, precise student behavior (criterion objective) or general evidence of learning may be inferred from measurements of a sampling of student behaviors (level of learning objectives).

student control. The student has input to pace/content/ depth of training.

student controlled instruction. An instructional environment in which the student can choose from a variety of instructional options for achievement of the terminal objectives. Students can vary their rate of learning, the media used, and other such learning factors.

student evaluation plan. [TR 350-70] A plan that details how the proponent school will determine if the student has demonstrated a sufficient level of competency to pass the specified course or training. It specifically identifies course completion requirements to include the minimum passing score (or GO/NO GO) for each written or performance evaluation, final grade requirement, minimum course attendance requirements (if applicable); and specific tests that must be satisfactorily completed to graduate. It very specifically identifies how the student’s performance will be evaluated. Specific lessons tested in each test are identified. Counseling and retesting policy are delineated. Other evaluations, such as the Army Weight Control Program and Army Physical Fitness Test, that impact on graduation are identified, and their requirements are included.

student flow. The average input and output of students to a course during a given period of time. Also called throughput.

student guide. See trainee guide.

student handout. A summary of excerpts from supplementary material or presents information in a much clearer and more condensed form.

student input. The number of students actually enrolled at the beginning of a course.

student instructions. Directions for students on how to achieve the objectives of each lesson.

student load. The average number of students enrolled in a course of instruction over a specified time period.

student output. The number of students who successfully graduate from a course.

student performance counseling. [TR 350-70] As related to training, communication which informs soldiers/ students about their training and the expected performance standards and provides feedback on actual performance. Soldier/student performance includes appearance, conduct, learning accomplishment, and the way learning is being carried out.

student population baseline data. Information about the current level of performance of the student population that can be used to confirm the need to develop new instruction or to assess differences between student performance before (at baseline) and after instruction. Also called baseline data.

student prerequisites. The knowledge, skills, background, and attitudes of the people who will be using the instruction. Student characteristics might include age, Intelligence Quotient (IQ), educational background, reading level, prior training in related areas, and other related characteristics. The traits possessed by students that could affect their ability to learn.

student target population. The audience for which training presentation is directed, or the audience for which training materials are designed. See population.

student workbook. [TR 350-70] A proponent produced document that provides preprinted exercises for a student’s study. May include graphics and text.

study advisory group (SAG). A SAG is an advisory group convened by a study sponsor and composed of representatives of various HQDA organizations, Army staff agencies, and major Army commands having a clear functional interest in the study topic or use of study results.

study advisory group data subgroup.This is a group consisting of representatives of TRADOC and AMC. It includes testing agencies and other commands, when appropriate, who are responsible for coordinating and providing system data input. The objective of the SAG data subgroup is to assure adequate development of system data as defined and established in the cost and operational effective analysis (COEA) study plan.

study agency. [TR 350-32] TRADOC organization (e.g., service school, MSC, ATSC) or contractor tasked by approved Fiscal Year TSP or HQ TRADOC unprogrammed mission order to produce the training effectiveness analysis.

study guide. [TR 350-70] As the name states, a document that guides the student through the process of studying a lesson or series of lessons. The student can use it for recording notes.

study plan. [TR 350-32] Administrative document that describes in detail how and when the training effectiveness analysis study agency conducts the training effectiveness analysis and which organizations will participate.

stuffing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Packing of cargo into a container. See also cargo; unstuffing.

subassembly. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In logistics, a portion of an assembly, consisting of two or more parts, that can be provisioned and replaced as an entity. See also assembly; component.

subcontract. [DSMC] A contract or contractual action entered into by a prime contractor or subcontractor for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services under a prime contract.

subcontractor. [DSMC] A contractor who enters into a contract with a prime contractor.

subgravity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A condition in which the resultant ambient acceleration is between 0 and 1 G.

subject. [TP 25-71] A principal topic addressed in a record.

subject matter expert (SME). [TR 350-70] An individual who has a thorough knowledge of a job (duties and tasks). This knowledge qualifies the individual to assist in the training development process (i.e., consultation, review, analysis, etc.). Normally, an SME will instruct in his/her area of expertise.

subkiloton weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nuclear weapon producing a yield below one kiloton. See also kiloton weapon; megaton weapon; nominal weapon.

sublimited war. Not to be used. No substitute recommended.

submarine. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A warship designed for under-the-surface operations with primary mission of locating and destroying ships, including other submarines. It is capable of various other naval missions. Designated as SS and SSN (SSNs are nuclear powered). See fleet ballistic missile submarine.

submarine launched missile. See sea-launched ballistic missile.

submarine locator acoustic beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An electronic device, used by submarines in distress, for emitting a repetitive sonic pulse underwater.

submarine patrol area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A restricted area established to allow submarine operations: unimpeded by the operation of, or possible attack from, friendly forces in wartime; and without submerged mutual interference in peacetime.

submarine rocket (SUBROC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Submerged, submarine-launched, surface-to-surface rocket with nuclear depth charge or homing torpedo payload, primarily antisubmarine. Designated as WM-44A.

submarine safety lane. See safety lane.

submarine sanctuaries. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Restricted areas that are established for the conduct of noncombat submarine or anti-submarine exercises. They may be either stationary or moving and are normally designated only in rear areas. See also moving havens.

submarine striking forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Submarines having guided or ballistic missile launching and/or guidance capabilities formed to launch offensive nuclear strikes.

submunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any munition that, to perform its task, separates from a parent munition.

subordinate command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command consisting of the commander and all those individuals, units, detachments, organizations, or installations that have been placed under the command by the authority establishing the subordinate command.

subordinate unified command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command established by commanders of unified commands, when so authorized through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to conduct operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the criteria set forth for unified commands. A subordinate unified command may be established on an area or functional basis. Commanders of subordinate unified commands have functions and responsibilities similar to those of the commanders of unified commands and exercise operational control of assigned commands and forces within the assigned joint operations area. Also called subunified command. See also area command; functional component command; operational control; subordinate command; unified command.

subprogram. [DSMC] A major functional subset of a program, such as the attitude control system software.

subscription. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An agreement by a nation's military services to agree to accept and abide by, with or without reservation, the details of a standardization agreement. See also implementation; ratification; reservation.

subsequent application review (SAR). [DSMC] A formal review performed in lieu of a cost schedule control system criteria (C/SCSC) demonstration review when compliance with the DoD C/SCSC is a contract requirement.

subsidiary landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In an amphibious operation, a landing usually made outside the designated landing area, the purpose of which is to support the main landing.

subsystem. [DSMC] A functional grouping of components that combine to perform a major function within an element such as electrical power, attitude control, and propulsion.

subsonic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of or pertaining to speeds less than the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

subsonic cruise armed decoy (SCAD). The first designation of the AGM-86 program. At this stage, AGM-86 was intended as a decoy launched by the B-52, of which some would carry nuclear warheads.

substantive comment. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Substantive comments are provided because sections in the document appear to be or are potentially unnecessary, incorrect, incomplete, misleading, confusing, or inconsistent with other sections.

substitute transport-type vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A wheeled vehicle designed to perform, within certain limitations, the same military function as military transport vehicles, but not requiring all the special characteristics thereof. They are developed from civilian designs by addition of certain features, or from military designs by deletion of certain features. See also vehicle.

subsystem. A grouping of functionally related equipment that together perform particular functions contributing to the overall system function.

subtask. Activities (e.g., perceptions, decisions, and responses) that fill a portion of the immediate purpose within a task (e.g., remove a lug nut).

subunified command. See subordinate unified command.

subversion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Action designed to undermine the military, economic, psychological, or political strength or morale of a regime. See also unconventional warfare.

subversion of DoD personnel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Actions designed to undermine the loyalty, morale or discipline of Department of Defense military and civilian personnel.

subversive activity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Anyone lending aid, comfort, and moral support to individuals, groups or organizations that advocate the overthrow of incumbent governments by force and violence is subversive and is engaged in subversive activity. All willful acts that are intended to be detrimental to the best interests of the government and that do not fall into the categories of treason, sedition, sabotage, or espionage will be placed in the category of subversive activity.

subversive political action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A planned series of activities designed to accomplish political objectives by influencing, dominating, or displacing individuals or groups who are so placed as to affect the decisions and actions of another government.

suitability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operation plan review criterion. The determination that the course of action will reasonably accomplish the identified objectives, mission, or task if carried out successfully. See also acceptability; adequacy; completeness; feasibility.

summative evaluation. Overall assessment of training at the completion of the developmental process.

summit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The highest altitude above mean sea level that a projectile reaches in its flight from the gun to the target; the algebraic sum of the maximum ordinate and the altitude of the gun.

sunk costs. [DSMC] Costs already incurred. Because they are in the past, they are not germane to decisions about the future use of resources.

supersonic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of or pertaining to speed in excess of the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

supervised on-the-job training (OJT). [TR 350-70] Structured training accomplished while a person is working in a particular skill level and Military Occupational Specialty (MOS). The training is closely monitored by a supervisor because of equipment, safety, or skill requirements. Training support products such as training extension course lessons, interactive courseware, and correspondent subcourses may be integrated into supervised on-the-job training.

supervised route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In road traffic, a roadway over which limited control is exercised by means of traffic control posts, traffic patrols or both. Movement authorization is required for its use by a column of vehicles or a vehicle of exceptional size or weight. See also route.

supplemental agreement. [DSMC] Bilateral written modification to a contract by which the government and the contractor settle price and/or performance adjustments to the basic contract.

supplemental appropriation. [DSMC] An appropriation enacted as an addition to a regular annual appropriation act. Supplemental appropriations provide additional budget authority (BA) beyond original estimates for programs or activities which are too urgent to be postponed until the next regular appropriation.

supplementary facilities. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Facilities required at a particular location to provide a specified minimum of support for reinforcing forces, which exceed the facilities required to support in-place forces.

supplemental information. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that is used to associate a record source with other descriptive information in the Government Information Locator Service core locator record.

supplemental training material. Any material that cannot be included in the Interactive Courseware (ICW) but is educationally necessary to support the lesson. See adjunctive material.

supplementary facilities. Facilities required at a particular location to provide a specified minimum of support for reinforcing forces, which exceed the facilities required to support in-place forces.

supplementation. [DSMC] The publication of directives, instructions, regulations, and related documents that add to, restrict, or otherwise modify the policies or procedures of a higher authority.

supplies. 1Supplies means all property except land or interest in land. It includes (but is not limited to) public works, buildings, and facilities; ships, floating equipment, and vessels of every character, type, and description, together with parts and accessories; aircraft and aircraft parts, accessories, and equipment; machine tools; and the alteration or installation of any of the foregoing. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In logistics, all materiel and items used in the equipment, support, and maintenance of military forces. See also assembly; component; equipment; subassembly.

supplimentation. The publication of directives, instructions, regulations, and related documents that add to, restrict, or otherwise modify the policies or procedures of a higher authority.

supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The procurement, distribution, maintenance while in storage, and salvage of supplies, including the determination of kind and quantity of supplies.

l producer phase. That phase of military supply which extends from determination of procurement schedules to acceptance of finished supplies by the military services.

l consumer phase. That phase of military supply which extends from receipt of finished supplies by the military services through issue for use or consumption.

supply by air. See airdrop; air movement.

supply control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process by which an item of supply is controlled within the supply system, including requisitioning, receipt, storage, stock control, shipment, disposition, identification, and accounting.

supply discipline. Command responsibility to identify and redistribute excess materiel, observe senior commander’s priorities, and ensure subordinates operate within the legal boundaries of the logistics system.

supply point. Any point where supplies are issued in detail.

supply management. See inventory control.

supply support. [DSMC] The process conducted to determine, acquire, catalog, receive, store, transfer, issue, and dispose of secondary items necessary for the support of end items and support items. This includes provisioning for initial support as well as replenishment supply support. One of the traditional logistic support elements.

supply support activity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Activities assigned a Department of Defense activity address code and that have a supply support mission, i.e., direct support supply units, missile support elements, maintenance support units.

supply system. [DSMC] The organizations, offices, facilities, methods, and techniques utilized to provide supplies and equipment to authorized users including requirements computation, procurement, distribution, maintenance-in-storage, issue, and salvage of materiel.

supply transaction reporting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reporting on individual transactions affecting the stock status of materiel to the appropriate supply accounting activity as they occur.

supplying ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ship in a replenishment unit that provides the personnel and/or supplies to be transferred.

support. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The action of a force which aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action.

l A unit which helps another unit in battle. Aviation, artillery, or naval gunfire may be used as a support for infantry.

l A part of any unit held back at the beginning of an attack as a reserve.

l An element of a command which assists, protects, or supplies other forces in combat.

See also close support; direct support; general support; interdepartmental/agency support; international logistic support; inter-service support; mutual support.

support and test equipment. [DSMC] All equipment (mobile or fixed) required to support the operation and maintenance of a materiel system. This includes associated multi-use support items, ground-handling and maintenance equipment, tools, meteorology and calibration equipment, and manual/automatic test equipment. It includes the acquisition of logistics support (LS) for the support and test equipment itself. One of the traditional LS elements.

support helicopter. See assault aircraft; utility helicopter.

support instructional material. A type of instructional material used during the body of a lesson to support an assertion or to develop understanding. See proof support.

support items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items subordinate to, or associated with an end item (i.e., spares, repair parts, tools, test equipment and sundry materiel) and required to operate, service, repair or overhaul an end item.

support site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In the Air Force, a facility operated by an Active, Reserve, or Guard unit that provides general support to the Air Force mission and does not satisfy the criteria for a major or minor installation. Examples of support sites are missile tracking sites; radar bomb scoring sites; Air Force-owned, contractor-operated plants; radio relay sites, etc. See also installation complex; major installation; minor installation; other activity.

support item. [DSMC] An item which is used to support an end item (e.g., a tool, a piece of test equipment or a training device).

support to counterinsurgency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Support provided to a government in the military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions it undertakes to defeat insurgency. See also support to insurgency.

support to insurgency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Support provided to an organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict. See also support to counterinsurgency.

supportability. [DSMC] The degree of ease to which system design characteristics and planned logistics resources, including the logistic support elements, allows for the meeting of system availability and wartime utilization requirements.

supportability analysis (SA). [DSMC] An analytical tool, conducted as part of the Systems Engineering (SE) process, to determine how to most cost-effectively support the system over its entire life cycle. It provides the basis for related design requirements that may be included in specifications.

supported commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The commander having primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other joint operation planning authority. In the context of joint operation planning, this term refers to the commander who prepares operation plans or operation orders in response to requirements of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. See also joint operation planning.

supported task. See task supported.

supporting aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All active aircraft other than unit aircraft. See also aircraft.

supporting arms. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Air, sea, and land weapons of all types employed to support ground units.

supporting arms coordination center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single location on board an amphibious command ship in which all communication facilities incident to the coordination of fire support of the artillery, air, and naval gunfire are centralized. This is the naval counterpart to the fire support coordination center utilized by the landing force. See also fire support coordination center.

supporting artillery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Artillery which executes fire missions in support of a specific unit, usually infantry, but remains under the command of the next higher artillery commander.

supporting attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive operation carried out in conjunction with a main attack and designed to achieve one or more of the following:

l Deceive the enemy.

l Destroy or pin down enemy forces which could interfere with the main attack.

l Control ground whose occupation by the enemy will hinder the main attack.

l Force the enemy to commit reserves prematurely or in an indecisive area.

supporting commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commander who provides augmentation forces or other support to a supported commander or who develops a supporting plan. Includes the designated combatant commands and Defense agencies as appropriate. See also supported commander; supporting plan.

supporting fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire delivered by supporting units to assist or protect a unit in combat. See also close supporting fire; deep supporting fire; direct supporting fire.

supporting forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forces stationed in, or to be deployed to, an area of operations to provide support for the execution of an operation order. Combatant command (command authority) of supporting forces is not passed to the supported commander.

supporting operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In amphibious operations, those operations conducted by forces other than those assigned to the amphibious task force. They are ordered by higher authority at the request of the amphibious task force commander and normally are conducted outside the area for which the amphibious task force commander is responsible at the time of their execution.

supporting plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation plan prepared by a supporting commander or a subordinate commander to satisfy the requests or requirements of the supported commander's plan.

supporting schools. [TR 350-70] Those schools who have responsibility for training particular jobs in support of a new system but are not the proponent for the system itself. Supporting schools provide input to the STRAP in their areas of responsibility.

supporting Service. [DSMC] A Service designated by the Secretary of Defense, or as the result of service initiatives, to assist the designated lead Service in the management of multiservice Operational Test and Evaluation or Joint Test and Evaluation program.

supporting task. [TR 350-70] A critical task that must be performed in order for the supported task to be performed.

supporting training proponent. [TR 350-70] An organization that is not the training proponent but is responsible for training and training development for one or more tasks associated with a new, improved, or displaced materiel system. There may be more than one supporting training proponent for a materiel system.

supportive learning objective relationship. In instructional systems development, knowledge and skills in one learning objective that have some relationship to those in another learning objective. The learning involved in mastery of one learning objective transfers to the other, making learning involved in the mastery of the other easier.

supportive relationship. Occurs when skills and knowledges in one objective have some relationship to those in the other objective; the learning involved in mastery of one learning objective transfers to the other, making learning involved in the mastery of the other easier.

suppression. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Temporary or transient degradation by an opposing force of the performance of a weapons system below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives.

suppression mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission to suppress an actual or suspected weapons system for the purpose of degrading its performance below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives at a specific time for a specified duration.

suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) That activity which neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades surface-based enemy air defenses by destructive and/or disruptive means. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare.

suppressive fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fires on or about a weapons system to degrade its performance below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives, during the conduct of the fire mission. See also fire.

surf line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The point offshore where waves and swells are affected on by the underwater surface and become breakers. See also breaker.

surf zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The area of water from the surf line to the beach. See also surf line.

surface burst. See nuclear surface burst.

surface code. See panel code.

surface combatant. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship constructed and armed for combat use with the capability to conduct operations in multiple maritime roles against air, surface and subsurface threats, and land targets.

surface smuggling event. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, the sighting of a suspected drug smuggling vessel or arrival of a suspected drug smuggling vessel. See also arrival zone; counterdrug operations; transit zone.

surface striking forces (naval). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forces that are organized primarily to do battle with enemy forces or to conduct shore bombardment. Units comprising such a force are generally incorporated in and operate as part of another force, but with provisions for their formation into a surface striking force should such action appear likely and/or desirable.

surface zero. See ground zero.

surface-to-air guided missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A surface-launched guided missile for use against air targets.

surface-to-air missile envelope. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That air space within the kill capabilities of a specific surface-to-air missile system.

surface-to-air missile installation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A surface-to-air missile site with the surface-to-air missile system hardware installed.

surface-to-air missile site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plot of ground prepared in such a manner that it will readily accept the hardware used in surface-to-air missile system.

surface-to-air weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A surface-launched weapon for use against airborne targets. Future developments in air defense systems may lead to the employment of weapons other than missiles. Examples include rockets, directed-energy weapons, and air defense guns.

surface-to-surface guided missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A surface-launched guided missile for use against surface targets.

surge. An increase in the production or repair of defense goods of limited duration.

surge production. [DSMC] An increased rate of production necessary to meet demands for defense items due to a wartime or mobilization situation. This increased rate can be obtained by having excess production capacity available or by utilizing multiple shifts of normal capacity machines.

surplus property. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any excess property not required for the needs and for the discharge of the responsibilities of all federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, as determined by the General Services Administration.

surprise dosage attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chemical operation which establishes on target a dosage sufficient to produce the desired casualties before the troops can mask or otherwise protect themselves.

Surprise Package. An AC-130 armed with two 20mm Vulcan guns and a 40mm Bofors.

surveillance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means. See also air surveillance; satellite and missile surveillance; sea surveillance.

surveillance (plant). [DSMC] Monitoring of contractor efforts to perform under a contract. Done by government personnel, that includes on-site inspections, checks, and reports.

surveillance approach. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An instrument approach conducted in accordance with directions issued by a controller referring to the surveillance radar display.

surveillance monitor. [DSMC] The individual in the contract administrative office (CAO) who is responsible for coordinating cost/schedule control system criteria surveillance functions with other members of the CAO organization and with the auditor, to assure that the surveillance objectives are accomplished.

surveillance plan. [DSMC] A document, consistent with a memorandum of agreement, and which establishes the procedures of accomplishing cost/schedule control system criteria contractor surveillance.

survey control point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A survey station used to coordinate survey control.

survey information center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A place where survey data are collected, correlated, and made available to subordinate units.

survey photography. See air cartographic photography.

survivability. [DoD] The capability of a system to avoid or withstand man-made hostile environments without suffering an abortive impairment of its ability to accomplish its designated mission.

survivability augmentation for transport aircraft now (SATIN). The acronym SATAN would have been more logical, but has obvious disadvantages. This is an ECM system for transport aircraft.

susceptibility. 1[DoD] The degree to which a device, equipment, or weapon system is open to effective attack due to one or more inherent weaknesses. Susceptibility is a function of operational tactics, countermeasures, probability of the enemy fielding a threat, etc. It is a subset of survivability. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vulnerability of a target audience to particular forms of psychological operations approach.

suspect. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, a track of interest where correlating information actually ties the track of interest to alleged narcotics operations. See also special interest target; track of interest.

suspension equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All aircraft devices such as racks, adapters, missile launchers and pylons used for carriage, employment and jettison of aircraft stores.

suspension strop. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A length of webbing or wire rope between the helicopter and cargo sling.

sustainability. [DSMC] The staying power of U.S. forces, units, weapons systems, and equipment usually measured in number of days capability to sustain combat. See military capability.

sustained attrition minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a minefield which is replenished to maintain its danger to the enemy in the face of countermeasures.

sustained rate of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Actual rate of fire that a weapon can continue to deliver for an indefinite length of time without seriously overheating.

sustaining base (SB). [TR 350-70] The sustaining base encompasses combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) table of distribution and allowance (TDA) resources, management systems, facilities, and equipment located outside operational theaters.

sustaining base courses. [TR 350-70] Those courses that support SBT.

sustaining base training (SBT). [TR 350-70] SBT is provided primarily for civilian and military members of the TDA work force. It includes all non-combat and non-military occupational specialty (MOS)/area of concentration (AOC) skill level, additional skill identifier (ASI), language identifier code (LIC), skill qualification identifier (SQI), skill identifier (SI)-producing training provided to the civilian and military SB work force members.

sustaining stocks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Stocks to support the execution of approved operational plans beyond the initial predetermined period covered by basic stocks until resupply is available for support of continued operations.

sustainment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The provision of personnel, logistic, and other support required to maintain and prolong operations or combat until successful accomplishment or revision of the mission or of the national objective.

sustainment training. See refresher training.

sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To employ technical means to uncover planted microphones or other surveillance devices. See also technical survey.

sweep jamming. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A narrow band of jamming that is swept back and forth over a relatively wide operating band of frequencies.

sweeper track. See hunter track.

swell. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Ocean waves that have traveled out of their fetch. Swell characteristically exhibits a more regular and longer period and has flatter crests than waves within their fetch.

swept path. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the width of the lane swept by the mechanical sweep at all depths less than the sweep depth.

switch horn. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a switch in a mine operated by a projecting spike. See also horn.

symbol. Anything that stands for or represents something else. A plus sign (+) is a symbol for addition.

sympathetic detonation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Detonation of a charge by exploding another charge adjacent to it.

synchronization. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The arrangement of military actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative combat power at a decisive place and time.

l In the intelligence context, application of intelligence sources and methods in concert with the operational plan.

synchronized clock. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A technique of timing the delivery of fires by placing all units on a common time. The synchronized clock uses a specific hour/minute based on either local or universal time. Local time is established using the local time zone.

synchronizing pulse. 1An audible or inaudible sound used to coordinate the audio and video portions of a slide-tape program so that audio and video (i.e., slide and narration) are coordinated. 2A signal used to coordinate the audio and video portions of program.

synchronous transmission. Transmission in which data bits are sent at a fixed rate with the transmitter and receiver synchronized. This form of transmission eliminates the need for start and stop bits.

synthesis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence usage, the examining and combining of processed information with other information and intelligence for final interpretation.

synthetic environment. [TR 350-70] Linked M&S (models and simulations) that represent activities at various levels of fidelity, abstraction, and realism from simulations of theaters of war to factories and manufacturing processes. These environments may be created within a single computer or a vast distributed network connected by local or wide area networks and augmented by super-realistic special effects and accurate behavioral models. They allow visualization of and immersion into the environment being simulated. (DoD Directive 5000.59-P)

synthetic exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An exercise in which enemy and/or friendly forces are generated, displayed and moved by electronic or other means on simulators, radar scopes or other training devices.

synthetic theater of war (STOW). [TR 350-70] STOW mission is to link any two or more of the three components of the total training environment (live, virtual and constructive).

synthetic training environment. [TR 350-70] The evolution of expanding battlespace to accommodate the use of digitization, to include M&S (models and simulations) capabilities, within the live, virtual, and constructive training environment in support of combat readiness.

system. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Any organized assembly of resources and procedures united and regulated by interaction or interdependence to accomplish a set of specific functions. 2[DSMC]

l The organization of hardware, software, material, facilities, personnel, data, and services needed to perform a designated function with specified results, such as the gathering of specified data, its processing, and delivery to users.

l A combination of two or more interrelated equipment's (sets) arranged in a functional package to perform an operational function or to satisfy a requirement.

system acquisition decision memorandum (SADM). The SADM provides the Army decision authority’s decision including approval of goals and thresholds for cost, schedule, performance, supportability; approval of exceptions to the normal acquisition process; and other direction as appropriate.

system acquisition management. [DSMC] See acquisition management and program management.

system acquisition process. [DSMC] The sequence of acquisition activities starting from the agency's reconciliation of its mission needs, with its capabilities, priorities and resources, and extending through the introduction of a system into operational use of the otherwise successful achievement of program objectives.

system acquisition review council (SARC). [DSMC] A council established by the head of a military department as an advisory body on defense system acquisitions. The (S)SARC is normally chaired by the acquisition executive and is similar in functional composition, responsibilities and operation to the Defense Acquisition Board. In application, the term (Service) is replaced by the designation of the applicable military department, e.g., U.S. Army System Acquisition Review Council (ASARC). See program decision meeting (PDM)

system analysis. [DSMC] A management planning technique which applies scientific methods of many disciplines to major problems or decisions. The list of disciplines includes, but is not limited to, traditional military planning, economics, political science and social sciences, applied mathematics, and the physical sciences.

system concept paper (SCP). The SCP is a (not more than) 12-page decision document that summarizes the activities of the Concept Exploration and Definition Phase of the LCSMM. It briefly describes the history of the development, mission areas and role, the validated threat, and shortfalls of the existing system(s). The SCP describes alternatives considered and reasons for their nonselection. Formal approval of the SCP constitutes approval of the acquisition strategy (AS) of the decision coordinating paper (DCP).

system deployment. [DSMC] Delivery of the completed production system to the using activity.

system design concept. This is an idea expressed in terms of general performance, capabilities, and hardware/ software characteristics. It describes a system either to operate or to be operated as an integral whole in meeting a mission.

system engineering management plan (SEMP). [DSMC] Includes plans for verification, risk alleviation, analyses, and simulation of the system requirements.

system functional review (SFR). [DSMC] Conducted to demonstrate achievability of system requirements and readiness to initiate preliminary design. Typically accomplished during the program definition and risk reduction phase.

system manager. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A general term of reference to those organizations directed by individual managers, exercising authority over the planning, direction, and control of tasks and associated functions essential for support of designated weapons or equipment systems. The authority vested in this organization may include such functions as research, development, procurement, production, materiel distribution, and logistic support, when so assigned. When intended to relate to a specific system manager, this term will be preceded by the appropriate designation (e.g., Chinook System Manager, Sonar System Manager, F-4 System Manager). This term will normally be used in lieu of system support manager, weapon system manager, program manager, and project manager when such organizations perform these functions.

system MANPRINT management plan (SMMP). 1[DCSPER] The SMMP is the Army's human systems integration plan. It serves as a planning and management guide and as an audit trail to identify tasks, analyses, tradeoffs, and decisions that must be made to address MANPRINT issues during the system development and acquisition process. The SMMP will be updated as needed throughout the acquisition process and prior to each MDR. 2[TR 350-70] A management plan to ensure the combat developer/ materiel developer take the six MANPRINT domains into account during the development of all materiel items.

system MANPRINT management plan (SMMP) joint working group (MJWG). [TR 350-70] Commonly referred to as the MANPRINT joint working group (MJWG), this organization manages MANPRINT issues during the materiel acquisition process. The MJWG also provides oversight to ensure accomplishment of the MANPRINT process.

system MANPRINT manager. This is the individual responsible for implementation of MANPRINT on a specific system. Within a program management office, the integrated logistics support manager is also the MANPRINT manager.

system master plan. Control document used to coordinate the development and implementation of an instructional program.

system operational concept. [DSMC] A formal document that describes the intended purpose, employment, deployment, and support of a system.

system program issues. Issues that address broad areas of concern to the highest level of decision makers. System program issues are developed and coordinated with the mission needs statement and normally address operational effectiveness and suitability, cost, schedule, and producibility.

system program office (SPO). [DSMC] The office of the program manager (PM) and the single point of contact with industry, government agencies, and other activities participating in the system acquisition process.

system proponent. [TR 350-70] The command, center, school, or agency responsible for the combat/training development associated with a new, improved, or displaced materiel system.

system readiness objective (SRO). 1This measures the effectiveness of an operational unit to meet peacetime and wartime mission requirements considering the unit set of equipage and the potential logistic support assets and resources available to influence the unit’s operational readiness and sustainability. Peacetime and wartime SROs will differ due to usage rate, operational modes, mission profiles, and operational environments. Examples of SROs include: operational availability at peacetime usage rates, sortie generations per given timeframe (aircraft), and maximum administrative/logistic downtime (intermittent missions). SRO must relate quantitatively to system design parameters (for example, RAM) and support resource requirements. 2[DSMC] A criterion for assessing the ability of a system to undertake and sustain a specified set of missions at planned peacetime and wartime utilization rates. System readiness measures take explicit account of the effects of reliability and maintainability system design, the characteristics and performance of the support system, and the quantity and location of support resources. Examples of system readiness measures are combat sortie rate over time, peacetime mission capable rate, operational availability, and asset ready rate.

system reliability and maintainability parameter. [DSMC] A measure of reliability or maintainability in which the units of measurement are directly related to operational readiness, mission success, maintenance manpower cost, or logistic support cost.

system requirements review (SRR). [DSMC] Conducted to ascertain progress in defining system technical requirements. Determines the direction and progress of the systems engineering effort and the degree of convergence upon a balanced and complete configuration. Normally held during the concept and exploration phase, but may be repeated after the start of program definition and risk reduction to clarify the contractor's understanding of redefined/new user requirements.

system safety. [DSMC] The application of engineering and management principles, criteria, and techniques to optimize safety within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost throughout all phases of the system life cycle.

system safety (MANPRINT domain). The design characteristics and operational characteristics (including operating procedure requirements) of a system that minimize possibilities of machine, personnel, or total system accidents or failures and create an acceptable level of risk.

system safety domain assessment A report which assesses the overall safety of the emerging or changing system and ensures that system safety issues and concerns, and recommended solutions, are integrated into the acquisition program. prepares this report. For AIS, USAISC prepares the report.

system safety program plan (SSPP). A description of the planned methods to be used by the contractor to implement the tailored requirements of MIL-STD 8828, including organizational responsibilities, resources, methods of accomplishment, milestones, depth of effort, and integration with other program engineering, management activities, and related systems.

system specification. [DSMC] States all necessary functional requirements of a system in terms of technical performance and mission requirements, including test provisions to assure that all requirements are achieved. Essential physical constraints are included. System specifications state the technical and mission requirements of the system as an entity.

system support manager. See system manager.

system threat assessment (STA). [DSMC] Describes the threat to be countered and the projected threat environment. The threat information must be validated by the Defense Intelligence Agency programs reviewed by the Defense Acquisition Board.

system training device (STD). A training device acquired by the PEO or PM with the system. See training device.

system training plan (STRAP). [TR 350-70] The master training plan for a new system. It outlines the development of the total training strategy for integrating the item into the training base and gaining units; plans for all necessary training support, training products, and courses; and sets milestones to ensure the accomplishment of the training strategy.

system verification review (SVR). [DSMC] Conducted to demonstrate that the system has been verified to satisfy the requirements in the functional and allocated baselines, and to confirm readiness for production, deployment, operations or continuing verifications. Normally conducted during engineering and management development or production, fielding/deployment, and operational support phases.

system-level test. [DoD] A test conducted on the complete system, but may or may not be a Full-up test. This testing alone may not satisfy . See full-up, system-level test

systems approach. A process that synthesizes and interrelates the components of a process within a conceptual framework, ensuring continuous, orderly, and effective progress toward a stated goal.

systems approach to training (SAT). [TR 350-70] The Army’s training development process. It is a systematic, spiral approach to making collective, individual, and self-development training decisions for the total Army. It determines whether or not training is needed; what is trained; who gets the training; how, how well, and where the training is presented; and the training support/resources required to produce, distribute, implement, and evaluate those products. The process involves five training related phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. See training development (TD).

systems architecture (SA). [TP 71-9] SA is the physical layout, depicted graphically, showing the relationship of the information exchange and connectivity requirements. The SA identifies components, capabilities, and establishes interconnections among command, control, communication, and computer (C4) components of systems. The SA can be developed for an individual system or at higher levels to depict the integration of numerous systems into a systemof systems architecture.

systems commands. [DSMC]

l Navy material/developing activities: Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Naval Supply Command (NAVSUP), and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR).

l Term sometimes is generic reference for all service acquisition commands/centers.

systems design. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The preparation of an assembly of methods, procedures, or techniques united by regulated interaction to form an organized whole.

systems effectiveness. [DSMC] The measure of the extent to which a system may be expected to achieve a set of specific mission requirements. It is a function of availability, reliability, dependability, and capability.

systems engineering. [DSMC] A comprehensive, iterative technical management process that includes translating operational requirements into configured systems, integrating the technical inputs of the entire design team, managing interfaces, characterizing and managing technical risk, transitioning technology from the technology base into program specific efforts, and verifying that designs meet operational needs. It is a life cycle activity that demands a concurrent approach to both product and process development.

systems interface training. [TR 350-70] Training that:

l Is required to employ individual systems in a larger systems environment. It enables individual systems to interface with each other in this larger environment.

l Is required after individual systems have been trained.

l Can be directed to leaders as well as system operators.