Index Military Definitions

table of allowance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An equipment allowance document which prescribes basic allowances of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory data.

table of distribution and allowances (TDA). The TDA is the requirements/authorization document which prescribes the organizational structure, personnel and equipment authorizations, and requirements of a military unit to perform a specific mission for which there is no appropriate TOE.

table of organization. See establishment.

table of organization and equipment (TOE). The TOE is a table which prescribes the normal wartime mission, organizational structure, and personnel and equipment requirements for a military unit. The TOE is the basis for an authorization document, the MTOE. The TOE is not an authorization document. See also establishment.

taboo frequency A friendly frequency on which jamming or other intentional interference is prohibited.

tac-log group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Representatives designated by troop commanders to assist Navy control officers aboard control ships in the ship-to-shore movement of troops, equipment, and supplies.

tacan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An ultra-high frequency electronic air navigation system, able to provide continuous bearing and slant range to a selected station. The term is derived from tactical air navigation.

tacit arms control agreement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An arms control course of action in which two or more nations participate without any formal agreement having been made.

Tacit Rainbow. Northrop AGM-136A, a loitering, antiradiation cruise missile.

tactical aeromedical evacuation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That phase of evacuation which provides airlift for patients from the combat zone to points outside the combat zone, and between points within the communications zone.

tactical air command center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The principal United States Marine Corps air operation installation from which aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations are directed. It is the senior agency of the Marine Corps air command and control system from which the Marine Corps tactical air commander can direct and control tactical air operations and coordinate such air operations with other services.

tactical air commander (ashore). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer (aviator) responsible to the landing force commander for control and coordination of air operations within the landing force commander's area of responsibility when control of these operations is passed ashore.

tactical air control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The principal air operations installation (land- or ship-based) from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations are controlled.

tactical air control group. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l land-based. A flexible administrative and tactical component of a tactical air organization which provides aircraft control and warning functions ashore for offensive and defensive missions within the tactical air zone of responsibility.

l ship-based. An administrative and tactical component of an amphibious force which provides aircraft control and warning facilities afloat for offensive and defensive missions within the tactical air command area of responsibility.

tactical air control operations team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A team of ground environment personnel assigned to certain allied tactical air control units/elements.

tactical air control party. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft.

tactical air control party support team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army team organized to provide armored combat and/or special purpose vehicles and crews to certain tactical air control parties.

tactical air control squadron. tactical air control party. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft.

l land-based. A flexible administrative component of a tactical air control group, known as TACRON, which provides the control mechanism for a land-based tactical air control center, a tactical air direction center, or tactical air control parties.

l ship-based. An administrative and tactical component of the tactical air control group, known as TACRON, which provides the control mechanism for the ship-based tactical air direction center or the ship-based tactical air control center.

tactical air control squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l land-based -- A flexible administrative component of a tactical air control group, known as TACRON, which provides the control mechanism for a land-based tactical air control center, a tactical air direction center, or tactical air control parties.

l ship-based -- An administrative and tactical component of the tactical air control group, known as TACRON, which provides the control mechanism for the ship-based tactical air direction center or the ship-based tactical air control center.

tactical air control system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The organization and equipment necessary to plan, direct, and control tactical air operations and to coordinate air operations with other services. It is composed of control agencies and communications-electronics facilities which provide the means for centralized control and decentralized execution of missions.

tactical air controller. The officer in charge of all operations of the tactical air control center. He is responsible to the tactical air commander for the control of all aircraft and air warning facilities within his area of responsibility. See also air controller.

tactical air coordinator (airborne). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft, the action of combat aircraft engaged in close support of ground or sea forces. See also forward observer.

tactical air direction center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air operations installation under the overall control of the tactical air control center (afloat)/tactical air command center, from which aircraft and air warning service functions of tactical air operations in an area of responsibility are directed. See also tactical air director.

tactical air director. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer in charge of all operations of the tactical air direction center. This officer is responsible to the tactical air controller for the direction of all aircraft and air warning facilities assigned to the area of responsibility. When operating independently of a tactical air control center (afloat), the tactical air director assumes the functions of the tactical air controller. See also tactical air direction center.

tactical air doctrine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fundamental principles designed to provide guidance for the employment of air power in tactical air operations to attain established objectives.

tactical air force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air force charged with carrying out tactical air operations in coordination with ground or naval forces.

tactical air groups (shore-based). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Task organizations of tactical air units assigned to the amphibious task force that are to be land-based within, or sufficiently close to, the objective area to provide tactical air support to the amphibious task force.

tactical air observer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer trained as an air observer whose function is to observe from airborne aircraft and report on movement and disposition of friendly and enemy forces, on terrain, weather, and hydrography and to execute other missions as directed.

tactical air officer (afloat). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer (aviator) under the amphibious task force commander who coordinates planning of all phases of air participation of the amphibious operation and air operations of supporting forces en route to and in the objective area. Until control is passed ashore, this officer exercises control over all operations of the tactical air control center (afloat) and is charged with: control of all aircraft in the objective area assigned for tactical air operations, including offensive and defensive air; control of all other aircraft entering or passing through the objective area; and control of all air warning facilities in the objective area.

tactical air operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air operation involving the employment of air power in coordination with ground or naval forces to: gain and maintain air superiority; prevent movement of enemy forces into and within the objective area and to seek out and destroy these forces and their supporting installations; and join with ground or naval forces in operations within the objective area, in order to assist directly in attainment of their immediate objective.

tactical air operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subordinate operational component of the marine air command and control system designed for direction and control of all en route air traffic and air defense operations, to include manned interceptors and surface-to-air weapons, in an assigned sector. It is under the operational control of the tactical air command center.

tactical air reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The use of air vehicles to obtain information concerning terrain, weather, and the disposition, composition, movement, installations, lines of communications, electronic and communication emissions of enemy forces. Also included are artillery and naval gun-fire adjustment, and systematic and random observation of ground battle areas, targets, and/or sectors of airspace.

tactical air support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Air operations carried out in coordination with surface forces and which directly assist land or maritime operations. See also air support.

tactical air support element. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An element of a United States Army division, corps, or field army tactical operations center consisting of G2 and G3 air personnel who coordinate and integrate tactical air support with current tactical ground operations.

tactical air transport operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The carriage of passengers and cargo within a theater by means of:

l Airborne operations, consisting of parachute assault, helicopter borne assault, or air landing.

l Air logistic support.

l Special missions.

l Aeromedical evacuation missions.

tactical area of responsibility (TAOR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A defined area of land for which responsibility is specifically assigned to the commander of the area as a measure for control of assigned forces and coordination of support.

tactical call sign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A call sign which identifies a tactical command or tactical communication facility. See also call sign.

tactical combat force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat service support assets, that is assigned the mission of defeating Level III threats.

tactical command, control, communications, and computer system (s). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential to theater-level and below-theater-level commanders for planning, directing, and controlling operations of assigned and attached forces pursuant to the mission assigned and which provide for the conveyance and/or exchange of data and information from one person or force to another. See also command, control, communications, and computer systems.

tactical concept. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A statement, in broad outline, which provides a common basis for future development of tactical doctrine. See also tactical sub-concept.

tactical control (TACON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Tactical control is inherent in operational control. Tactical control may be delegated to, and exercised at any level at or below the level of combatant command. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); operational control.

tactical deception group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task organization that conducts deception operations against the enemy, including electronic, communication, visual, and other methods designed to misinform and confuse the enemy.

tactical digital information link (TADIL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Joint Staff approved, standardized communication link suitable for transmission of digital information. Current practice is to characterize a TADIL by its standardized message formats and transmission characteristics. TADILs interface two or more command and control or weapon systems via a single or multiple network architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of tactical information. There are six types:

l TADIL-A. A secure, half-duplex, netted digital data link utilizing parallel transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at either 1364 or 2250 bits per second. It is normally operated in a roll-call mode under control of a net control station to exchange digital information among airborne, land-based, and shipboard systems. NATO's equivalent is Link 11.

l TADIL-B. A secure, full-duplex, point-to-point digital data link utilizing serial transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at either 2400, 1200, or 600 bits per second. It interconnects tactical air defense and air control units. NATO's equivalent is Link 11B.

l TADIL-C. An unsecured, time-division digital data link utilizing serial transmission characteristics and standard message formats at 5000 bits per second from a controlling unit to controlled aircraft. Information exchange can be one-way (controlling unit to controlled aircraft) or two-way. NATO's equivalent is Link 4.

l TADIL-J. A secure, high capacity, jam-resistant, nodeless data link which uses the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) transmission characteristics and the protocols, conventions, and fixed-length message formats defined by the JTIDS Technical Interface Design Plan (TIDP). NATO's equivalent is Link 16.

l Army Tactical Data Link 1 (ATDL-1). A secure, full-duplex, point-to-point digital data link utilizing serial transmission frame characteristics and standard message formats at a basic speed of 1200 bits per second. It interconnects tactical air control systems and Army or marine tactical air defense oriented systems.

l Interim JTIDS Message Specification (IJMS). A secure, high capacity, jam-resistant, nodeless interim message specification that uses the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) transmission characteristics and the protocols, conventions, and fixed-length message formats defined by the IJMS.

See also Airborne Tactical Data System; data link.

tactical diversion. See diversion.

tactical information processing and interpretation (TIPI) system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tactical, mobile, land-based, automated information-handling system designed to store and retrieve intelligence information and to process and interpret imagery or non-imagery data.

tactical intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting tactical operations. See also intelligence; operational intelligence; strategic intelligence.

tactical intelligence and related activities (TIARA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those intelligence, reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition programs which are funded partially or totally outside the National Foreign Intelligence Program, and which:

l Respond to operational commander’s tasking for time sensitive information on foreign entities.

l Respond to national intelligence community tasking of systems whose primary mission is to support operational forces.

l Train personnel for intelligence duties.

l Provide an intelligence reserve.

l Are devoted to research and development of intelligence or related activities.

Specifically excluded are programs which are closely integrated with a weapon system and provide immediate-use targeting data to that system as their sole or primary function.

tactical level of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces. Activities at this level focus on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives. See also operational level of war; strategic level of war.

tactical loading. See combat loading; unit loading.

tactical locality. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area of terrain which, because of its location or features, possesses a tactical significance in the particular circumstances existing at a particular time.

tactical map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A large-scale map used for tactical and administrative purposes. See also map.

tactical minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A minefield which is part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to delay, channel or break up an enemy advance.

tactical mining. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, mining designed to influence a specific operation or to counter a known or presumed tactical aim of the enemy. Implicit in tactical mining is a limited period of effectiveness of the minefield.

tactical nuclear weapon employment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The use of nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces against opposing forces, supporting installations or facilities, in support of operations which contribute to the accomplishment of a military mission of limited scope, or in support of the military commander's scheme of maneuver, usually limited to the area of military operations.

tactical obstacles. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those obstacles employed to disrupt enemy formations, to turn them into a desired area, to fix them in position under direct and indirect fires, and to block enemy penetrations.

tactical operations area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That area between the fire support coordination line and the rear operations area where maximum flexibility in the use of airspace is needed to assure mission accomplishment. The rear boundary of the tactical operations area should normally be at or near the rear boundary of the front-line divisions.

tactical operations center(TOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A physical grouping of those elements of an Army general and special staff concerned with the current tactical operations and the tactical support thereof.

tactical range. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A range in which realistic targets are in use and a certain freedom of maneuver is allowed.

tactical reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A part of a force, held under the control of the commander as a maneuvering force to influence future action.

tactical security. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In operations, the measures necessary to deny information to the enemy and to ensure that a force retains its freedom of action and is warned or protected against an unexpected encounter with the enemy or an attack. See also physical security; security.

tactical situation (TACSIT) of a USN battlegroup.

l TACSIT 1. The exact location of battlegroup known to enemy.

l TACSIT 2. The general location of battlegroup known to enemy.

l TACSIT 3. The location of battlegroup unknown to enemy.

tactical sub-concept. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A statement, in broad outline, for a specific field of military capability within a tactical concept which provides a common basis both for equipment and weapon system development and for future development of tactical doctrine. See also tactical concept.

tactical transport aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo over short or medium distances.

tactical troops. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Combat troops, together with any service troops required for their direct support, who are organized under one commander to operate as a unit and engage the enemy in combat. See also troops.

tactical unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organization of troops, aircraft, or ships which is intended to serve as a single unit in combat. It may include service units required for its direct support.

tactical vehicle. See military designed vehicle.

tactical warning. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A warning after initiation of a threatening or hostile act based on an evaluation of information from all available sources.

l In satellite and missile surveillance, a notification to operational command centers that a specific threat event is occurring. The component elements that describe threat events are:

l Country of origin--country or countries initiating hostilities.

l Event type and size--identification of the type of event and determination of the size or number of weapons.

l Country under attack--determined by observing trajectory of an object and predicting its impact point.

l Event time--time the hostile event occurred. Also called integrated tactical warning.

See also attack assessment; strategic warning.

tactical warning and assessment. A composite term. See separate definitions for tactical warning and for attack assessment.

tactical warning and attack assessment. A composite term. See separate definitions for tactical warning and for attack assessment.

tactics. [TR 350-70] The employment of units in combat. The ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other and/or to the enemy in order to use their full potentialities. Example: A commander designates a unit as a reserve and plans for its use.

TADSS proponent. [TR 350-70] The command or agency, normally a service school, that has primary responsibility for life cycle management of an item of TADSS from conception through classification as obsolete.

TADV. [TR 350-70] Management decision package (MDEP) designation for training development.

Tagged-Image File Format (TIFF). [TP 25-71] The TIFF is used to exchange documents between applications and computer platforms. The TIFF format supports LZW compression. LZW is the same compression used by the gif format; however, unlike gif, LZW TIFF supports image types other than indexed color.

tagline. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line attached to a draft of cargo or container to provide control and minimize pendulation of cargo during lifting operations. See also cargo; container; draft.

tail hook. See aircraft arresting hook.

tailorability. [TP 525-5] Capability to determine the right mix and sequencing of units with sufficient combat power to accomplish the mission and sustain the force, based on METT-T, analysis, and other criteria such as available lift, pre-positioned assets and host nation support.

tailoring. 1The process by which individual requirements (sections, paragraphs or sentences) of specifications, standards and related documents are evaluated to determine the extent to which they are most suitable for a specific acquisition, and the modification of these requirements to ensure that each achieves an optimal balance between operational needs and cost. 2[DSMC] The manner in which certain core issues (program definition, program structure, program design, program assessments, and periodic reporting) are addressed in a particular program. The milestone decision authority seeks to minimize the time it takes to satisfy an identified need consistent with common sense, sound business management practice, applicable laws and regulations, and the time sensitive nature of the requirement itself. Tailoring may be applied to various aspects of the acquisition process, including program documentation, acquisition phases, the time and scope of decision reviews, supportability analysis, and decisions levels consistent with all applicable statutory requirements.

tailoring (joint program). [DSMC] The process of evaluating potential requirements of the participating services to determine their pertinence and cost effectiveness for a specific system or equipment joint acquisition, and modifying these requirements to ensure that each contributes to an optimal balance between the needs of the participating services and cost.

tailoring of requirements. The deletion of requirements (from Data Item Descriptions (DIDs) and specifications) that are not required to meet the needs of a specific contract, or the addition of (for specifications only) requirements that may be needed under certain conditions.

talk-through technique. Occurs during the simulation of an operational system; involves talking through each operation in the new system to determine decisions and contingencies.

talking head. A sequence showing a head and shoulders shot of the presenter talking directly to the camera.

tally ho. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A code meaning, "target visually sighted" (presumably the target I have been ordered to intercept). This should be followed by initial contact report as soon as possible. The sighting should be amplified if possible (e.g., "tally ho pounce", or "tally ho heads up").

tank landing ship. A naval ship designed to transport and land amphibious vehicles, tanks, combat vehicles, and equipment in amphibious assault. Designated as LST.

tank, combat, full-tracked, 105-mm gun.: [JP 1-02] (DoD) A heavy, fully armored combat vehicle providing mobile fire power and crew protection for offensive combat, armed with one 105-mm gun, one 7.62-mm gun and one 50-caliber machine gun. Designated as M-60.

tank, combat, full-tracked, 152-mm gun. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A heavily armored vehicle providing mobile firepower and crew protection for offensive combat armed with one 152-mm gun/launcher, capable of firing Shillelagh missiles or conventional combustible ammunition, one 50-caliber machine gun and one 7.62-mm machine gun.

tank, combat, full-tracked, 90-mm gun.[JP 1-02] (DoD) A fully armored combat vehicle providing mobile fire power and crew protection for offensive combat, armed with one 90-mm gun, one 50-caliber machine gun, and one 7.62-mm machine gun. Designated as M48A3.

tank, main battle. A tracked vehicle providing mobile firepower and crew protection for offensive combat.

Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Air Mobility Command direct reporting unit responsible for tasking and controlling operational missions for all activities involving forces supporting US Transportation Command's global air mobility mission. The Tanker Airlift Control Center is comprised of the following functions: current operations, command and control, logistics operations, aerial port operations, aeromedical evacuation, flight planning, diplomatic clearances, weather, and intelligence. See also Tanker Airlift Control Element.

Tanker Airlift Control Element (TALCE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile command and control organization deployed to support strategic and theater air mobility operations at fixed, en route, and deployed locations where air mobility operational support is nonexistent or insufficient. The Tanker Airlift Control Element provides on-site management of air mobility airfield operations to include command and control, communications, aerial port services, maintenance, security, transportation, weather, intelligence, and other support functions, as necessary. The Tanker Airlift Control Element is composed of mission support elements from various units and deploys in support of peacetime, contingency, and emergency relief operations on both planned and "no notice" basis. See also Tanker Airlift Control Center.

tank landing ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A naval ship designed to transport and land amphibious vehicles, tanks, combat vehicles, and equipment in amphibious assault. Designated as LST.


tank, main battle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tracked vehicle providing mobile firepower and crew protection for offensive combat.

tare weight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The weight of a container deducted from gross weight to obtain net weight or the weight of an empty container.


target. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A geographical area, complex, or installation planned for capture or destruction by military forces.

l In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed.

l An area designated and numbered for future firing.

l In gunfire support usage, an impact burst which hits the target.

See also objective area.

target acquisition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. See also target analysis.

target analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. See also target acquisition.

target approach point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air transport operations, a navigational check point over which the final turn into the drop zone/landing zone is made. See also initial point.

target area survey base. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A base line used for the locating of targets or other points by the intersection of observations from two stations located at opposite ends on the line.

target array. A graphic representation of enemy forces, personnel, and facilities in a specific situation, accompanied by a target analysis.

target audience. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An individual or group selected for influence or attack by means of psychological operations.

target audience description (TAD). 1[TRADOC] A description of the quality and qualifications of the personnel to be trained. They are the job holders. They perform the tasks associated with the specific job. They will operate, maintain, and support a system or equipment, perform critical tasks, and lead the unit. It describes the range of individual qualification and all relevant physical, mental, physiological, biographical, and motivational dimensions. Compare target population description. 2[AAC] The TAD lists occupational identifiers for personnel who are projected to operate, maintain, repair, train, and support a specific future Army system. Further, for each identifier, the TAD provides an information source which will describe the characteristics of the personnel identified. Describing projected system personnel early in the acquisition process increases the Army's flexibility to achieve the best system solution in terms of design, affordability, supportability and performance.

target base line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line connecting prime targets along the periphery of a geographic area.

target bearing. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l true. The true compass bearing of a target from a firing ship.

l relative. The bearing of a target measured in the horizontal from the bow of one's own ship clockwise from 0 degrees to 360 degrees, or from the nose of one's own aircraft in hours of the clock.

target CAP. See target combat air patrol.

target classification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A grouping of targets in accordance with their threat to the amphibious task force and its component elements: targets not to be fired upon prior to D-day and targets not to be destroyed except on direct orders.

target combat air patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A patrol of fighters maintained over an enemy target area to destroy enemy aircraft and to cover friendly shipping in the vicinity of the target area in amphibious operations. See also combat air patrol.

target complex. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographically integrated series of target concentrations. See also target.

target component. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A major element of a target complex or target. It is any machinery, structure, personnel, or other productive asset that contributes to the operation or output of the target complex or target. See also target; target critical damage point.

target concentration. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A grouping of geographically proximate targets. See also target; target complex.

target critical damage point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The part of a target component that is most vital. Also called critical node. See also target; target component.

target data inventory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A basic targeting program which provides a standardized target data in support of the requirements of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, military departments, and unified and specified commands for target planning coordination and weapons application.

target date. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The date on which it is desired that an action be accomplished or initiated.

target description. See description of target.

target director post. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A special control element of the tactical air control system. It performs no air warning service but is used to position friendly aircraft over predetermined target coordinates, or other geographical locations, under all weather conditions.

target discrimination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ability of a surveillance or guidance system to identify or engage any one target when multiple targets are present.

target dossier. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A file of assembled target intelligence about a specific geographic area.

target folder. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A folder containing target intelligence and related materials prepared for planning and executing action against a specific target.

target intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Intelligence which portrays and locates the components of a target or target complex and indicates its vulnerability and relative importance.

target list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The listing of targets maintained and promulgated by the senior echelon of command; it contains those targets that are to be engaged by supporting arms, as distinguished from a "list of targets" that may be maintained by any echelon as confirmed, suspected, or possible targets for informational and planning purposes. See also joint target list; list of targets.

target materials. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Graphic, textual, tabular, digital, video, or other presentations of target intelligence, primarily designed to support operations against designated targets by one or more weapon(s) systems. Target materials are suitable for training, planning, executing, and evaluating military operations. See also Air Target Materials Program.

target of opportunity. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A target visible to a surface or air sensor or observer, which is within range of available weapons and against which fire has not been scheduled or requested.

l A nuclear target observed or detected after an operation begins that has not been previously considered, analyzed or planned for a nuclear strike. Generally fleeting in nature, it should be attacked as soon as possible within the time limitations imposed for coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft.

target overlay. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A transparent sheet which, when superimposed on a particular chart, map, drawing, tracing or other representation, depicts target locations and designations. The target overlay may also show boundaries between maneuver elements, objectives and friendly forward dispositions.

target pattern. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The flight path of aircraft during the attack phase. Also see attack pattern.

target population (TP). [TR 350-70] The persons for whom the instructional or training materials are designed. Samples from this population are used in evaluating training materials during their development. Also called the target audience.

target population description. A profile of potential candidates for the target training program. This description realistically describes target population’s entry behavior, current skill and knowledge profile, job history, reading grade level, and other pertinent information. See target audience description.

target priority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A grouping of targets with the indicated sequence of attack.

target range. See range.

Target Recognition and Attack Multisensor (TRAM). A sensor package carried by the A-6 Intruder.

target response (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The effect on men, material, and equipment of blast, heat, light, and nuclear radiation resulting from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.

target signature. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The characteristic pattern of a target displayed by detection and identification equipment.

l In naval mine warfare, the variation in the influence field produced by the passage of a ship or sweep.

target stress point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The weakest point (most vulnerable to damage) on the critical damage point. Also called vulnerable node. See also target critical damage point.

target system. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All the targets situated in a particular geographic area and functionally related. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A group of targets which are so related that their destruction will produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. See also target complex.

target system component. A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product such as periscopes, or one type of a series of interrelated commodities, such as aviation gasoline.

targeting. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The process of selecting targets and matching the appropriate response to them, taking account of operational requirements and capabilities.

l The analysis of enemy situations relative to the commander's mission, objectives, and capabilities at the commander's disposal, to identify and nominate specific vulnerabilities that, if exploited, will accomplish the commander's purpose through delaying, disrupting, disabling, or destroying enemy forces or resources critical to the enemy.

See also joint targeting coordination board.

task. [TR 350-70] A clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by individuals and organizations. It is the lowest behavioral level in a job or unit that is performed for its own sake. It must be specific; usually has a definite beginning and ending; may support or be supported by other tasks; has only one action and, therefore, is described using only one verb; generally is performed in a relatively short time (however, there may be no time limit or there may be a specific time limit); and it must be observable and measurable. The task title must contain an action verb and object and may contain a qualifier. Types:

l collective task. A clearly defined, discrete, and measurable activity, action, or event (i.e., task) which requires organized team or unit performance and leads to accomplishment of a mission or function. A collective task is derived from unit missions or higher level collective tasks. Task accomplishment requires performance of procedures composed of supporting collective or individual tasks. A collective task describes the exact performance a group must perform in the field under actual operational conditions.

l common task.

l common skill level task. An individual task performed by every soldier in a specific skill level regardless of MOS or branch., e.g., a task performed by all captains.

l common soldier task. An individual task performed by all soldiers, regardless of rank. Example: All soldiers must be able to perform the task, "Perform mouth-to-mouth Resuscitation."

Note: There are common soldier tasks that apply to all Army civilian employees as well, e.g., Maintain security of classified information and material.

l critical task. A collective or individual task a unit or individual must perform to accomplish their mission and duties and to survive in the full range of Army operations. Critical tasks must be trained. Types of tasks that can be identified as critical include:

l collective task.

l common skill level task

l common soldier task.

l individual task

l shared task

l individual task. The lowest behavioral level in a job or duty that is performed for its own sake. It should support a collective task; it usually supports another individual task. Individual tasks include –

l common soldier task.

l leader task.

l common skill level task.

l organizational level task

l organizational level task. Common skill level task shared by other skill levels, e.g., company captains and first sergeants may perform the same tasks.

l shared task.

l organizational: See task: organizational level task.

l shared individual task: An individual task performed by soldiers from different jobs and/or different skill or organizational levels. Shared tasks are usually identified when conducting an analysis of a specific job. Example: The lieutenant and sergeant in the same platoon perform some of the same tasks.

l shared collective task: A shared collective task is a collective task that applies to or is performed by more than one type unit, e.g., to units which have different proponents or to different echelon/TOE units within a single proponent’s authority. Since the task, conditions, standards, task steps, and performance measures of shared collective tasks do not change, the collective task is trained and performed in the same way by all units that share the task.

task analysis. The systematic process of collecting and examining data describing collective and individual performance requirements. A needs analysis is usually the start of the process. This prompts analysis of unit missions, MOS, and specific duty assignments or positions supported by a training program. A task analysis ensures the accurate description of collective tasks and duty positions, and defines conditions and standards of task performance. It also provides data and information for determining the criticality of training. The process results in a list of critical tasks and performance standards.

task attribute. A trait of an activity that is conducive to communication through a defined sensory mode. Examples of attributes include tactile, olfactory, visual, aural, color, motion, and interactivity.

task component. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subdivision of a fleet, task force, task group, or task unit, organized by the respective commander or by higher authority for the accomplishment of specific tasks.

task condition. See condition.

task delay tolerance. [TR 350-70] An individual critical task selection factor. A measure of how much delay can be tolerated between the time the need for task performance becomes evident and the time actual performance must begin.

task description. Textual information presented in column, outline, decision table, or timeline format that describes the required job behavior at the highest level of generality. Intended to provide an overview of the total performance.

task description worksheet. A tool used to document specific task factors including training factors, stimuli, subtasks, steps and activities, standards of performance, and job aids.

task element. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A component of a naval task unit organized by the commander of a task unit or higher authority.

task fidelity. The degree of correspondence of cues and responses accompanying task performance on a training device to those characteristics of analogous performance on the operational system/ equipment.

task fleet. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile command consisting of ships and aircraft necessary for the accomplishment of a specific major task or tasks which may be of a continuing nature.

task force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A temporary grouping of units, under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a specific operation or mission.

l Semi-permanent organization of units, under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a continuing specific task.

l A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a task fleet or higher authority for the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks.

See also force.

task group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A component of a naval task force organized by the commander of a task force or higher authority.

task inventory. List that itemizes all of the tasks that make up a selected duty. Syn. job task inventory (JTI). Also called total task inventory.

task learning difficulty. [TR 350-70] An individual critical task selection factor. A statistical rating collected when conducting job analysis that indicates the time, effort, and assistance required by a student to achieve performance proficiency.

task limits. The cues in a job situation that mark the beginning and ending points of the task (also known as limits or boundaries).

task order. Task order is an acquisition term meaning an order for services placed against an established contract or with Government sources.

task organization. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In the Navy, an organization which assigns to responsible commanders the means with which to accomplish their assigned tasks in any planned action.

l An organization table pertaining to a specific naval directive.

task performance measures. See performance measures.

task performance specifications. [TR 350-70] The specifications that describe how the task is actually performed, under what conditions it is performed, and how well the individual must perform it. They are the task performance details needed to establish the individual training strategy and to design and develop follow-on training. The specifications are –

l Task title.

l Task number.

l Task performance standard.

l Task performance condition.

l Task performance steps.

l supporting skills and knowledge for each performance step.

l references required for performance step.

l safety factors, hazards, and considerations associated with for each performance step.

l environmental factors and considerations associated with for each performance step.

l equipment and materials required to perform the performance step.

l supporting individual task(s) performed as part of or in support of the individual task being analyzed.

l Performance measures.

l Supported individual task(s).

l Supported collective task(s).

l Army Universal task List (AUTL) supported task.

task performance steps. [TR 350-70] The major procedures (i.e., actions) a unit must accomplish to perform a critical collective task to standard. They –

l Describe the procedure the task performer(s) must take to perform the task under operational conditions.

l Provide sufficient information for task performer(s) to perform the procedure. (May necessitate identification of supporting steps, procedures, or actions in outline form.)

l Can be another collective task or an individual (leader) task (if a collective task step).

task proponent. See training/TD (task) proponent.

task reinforced . [TR 350-70] Task (identified in a lesson plan) for which the lesson provides refresher training. Task has been completely trained in a previous lesson.

task selection board (TSB). [TR 350-70] A management device which serves a quality control function in critical task selection. The board, composed mainly of subject matter experts, reviews the total task inventory and job performance data and recommends tasks for approval to the appropriate authority as critical tasks.

task selection factors. [TR 350-70] A statistical factor collected by survey on all tasks listed in the individual total task inventory. These factors are applied by using a task selection model to identify which individual tasks are critical to job performance. See task selection models.

task selection models. [TR 350-70] A model used to apply statistically valid task selection data to identify critical individual tasks. There are a variety of models available for use. Those commonly used are as follows:

l difficulty-importance-frequency model. An individual critical task selection model that considers difficulty, importance, and frequency factors.

l eight-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that considers percent performing, percent time spent performing, consequence of inadequate performance, task delay tolerance, frequency of performance, task learning difficulty, probability of deficient performance, and immediacy of performance.

l four-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that considers percent performance, and task learning difficulty.

l probability of task criticality model. An individual critical task selection model used by the Occupational Data, Analysis, Requirements, and Structure (ODARS) Program.

l training emphasis (TE) model. An individual critical task selection model that uses the TE factor to determine task criticality. The TE factor is collected from supervisors of job holders. It reflects how much emphasis the task should have for training. The TE is the most useful factor for critical task selection.

task standard. A statement of how well a task must be performed. Task standards establish the criteria for how well the task must be performed. The standard must describe the minimal acceptable level of task performance. See standard; standard of performance; and standards statement.

task statement. A written description of task performance that contains an action verb, an object, and the conditions under which the task is performed and the standard that the performance must meet.

task step. See task performance steps.

task summary. [TR 350-70] A listing in the soldiers' training publications of the task performance specifications, to include conditions, standards, and performance measures, references, and proponent for each individual critical task. Information is extracted from the individual critical task analysis. See task performance specifications.

l reference-dependent task summary. A summary written for those tasks which require the trained soldier to refer to one or more publications while performing all or part of a task in wartime conditions.

l reference-independent task summary. A summary written for those tasks which require the trained soldier to perform the task in wartime conditions from memory, without reference to any publications.

task supported. [TR 350-70] Task identified in a lesson plan as being supported by instruction in that lesson, i.e., the lesson provides initial training for one or more of the performance steps, skills, or knowledge of the supported task.

task taught. [TR 350-70] Task (identified in a lesson plan) that the lesson either –

l Completely trains to standard or

l Results in the complete training of the task to standard following partial training of the task in previous lessons.

task unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A component of a naval task group organized by the commander of a task group or higher authority.

task-based training. [TR 350-70] Training developed and implemented to train units and individuals to perform critical tasks and supporting skills and knowledge to established performance standards. Critical tasks focus training on what really needs to be trained.

task-linked functions. Functions that must be entered in relation to the procedure to which they are linked. They require either two records to bracket the procedure such as time performance and turning off a program-linked function for a particular segment or only one record such as a branch to a particular lesson, depending on an earlier user input.

task-organizing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or logistics package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission. Characteristics to examine when task-organizing the force include, but are not limited to: training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating environment, enemy threat, and mobility.

TASS training battalions. [TR 350-70] The training institution of both the ARNG (state military academies, National Guard Bureau (NGB) Regional NCOA/Schools, etc.) and USAR (US Army Reserve Forces Schools/USARC NCOA, etc.). TASS school battalions comprise all NCOAs and schools of the Reserve Component.

taxiway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A specially prepared or designated path on an airfield for the use of taxiing aircraft.

taxonomy. A system for categorizing things in a hierarchical order.

taxonomy of educational objectives. A systematic classification scheme for sorting learning outcomes into three broad categories (e.g., cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) and rank ordering these outcomes in a developmental hierarchy from least complex to most complex.

TD (task) proponent. The organization designated to exercise supervisory management and development of all combat/training development aspects of a materiel system, functional area, or task. See proponent school.

TEA proponent. [TR 350-32] End beneficiary and user (e.g., HQDA, HQ TRADOC, TRADOC MSC, service school) establishing requirements for the traininmg effectiveness analysis study.

TEA sponsor. [TR 350-32] The highest level TRADOC organization (e.g., DCST, MSC, service school) establishing the requirement for the training effectiveness analysis.

teaching point. The smallest increment of information to which a student may be expected to respond; a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task; the precise information you want the student to know or to which they should respond.

team. [TR 350-70] A group of people who function together to perform a mission or collective task.

Team Pack. Noncomm Intercept System (AN/MSQ103).

team scheduling. The ability to form teams of students (two or more) at any time in the learning sequence when the required number of individuals are ready to perform a team task.

team task. Tasks that require two or more individuals to perform separate functions simultaneously.

team teaching. [TR 350-70] The coordinated efforts of two or more instructors working together in an instructional situation.

team trainer. A training device that takes personnel trained and qualified in their individual skill specialties and trains them together to perform as a team (e.g., aircraft weapon system trainer, artillery unit, and satellite crew).

team training. [TR 350-70] The training of selected individuals, not necessarily from the same organization, to function together as a team.

teaming. [DSMC] An agreement of two or more firms to form a partnership or joint venture to act as a potential prime contractor; or an agreement by a potential prime contractor to act as a subcontractor under a specified acquisition program; or an agreement for a joint proposal resulting from a normal prime contractor-subcontractor, licensee-licenser, or leader company relationship.

TeamMate. Comm Intercept system (TRQ32V).

TEAMS. Tactical EA6B Mission Planning System.

tear line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A physical line on an intelligence message or document which separates categories of information that have been approved for foreign disclosure and release. Normally, the intelligence below the tear line is that which has been previously cleared for disclosure or release.

technical analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In imagery interpretation, the precise description of details appearing on imagery.

technical architecture (TA). 1[TR 5-11] A minimal set of rules governing the arrangement, interaction and interdependence of the parts or elements that together may be used to form an information system, and whose purpose is to insure that a conformant system satisfies a specified set of requirements. 2[TP 71-9] TA is comparable to a building code, not telling you what to build (OA), nor how to build (SA), but rather delineating the standards to build to and to pass inspection. The TA identifies a framework of standards and includes top level system specifications and architectural diagrams for technical interface specifications.

technical architecture framework for information management (TAFIM). 1[CJCSI 6212.01A] The TAFIM provides guidance for the evolution of the DoD technical infrastructure. The TAFIM does not provide a specific system architecture. Rather, it provides the services, standards, design concepts, components, and configurations that can be used to guide the development of technical architectures that meet specific mission requirements. 2[TP 71-9] Identifies information technology standards that promote interoperability, portability, and scalability. 3[DSMC] The single technical architecture framework for DoD. It provides the vision, guidance, and general strategy for the evolution of the DoD information systems and their technical architectures to an open systems environment with the attributes of interoperability, portability, and scalability. The TAFIM embodies a common conceptual framework, defines a common vocabulary, and specifies a base of technical standards that permits DoD Components to better coordinate DoD information systems development, acquisition, and support.

technical assistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The providing of advice, assistance, and training pertaining to the installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment.

technical characteristics. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those characteristics of equipment which pertain primarily to the engineering principles involved in producing equipment possessing desired military characteristics, e.g., for electronic equipment, technical characteristics include such items as circuitry, and types and arrangement of components.

technical data. Recorded information, regardless of form or characteristics, of a scientific or technical nature. It may, for example, document research, experimental, developmental, or engineering work. It may be used to define a design or process or to acquire, support, maintain or operate materiel. The data may be graphic or pictorial delineation in media such as drawings or photographs, text in specifications, related performance or design type documents, or computer printouts. For purposes of this document, examples of technical data include research and engineering data, engineering drawings and associated lists, specifications, standards, process sheets, technical reports, catalog item identifications and related information, documentation related to computer software, and computer-generated databases. Technical data does not include computer software or financial, administrative, cost and pricing, and management data, or other information incidental to contract administration.

technical data package (TDP). [DSMC] A technical description of an item adequate for supporting an acquisition strategy, production, engineering, and logistics support (LS). The description defines the required design configuration and procedures to ensure adequacy of item performance. It consists of all applicable technical data such as drawings, associated lists, specifications, standards, performance requirements, quality assurance provisions, and packaging details. One of the traditional LS elements.

technical data package management plan (TDPMP). A TDPMP identifies the overall concept to be used for acquiring a technical data package (TDP). The TDPMP details the specific uses that a TDP will acquired to support, identifies the funding required to acquire the TDP, and spells out the detailed financial plan to acquire the TDP. Delivery mile-stones are also identified.

technical data rights. [DSMC] See rights in technical data.

technical documentation (TECDOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Visual information documentation (with or without sound as an integral documentation component) of an actual event made for purposes of evaluation. Typically, technical documentation contributes to the study of human or mechanical factors, procedures, and processes in the fields of medicine, science, logistics, research, development, test and evaluation, intelligence, investigations, and armament delivery. See also visual information documentation.

technical escort. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual technically qualified and properly equipped to accompany designated material requiring a high degree of safety or security during shipment.

technical evaluation. [DSMC] The study, investigations, or test and evaluation by a developing agency to determine the technical suitability of materiel, equipment, or a system, for use in the military services. See developmental test and evaluation (DTE). See also operational evaluation.

technical evaluation of premaster videotape. A standard evaluation of the premaster videotape to ensure it meets the minimum stated specifications required to produce an effective videodisk.

technical feasibility testing (TFT). TFT is the technical testing conducted prior to Milestone I or Milestone I/II to assist in determining safety and establishing system performance specifications and feasibility.

technical independent evaluator. This is a command or agency independent of the project manager or developing major subordinate command that conducts technical independent evaluations of Army systems; normally AMSAA or TECOM.

technical information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information, including scientific information, which relates to research, development, engineering, test, evaluation, production, operation, use, and maintenance of munitions and other military supplies and equipment.

technical intelligence (TECHINT). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence derived from exploitation of foreign materiel, produced for strategic, operational, and tactical level commanders. Technical intelligence begins when an individual service member finds something new on the battlefield and takes the proper steps to report it. The item is then exploited at successively higher levels until a countermeasure is produced to neutralize the adversary's technological advantage. See also intelligence; scientific and technical intelligence. 2[JP 1] (NATO) Intelligence concerning foreign technology developments, and the performance and operational capabilities of foreign materiel, which have or may eventually have a practical application for military purposes.

technical interface. [CJCSI 6212.01A] The functional, electrical, and physical characteristics necessary to allow the exchange of information across an interface between different C4I systems or equipment. Includes Technical Interface Standards.

technical management (TM). [DSMC] Technical management is a broad term including the management of a totally integrated effort of system engineering (including hardware and software), test and evaluation (T&E), and production and logistics support over the system life cycle. Its goal is timely deployment of an effective system, sustaining it, and satisfying the need at an affordable cost. TM includes, but is not limited to system/product definition process (establishing baseline); design engineering; systems engineering (putting pieces together); computer resources; software management; development T&E; operational T&E; reliability, availability and maintainability; product improvements; transition from development to production; total quality management; standardization and specifications; configuration management; producibility; manufacturing process and controls; system or product disposal; and preplanned product improvements. TM involves balancing a system's cost, schedule, effectiveness, and supportability.

technical management plan (TMP). [DSMC] A contractor's plan for the conduct and management of the effort required to satisfy the requirements in the request for proposal, contract schedule, statement of work/objectives, and/or specification.

technical manual (TM). 1A publication that contains instructions for the installation, operation, maintenance, training, and support of a weapon system, weapon system component, or support equipment. Information may be presented in any form or characteristic, including but not limited to hard printed copy, audio and visual displays, magnetic tape, disks, and other electronic devices. TMs normally include operational and maintenance instructions, parts lists or parts breakdown, and related technical information or procedures excluding administrative procedures. Technical orders (TOs) that meet the criteria of this definition may also be classified as TMs. See electronic publication and technical order (TO). 2[TR 350-70] A publication which describes equipment, weapons, or weapons systems with instructions for effective use. It may include sections for instructions covering initial preparation for use and operational maintenance and overhaul.

technical manual verification.[TR 350-70] The Army's effort to ensure TMs are useable by the intended target audience. Hands-on performance of the procedures presented in the TM is the preferred method of verification. Preferably target audience soldiers will perform the verification. See technical manual.

technical operational intelligence (TOPINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Defense Intelligence Agency initiative to provide enhanced scientific and technical intelligence to the commanders of unified commands and their subordinates through a closed loop system involving all service and Defense Intelligence Agency scientific and technical intelligence centers. Through a system manager in the National Military Joint Intelligence Center, the technical operational intelligence program provides timely collection, analysis, and dissemination of area of responsibility specific scientific and technical intelligence to combatant commanders and their subordinates for planning, training, and executing joint operations.

technical order (TO). May be classified as technical manuals when it is determined that they meet the criteria of the definition for technical manuals. See technical manual (TM).

technical orders. Military regulations which deal with the specific nature of technical materials and equipment.

technical performance measurement (TPM). [DSMC] Describes all the activities undertaken by the government to obtain design status beyond that treating schedule and cost. A TPM manager is defined as the product design assessment which estimates, through tests the values of essential performance parameters of the current design of work breakdown structure product elements. It forecasts the values to be achieved through the planned technical program effort, measures differences between achieved values and those allocated to the product element by the system engineering process, and determines the impact of these differences on system effectiveness.

technical review authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The organization tasked to provide specialized technical or administrative expertise to the primary review authority or coordinating review authority for joint publications. See also coordinating review authority; joint publication; primary review authority.

technical risk. [DSMC] The risk that arises from activities related to technology, design and engineering, manufacturing, and the critical technical processes of test, production, and logistics.

technical specification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A detailed description of technical requirements stated in terms suitable to form the basis for the actual design development and production processes of an item having the qualities specified in the operational characteristics. See also operational characteristics.

technical supply operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations performed by supply units or technical supply elements of supply and maintenance units in acquiring, accounting for, storing, and issuing Class II and IV items needed by supported units and maintenance activities.

technical surveillance countermeasures (TCSM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Includes techniques and measures to detect and neutralize a wide variety of hostile penetration technologies that are used to obtain unauthorized access to classified and sensitive information. Technical penetrations include the employment of optical, electro-optical, electromagnetic, fluidics, and acoustic means, as the sensor and transmission medium, or the use of various types of stimulation or modification to equipment or building components for the direct or indirect transmission of information meant to be protected. See also counterintelligence.

technical survey. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A complete electronic and physical inspection to ascertain that offices, conference rooms, war rooms, and other similar locations where classified information is discussed are free of monitoring systems. See also sweep.

technical test(ing) (TT). 1TT is a generic term which encompasses technical feasibility tests, development tests, qualification tests, joint development tests, and contractor and foreign tests. (See AR 70-10.) 2Testing of materiel systems conducted by the materiel developer to demonstrate that the design risks have been minimized, that the engineering development process is complete, that the system will meet specifications, and to estimate the system’s military utility when it is introduced. TT is conducted in factory, laboratory, and proving ground environments.

technical training. Training in specific skills and knowledge essential to performance of those tasks and duties related to a technical specialty.

technique of delivery. [TR 350-70] Process or manner of delivering instruction that includes one or more methods. For example, group-paced instruction could use conference, discussion, demonstration, and practical exercise. A technique of delivery may involve a whole course, a phase, or a module.

techniques. [TR 350-70] The general and detailed methods used by troops and/or commanders to perform assigned missions and functions. Specifically, the methods of using equipment and personnel. Example: A tactic of covering an obstacle with direct and indirect fires may be executed by placing machine guns on the flanks to place direct fire down the length of the obstacle, and using mortars to place indirect fire on the obstacle. Both types of fire can be shifted beyond the obstacle to cut off withdrawal of as opposing force.

technology. [TP 71-9] The application of science to achieve an objective or develop a new skill.

technology base. [DSMC] The development efforts in basic and applied research. The Army’s science and technology base consists of funding categories for research, exploratory development, and non system advanced development.

technology integration steering committee (TISC). TISC is a decision body that considers high pay-off materiel concepts for transition to the proof of principle phase. The TISC also provides an early focus of high pay-off battlefield system concepts which exploit breakthrough technology.

technology modernization. [DSMC] The coupling of modernization with the implementation of advanced manufacturing technology by providing incentives for contractor (and subcontractor) capitalization.

telecommunication. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems.

telecommunications center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A facility, normally serving more than one organization or terminal, responsible for transmission, receipt, acceptance, processing and distribution of incoming and outgoing messages.

telecommunications requirement (TELER). A TELER is a statement on which planning, programming, budgeting justification, and management evaluation are based for all strategic (nontactical) telecommunications services, facilities, systems, equipment, engineering, and technical assistance.

teleconference. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A conference between persons remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system.

telemetry intelligence (TELINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Technical intelligence derived from the intercept, processing, and analysis of foreign telemetry. Telemetry intelligence is a category of foreign instrumentation signals intelligence. See also electronics intelligence; intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence.

teleprocessing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The combining of telecommunications and computer operations interacting in the automatic processing, reception, and transmission of data and/or information.

teleran system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A navigational system which:

l Employs ground-based search radar equipment along an airway to locate aircraft flying near that airway.

l Transmits, by television means, information pertaining to these aircraft and other information to the pilots of properly equipped aircraft.

l Provides information to the pilots appropriate for use in the landing approach.

teletraining. [TR 350-70] Video or audio training delivered via communication links such as satellite or cable links.

television imagery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Imagery acquired by a television camera and recorded or transmitted electronically.

telling. See track telling.

temperature gradient. [JP 1-02] (DoD) At sea, a temperature gradient is the change of temperature with depth; a positive gradient is a temperature increase with an increase in depth, and a negative gradient is a temperature decrease with an increase in depth.

tempest. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An unclassified term referring to technical investigations for compromising emanations from electrically operated information processing equipment; these investigations are conducted in support of emanations and emissions security. See also counterintelligence.

template. 1[DoD] A reusable, electronic form, previously developed for specific applications. 2[TR 350-70] In testing, the answer key used to grade tests. It can be a score sheet with correct answers listed or it can be electronic and used with an optical scanner to score tests.

tempo. The rate of military action; controlling or altering that rate is a necessary means to initiative; all military operations alternate between action and pauses as opposing forces battle one another and fight friction to mount and execute operations at the time and place of their choosing.

temporary cemetery. A cemetery for the purpose of the initial burial of the remains if the circumstances permit or the reburial of remains exhumed from an emergency burial.

temporary interment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A site for the purpose of: a. The interment of the remains if the circumstances permit or b. The reburial of remains exhumed from an emergency interment. See also emergency interment; group interment; mortuary affairs; trench interment.

tenets. A basic truth held by an organization; the fundamental tenants of Army operations doctrine describe the characteristics of successful operations.

Terec. Tactical electronic reconnaissance sensor with real time-datalink capability. Litton AN/ALQ-125 Terec.

terminal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A facility designed to transfer cargo from one means of conveyance to another. (Conveyance is the piece of equipment used to transport cargo; i.e., railcar to truck or truck to truck. This is as opposed to mode, which is the type of equipment; i.e., ship to rail, rail to truck.). See also cargo; facility.

terminal behavior. The output performance for a system; graduate performance (e.g., criterion behavior, base-line behavior, whole task behavior, summative behavior).

terminal clearance capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The amount of cargo or personnel that can be moved through and out of a terminal on a daily basis.

terminal control. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The authority to direct the maneuver of aircraft which are delivering ordnance, passengers, or cargo to a specific location or target. Terminal control is a type of air control.

l Any electronic, mechanical, or visual control given to aircraft to facilitate target acquisition and resolution.

terminal control area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A control area or portion thereof normally situated at the confluence of air traffic service routes in the vicinity of one or more major airfields. See also airway; control area; controlled airspace; control zone.

terminal guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The guidance applied to a guided missile between midcourse guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target.

l Electronic, mechanical, visual, or other assistance given an aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or over, landing upon, or departure from an air landing or airdrop facility.

See also guidance.

terminal learning objective (TLO). 1[TR 350-70] The main objective of a lesson. It is the performance required of the student to demonstrate competency in the material being taught. A TLO describes exactly what the student must be capable of performing under the stated conditions to the prescribed standard on lesson completion. There is only one TLO per lesson regardless of presentation method or media and it has only one verb. The terminal learning objective may cover one critical task, part of a critical task (i.e., a skill or knowledge), or more than one critical task. The terminal learning objective may be identical to the critical task being taught, or there may be a disparity between them. Where there is a disparity, it is the terminal learning objective standard that the student must achieve to demonstrate competency for course completion. See learning objective (LO) and enabling learning objective (ELO). 2[DoD] A learning objective at the highest level of learning (KSA) appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accomplish when successfully completing instruction.

terminal operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The reception, processing, and staging of passengers, the receipt, transit storage and marshalling of cargo, the loading and unloading of ships or aircraft, and the manifesting and forwarding of cargo and passengers to destination.

terminal phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile between reentry into the atmosphere or the end of the mid-course phase and impact or arrival in the vicinity of the target. See also boost phase; midcourse phase; reentry phase.

terminal velocity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Hypothetical maximum speed a body could attain along a specified flight path under given conditions of weight and thrust if diving through an unlimited distance in air of specified uniform density.

l Remaining speed of a projectile at the point in its downward path where it is level with the muzzle of the weapon.

terrain analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of geographic information on the natural and manmade features of the terrain, combined with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of the terrain on military operations.

terrain avoidance system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which provides the pilot or navigator of an aircraft with a situation display of the ground or obstacles which project above either a horizontal plane through the aircraft or a plane parallel to it, so that the pilot can maneuver the aircraft to avoid the obstruction.

terrain clearance system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which provides the pilot, or autopilot, of an aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will maintain a selected height over flat ground and clear the peaks of undulating ground within the selected height in a vertical plane through the flight vector. This system differs from terrain following in that the aircraft need not descend into a valley to follow the ground contour.

terrain contour matching (TERCOM). Navigation by comparison of the terrain with a stored map.

terrain exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An exercise in which a stated military situation is solved on the ground, the troops being imaginary and the solution usually being in writing.

terrain flight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Flight close to the Earth's surface during which airspeed, height and/or altitude are adapted to the contours and cover of the ground in order to avoid enemy detection and fire.

terrain following system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which provides the pilot or autopilot of an aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will maintain as closely as possible, a selected height above a ground contour in a vertical plane through the flight vector.

terrain intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Processed information on the military significance of natural and manmade characteristics of an area.

terrain study. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An analysis and interpretation of natural and manmade features of an area, their effects on military operations, and the effect of weather and climate on these features.

terrestrial environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Earth's land area, including its manmade and natural surface and sub-surface features, and its interfaces and interactions with the atmosphere and the oceans.

terrestrial reference guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The technique of providing intelligence to a missile from certain characteristics of the surface over which the missile is flown, thereby achieving flight along a predetermined path. See also guidance.

terrorism. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; counterterrorism; terrorist; terrorist groups; terrorist threat conditions.

terrorist. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual who uses violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve a result. See also terrorism.

terrorist groups. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any element regardless of size or espoused cause, which repeatedly commits acts of violence or threatens violence in pursuit of its political, religious, or ideological objectives. See also terrorism.

terrorist threat conditions (THREATCONS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-approved program standardizing the military services' identification of and recommended responses to terrorist threats against U.S. personnel and facilities. This program facilitates interservice coordination and support for antiterrorism activities. There are four THREATCONS above normal:

l THREATCON ALPHA. This condition applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities, the nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of THREATCON BRAVO measures. However, it may be necessary to implement certain measures from higher THREATCONS resulting from intelligence received or as a deterrent. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained indefinitely.

l THREATCON BRAVO. This condition applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities.

l THREATCON CHARLIE. This condition applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel and facilities is imminent. Implementation of measures in this THREATCON for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peace-time activities of the unit and its personnel.

l THREATCON DELTA. This condition applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely. Normally, this THREATCON is declared as a localized condition.

See also antiterrorism.

test. 1[DSMC] Any program or procedure which is designed to obtain, verify, or provide data for the evaluation of research and development (other than laboratory experiments); progress in accomplishing development objectives; or performance and operational capability of systems, subsystems, components, and equipment items. 2[TR 350-70] A device, technique, or measuring tool used to:

l Determine if a student or group of students can accomplish the objective to the established standard.

l Determine if training does what it is designed to do efficiently and effectively.

l Measure the skill, knowledge, intelligence, abilities, or other aptitudes of an individual or group.

l Collect data as a basis for assessing to what degree a system meets, exceeds, or fails to meet the technical or operational properties ascribed to it.

See criterion-referenced test; knowledge-based test; norm-referenced test; performance test; performance-based test; placement test; pretest; test, instructional.

l Test categories include:

l criterion-referenced test. A test that measures if a unit or soldier performs the learning objective to standard. Performance is measured go or no-go against criteria — the learning objective standard. It is scored based upon absolute standards, such as job competency, not relative standards, such as class standings.

l norm-referenced test. A test that grades a student based on the performance of other students taking the same test. It is scored based upon relative standards, such as class standings, rather than upon absolute standards, such as job competency.

l Test related terms include:

l test blueprint. A matrix showing the learning objectives to be tested and the specifications for developing a performance-based test. Specifications include such things as the quantity and type of test items needed to measure the learning objectives being tested.

l testing out. The process and procedure for enabling a student to take a course test (phase, module, lesson, etc.) to determine if the training covered by the test must be taken. A student passing a test to test-out of training will be given full credit for completion of the training covered by the test. This is a pretest.

test and evaluation (T&E). [DSMC] Process by which a system or components provide information regarding risk and risk mitigation and empirical data to validate models and simulations. T&E permit, as assessment of the attainment of technical performance, specifications and system maturity to determine whether systems are operationally effective, suitable and survivable for intended use. There are two types of T&E: developmental (DTE) and operational (OT&E). See operational test and evaluation (OTEE), Initial operational test and evaluation (IOTE), and developmental test and evaluation (DTE)

test and evaluation master plan (TEMP). 1[AMC] The TEMP is a document used in the Army review and decision process to assess the adequacy of the planning testing and evaluation. It is prepared for all defense system acquisition programs. The TEMP is a broad plan that relates test objectives to required system characteristics and critical issues and integrates objectives, responsibilities, resources, and schedules for all test and evaluation to be accomplished. The TEMP replaces the coordinated test plan (CTP). 2[DSMC] Documents the overall structure and objectives of the test and evaluation (T&E) program. It provides a framework within which to generate detailed T&E plans and it documents schedule and resource implications associated with the T&E program. The TEMP identifies the necessary developmental test and evaluation (DTE), operational test and evaluation and live fire test and evaluation activities. It relates program schedule, test management strategy and structure, and required resources to: critical operational issues (COIs); critical technical parameters; objectives and thresholds documented in the operational requirements document; evaluation criteria; and milestone decision points. For multiservice or joint programs, a single integrated TEMP is required. Component-unique content requirements, particularly evaluation criteria associated with COIs, can be addressed in a component-prepared annex to the basic TEMP. See capstone TEMP.

test compromise. Unauthorized disclosure of a test or of test items, with the likelihood that prospective examinees will benefit from the disclosure, thereby distorting the results of the test.

test criteria. [DSMC] Standards by which test results and outcome are judged.

test depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The depth to which the submarine is tested by actual or simulated submergence. See also maximum operating depth.

test design plan (TDP). The TDP is a formal document developed by the test organization which states the circumstances under which a test and/or evaluation will be executed, the data required from the test, and the methodology for analyzing test results.

test fidelity. The degree to which the test resembles the actual task performed. The closer the resemblance, the higher the fidelity of the test.

test, instructional. Any device/technique used to measure the performance, skill level and knowledge of an individual. Types:

l achievement test. A test for measuring an individual's attainment of knowledge/skills as the result of specific teaching or training.

l aptitude test. A test or battery of tests designed to show a person's capacity for a particular type of behavior in a single field or in several related fields.

l comparative test. A test given at the completion of a major section of a course and, as required, at completion of a course to measure whether the student has mastered the course learning objectives.

l criterion-referenced test. A test that establishes whether or not a unit or individual performs the learning objective to the established standard. Performance is measured as a go or no-go against a prescribed criterion or set of criteria — the learning objective standard. It is scored based upon absolute standards, such as job competency, rather than upon relative standards, such as class standings.

l diagnostic test. A test used to measure performance against a criterion and to identify specific areas of weakness or strength in individual knowledge and skills.

l end-of-course comprehensive test. An end-of-course test, administered to all initial entry students prior to graduation, designed to ensure a high probability that students can perform all critical tasks taught in the course. It provides feedback on the need for both reinforcement training and course revisions.

l entry skills test. A test designed to determine if a student already possesses certain knowledge or skills needed as a prerequisite before undertaking new instruction.

l field test. Tryout of any training course on a representative sample of the student target population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the course.

l job performance test. A test used to determine whether an individual can perform a job. It may include all job performance measures for a job or a sub-set of the job performance measures.

l knowledge test. A test that measures the achievement of theory supporting skill through the use of test items written at the appropriate knowledge and training levels.

l non-language test. Syn. nonverbal test.

l nonverbal test. A test that requires little or no speaking, reading, or understanding of language on the part of the examinee either in connection with comprehending directions or making responses. Directions may be given pictorially or in pantomime. Also called non-language test.

l norm-referenced test. A test that ranks a student in relation to the performance of other students in contrast to criterion-referenced testing wherein a student is measured against a prescribed performance standard.

l objective test. A test whose scoring requires no human judgment.

l performance test. An evaluation of the actual performance of the task or learning objective using the conditions under which it will be performed and the absolute standards for acceptable performance.

l post-test. A test administered to a student upon completion of a course or unit of instruction to measure learning achieved and to assess whether a student has mastered the objectives of the course or unit of instruction.

l power test. A test in which items are usually arranged in order of increasing difficulty and in which examinees are given all the time they need to complete as many items as they possibly can.

l pretest. A test administered to a student prior to entry into a course or unit of instruction to determine the technical skills (entering behaviors) the student already possesses in a given subject. Often used to identify portions of the instruction the student can bypass.

l proficiency test. A test designed to measure a student's capabilities in terms of the job. It measures both psychomotor and cognitive skills. A performance test is sometimes understood to mean a skill demonstration, while a proficiency test is understood to be a comprehensive procedure used to examine the student's capability to do what the job requires.

l progress test. A short test administered throughout a course to evaluate student progress. It is administered at strategic points in a course to determine the degree to which students are accomplishing the learning or enabling objectives. Also called within-coursetest.

l qualifying test. A test administered to determine whether a student is qualified for a task that the student has been selected or trained for, or for which the student is being considered. A qualifying test may also be applied to tests used for selecting personnel for training, although the usage is not so common.

l simulated performance test. A performance-based two dimensional simulation of the job performance required. A synthetic performance test.

l simulation performance test. A test that measures the student's ability to meet training objectives by performing whole tasks or parts of tasks using simulators or simulations.

l speed test. A test in which the time limit is set so that almost no one can finish all the items or tasks making up the test.

l survey test. A criterion-referenced test used prior to the development of an instructional system. It is administered to a sample of prospective students to determine what knowledge and skills should be put into the course of instruction. Also called threshold knowledge test (TKT).

l threshold knowledge test (TKT). Syn. survey test.

l true-false test. A type of selection or alternate-response test in which the student indicates whether each of a number of statements is true or false.

l verbal test. Any test involving language. In general usage, the term is restricted to those tests in which the questions and responses are mainly expressed in language or which use language to a substantial degree.

l within-course test. Syn. progress test.

l written test. A test in which an individual demonstrates their capabilities by responding to written test items. It is not usually a performance test, and hence is usually a measure of supporting knowledge rather than skills.

test integration working group (TIWG). The TIWG is a formally chartered organization chaired by the materiel developer. It has a minimum membership of representatives (with authority to act for their respective commands/ activities) from the combat developer, the logistician, the operational tester, the materiel developer, and, when appropriate, the contractor. The primary purpose of the TIWG is to provide a forum for direct communication to facilitate the integration of test requirements and speed up the test evaluation master plan (TEMP) coordination process. The TIWG also has the objective to reduce costs by integrating testing to the maximum extent, eliminating redundant testing, and facilitating the coordination of test planning, interchange of test data, and use of test resources to achieve cost-effective testing. The TIWG produces the test and evaluation master plan (TEMP).

test integration working (TWIG)/test planning work group. [DSMC] An integrated product team that facilitates the integration of test requirements through close coordination between material developer, combat developer, logistician, and developmental and operational testers in order to minimize development time and cost and preclude duplication between developmental and operational testing. This team produces the test and evaluation master plan for the program manager.

test item analysis. The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. This usually involves the determination of how well an individual item separates examinees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with some criterion of measurement.

test reliability. The degree to which a test truthfully and accurately reflects the degree to which a student has learned the instruction.

test report (TR). A TR contains the data obtained from executing the test and describes the conditions which prevailed during the test execution and data collection.

test security. The process of ensuring that tests are not compromised.

test support package (TSP). TSPs are provided by the proponent materiel developer and the combat developer/ trainer. The proponent materiel developer provides packages consisting of the maintenance support for the item/ system and a new equipment training package. The combat developer/trainer provides:

l A statement of doctrine and techniques for employment.

l A statement of organization and basis of issue.

l A training plan.

l A statement of logistical support concepts.

l Mission profiles.

l A statement of suitable threat for test.

l A description of the test setting, including terrain and friendly forces situations.

test validity. The degree to which a test measures what it was designed to measure.

test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment (TMDE). TMDE is any system or device used to evaluate the operational condition of a system or equipment to identify or isolate any actual or potential malfunction.

testbed. A system representation consisting partially of actual hardware and/or software and partially of computer models or prototype hardware and/or software.

tester. The tester is the agency responsible for the technical testing (TT), developmental testing, operational testing, or user testing (UT) of materiel. TT is planned, conducted, and monitored by the materiel developer.

testing. [DSMC] An element of inspection. Generally denotes the determination by technical means of the properties or elements of supplies, or components thereof, including functional operation, and involves the application of established scientific principles and procedures.

testing constraints. Limitations such as time, money, personnel, facilities, and other resources, which prohibit job performance measures from being identical to the tasks they measure.

testing out. [TR 350-70] The process and procedure for enabling a student to take a course test (phase, module, lesson, etc.) to determine if the training covered by the test must be taken. A student passing a pretest to test-out of training will be given full credit for completion of the training covered by the test. This is a pretest.

tests. See service test; troop test.

text overlay. Computer generated text placed over a video image.

The Army Authorization Document System (TAADS). The system which documents the organizational structure and provides requirements and authorizations for both personnel and equipment.

The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS). Forms and records required for Army equipment maintenance (see AR 750-1 and DA Pam 738-750).

The Army Plan (TAP). TAP provides a definitive basis for program action. It lays out what the Army wants to be able to do in support of the Army mission, and describes how the Army will build the objective force. TAP supports preparation of command program analysis resource review (PARR) documents and program objective memorandums (POM).

theater. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The geographical area outside the continental United States for which a commander of a combatant command has been assigned responsibility.

theater airlift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That airlift assigned or attached to a combatant commander other than Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, which provides air movement and delivery of personnel and equipment directly into objective areas through air landing, airdrop, extraction, or other delivery techniques; and the air logistic support of all theater forces, including those engaged in combat operations, to meet specific theater objectives and requirements. Also called intratheater airlift. See also strategic airlift.

theater airlift liaison officer (TALO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer specially trained to implement the theater air control system and to control tactical airlift assets. Theater airlift liaison officers are highly qualified, rated airlift officers, with tactical (airdrop) airlift experience, assigned duties supporting US Army units.

theater missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A missile, which may be a ballistic missile, a cruise missile, or an air-to-surface missile (not including short-range, non-nuclear, direct fire missiles, bombs, or rockets such as Maverick or wire-guided missiles), whose target is within a given theater of operation. See also joint theater missile defense.

theater of focus. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A theater in which operations are most critical to national interests and are assigned the highest priority for allocation of resources. See also economy of force theater.

theater of operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subarea within a theater of war defined by the geographic combatant commander required to conduct or support specific combat operations. Different theaters of operations within the same theater of war will normally be geographically separate and focused on different enemy forces. Theaters of operations are usually of significant size, allowing for operations over extended periods of time. See also theater of war, area of operations.

theater of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Defined by the National Command Authorities or the geographic combatant commander, the area of air, land, and water that is, or may become, directly involved in the conduct of the war. A theater of war does not normally encompass the g[JP 1-02] (DoD) eographic combatant commander's entire area of responsibility and may contain more than one theater of operations. See also area of responsibility; theater of operations, area of war.

theater strategy. The art and science of developing integrated strategic concepts and courses of action directed toward securing the objectives of national and alliance or coalition security policy and strategy by the use of force, threatened use of force, or operations not involving the use of force within a theater. See also military strategy; national military strategy; national security strategy; strategy.

theater-assigned transportation assets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Transportation assets that are assigned under the combatant command (command authority) of a geographic combatant commander. See also combatant command (command authority); single manager for transportation.

then-year dollars. [DSMC] See current-year dollars or escalated dollars.

thermal crossover. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The natural phenomenon which normally occurs twice daily when temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of contrast between two adjacent objects on infrared imagery.

thermal energy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The energy emitted from the fireball as thermal radiation. The total amount of thermal energy received per unit area at a specified distance from a nuclear explosion is generally expressed in terms of calories per square centimeter.

thermal exposure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total normal component of thermal radiation striking a given surface throughout the course of a detonation; expressed in calories per square centimeter and/or megajoules per square meter.

thermal imagery. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Imagery produced by sensing and recording the thermal energy emitted or reflected from the objects which are imaged.

thermal pulse. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The radiant power versus time pulse from a nuclear weapon detonation.

thermal radiation. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)The heat and light produced by a nuclear explosion. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) Electromagnetic radiations emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence of its temperature; it consists essentially of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiations.

thermal shadow. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The tone contrast difference of infrared linescan imagery which is caused by a thermal gradient which persists as a result of a shadow of an object which has been moved.

thermal X-rays. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the soft (low-energy) X-ray region, emitted by the debris of a nuclear weapon by virtue of its extremely high temperature.

thermonuclear. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An adjective referring to the process (or processes) in which very high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei, with the accompanying liberation of energy.

thermonuclear weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A weapon in which very high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei such as those of hydrogen isotopes (e.g., deuterium and tritium) with the accompanying release of energy. The high temperatures required are obtained by means of fission.

third area conflict. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See cold war; general war; guerrilla warfare; limited war; low intensity conflict.

thorough decontamination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Decontamination carried out by a unit, with or without external support, to reduce contamination on personnel, equipment, materiel and/or working areas to the lowest possible levels, to permit the partial or total removal of individual protective equipment and to maintain operations with minimum degradation. This may include terrain decontamination beyond the scope of operational decontamination. See also decontamination; immediate decontamination; operational decontamination.

threat. [TP 71-9] Ability of an enemy ,or potential enemy, to limit, neutralize, or destroy effectiveness of current or projected mission, organization, or item of equipment. Statement of that threat is prepared in sufficient detail to support Army planning and development of warfighting concepts, doctrine, training, and material. Statement of a capability prepared in necessary detail, in context of its relationship to specific program or project, to provide support for Army planning and development of warfighting concepts, doctrine, and materiel.

threat analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In antiterrorism, threat analysis is a continual process of compiling and examining all available information concerning potential terrorist activities by terrorist groups which could target a facility. A threat analysis will review the factors of a terrorist group's existence, capability, intentions, history, and targeting, as well as the security environment within which friendly forces operate. Threat analysis is an essential step in identifying probability of terrorist attack and results in a threat assessment. See also antiterrorism.

threat and vulnerability assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In antiterrorism, the pairing of a facility's threat analysis and vulnerability analysis. See also antiterrorism.

threat identification and assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System function that provides timely warning of potential threats to U.S. interests; intelligence collection requirements; the effects of environmental, physical, and health hazards, and cultural factors on friendly and enemy operations; and determines the enemy military posture and possible intentions.

threat-oriented munitions. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In stockpile planning, munitions intended to neutralize a finite assessed threat and for which the total requirement is determined by an agreed mathematical model. See also level-of-effort munitions.

threshold. 1[DSMC] The minimum acceptable value which, in the user's judgment, is necessary to satisfy the need. If threshold values are not achieved, program performance is seriously degraded, the program may be too costly, or the program may no longer be timely. 2[USAF] The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.

threshold value ORD requirement. [TP 71-9] The minimum acceptable value that in the user’s (CBTDEVs/TNGDEVs) judgment, is necessary to satisfy need. If threshold values are not achieved, program performance is seriously degraded, the program may be too costly, or the program may no longer be timely.

throughput. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a ship or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port complex. Throughput is usually expressed in measurement tons, short tons, or passengers. Reception and storage limitation may affect final throughput.

Thunderbolt II. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin-engine, subsonic, turbofan, tactical fighter/bomber. It is capable of employing a variety of air-to-surface-launched weapons in the close air support role. Short-field, unimproved surfaces are considered normal takeoff/landing operating areas. This aircraft is also capable of long endurance in the target area and is supplemented by air refueling. An internally mounted 30-mm cannon is capable of destroying a wide variety of armor-protected vehicles. Designated as A-10.

Thunderstick II. Modification of the F-105D with a new nav/attack system in a dorsal spine.

tie down. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The fastening or securing of a load to its carrier by use of ropes, cables or other means to prevent shifting during transport. Also used (as a noun) to describe the material employed to secure a load.

tie down diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A drawing indicating the prescribed method of securing a particular item of cargo within a specific type of vehicle.

tie down point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An attachment point provided on or within a vehicle for securing cargo.

tie down point pattern. The pattern of tie down points within a vehicle.

tied on. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "The aircraft indicated is in formation with me."

tiering. [DSMC] Formerly, specifications and standards referenced in a contract which within themselves reference other documents which reference still more documents, etc. This practice was formally stopped by the Secretary of Defense in a 1994 memorandum.

tilt angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle between the optical axis of an air camera and the vertical at the time of exposure. See also angle of depression.

time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An epoch, i.e., the designation of an instant on a selected time scale, astronomical or atomic. It is used in the sense of time of day.

time and frequency standard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A reference value of time and time interval. Standards of time and frequency are determined by astronomical observations and by the operation of atomic clocks and other advanced timekeeping instruments. They are disseminated by transport of clocks, radio transmissions, satellite relay, and other means.

time and material contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A contract providing for the procurement of supplies or services on the basis of direct labor hours at specified fixed hourly rates (which rates include direct and indirect labor, overhead, and profit); and material at cost.

time code. A frame-by-frame address code time reference recorded on the spare track of a videotape or inserted in the vertical blanking interval. See Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) time code.

time code generator. A signal generator designed to generate and transmit Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) time code.

time code reader. A counter that reads and displays the Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) time code.

time fuse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fuse which contains a graduated time element to regulate the time interval after which the fuse will function. See also fuse.

time interval. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Duration of a segment of time without reference to when the time interval begins or ends. Time intervals may be given in seconds of time or fractions thereof.

time line. [DSMC] A schedule line showing key dates and planned events.

time of attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The hour at which the attack is to be launched. If a line of departure is prescribed, it is the hour at which the line is to be crossed by the leading elements of the attack.

time of delivery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time at which the addressee or responsible relay agency receipts for a message.

time of flight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the time in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or weapons system to the instant it strikes or detonates.

time of origin. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time at which a message is released for transmission.

time of receipt. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time at which a receiving station completes reception of a message.

time on target. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Time at which aircraft are scheduled to attack/photograph the target.

l The actual time at which aircraft attack/photograph the target.

l The time at which a nuclear detonation is planned at a specified desired ground zero.

time on target (air). See time on target (sense 1 and 2).

time over target (nuclear). See time on target (sense 3).

time over target conflict. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A situation wherein two or more delivery vehicles are scheduled such that their proximity violates the established separation criteria for yield, time, distance, or all three.

time slot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Period of time during which certain activities are governed by specific regulations.

time study. [DSMC] The procedure by which the actual elapsed time for performing an operation or subdivisions, or elements thereof is determined by the use of a suitable timing device and recorded.

time to target. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The number of minutes and seconds to elapse before aircraft ordnance impacts on target.

Time-phased action plan. [DSMC] The time phased action plan represents the schedule for the employment of the manufacturing facilities, processes, and personnel necessary to meet the end item delivery date.

time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The computer-supported data base portion of an operation plan; it contains time-phased force data, non-unit-related cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the operation plan, including:

l In-place units.

l Units to be deployed to support the operation plan with a priority indicating the desired sequence for their arrival at the port of debarkation.

l Routing of forces to be deployed.

l Movement data associated with deploying forces.

l Estimates of non-unit-related cargo and personnel movements to be conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces.

l Estimate of transportation requirements that must be fulfilled by common-user lift resources as well as those requirements that can be fulfilled by assigned or attached transportation resources.

time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) maintenance.[JP 1-02] (DoD) The deliberate planning process that requires a supported commander to incorporate changes to a TPFDD that occur after the TPFDD becomes effective for execution. TPFDD maintenance is conducted by the supported combatant commander in coordination with the supporting combatant commanders, service components, U.S. Transportation Command, and other agencies as required. At designated intervals, changes to data in the TPFDD, including force structure, standard reference files, and services' type unit characteristics file, are updated in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) to ensure currency of deployment data. TPFDD maintenance may also be used to update the TPFDD for Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff or Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan submission in lieu of refinement during the JOPES plan development phase. See also time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data refinement.

time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) refinement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) For both global and regional operation plan development, the process consists of several discrete phases time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) that may be conducted sequentially or concurrently, in whole or in part. These phases are Concept, Plan Development, and Review. The Plan Development Phase consists of several subphases: Forces, Logistics, and Transportation, with shortfall identification associated with each phase. The Plan Development phases are collectively referred to as TPFDD refinement. The normal TPFDD refinement process consists of sequentially refining forces, logistics (non-unit-related personnel and sustainment), and transportation data to develop a TPFDD file that supports a feasible and adequate overlapping of several refinement phases. The decision is made by the supported commander, unless otherwise directed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. For global planning, refinement conferences are conducted by the Joint Staff in conjunction with US Transportation Command. TPFDD refinement is conducted in coordination with supported and supporting commanders, Services, the Joint Staff, and other supporting agencies. Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, will normally host refinement conferences at the request of the Joint Staff or the supported commander. Also called TPFDD refinement. See also time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment list.

time-phased force and deployment list (TPFDL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan. It identifies types and/or actual units required to support the operation plan and indicates origin and ports of debarkation or ocean area. It may also be generated as a computer listing from the time-phased force and deployment data. See also time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment data refinement.

Time-Related Instructional Management (TRIM). A computer system used by the Air Force to handle all student records.

time-sensitive special operations planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The planning for the deployment and employment of assigned, attached, and allocated forces and resources that occurs in response to an actual situation. Time-sensitive planners base their plan on the actual circumstances that exist at the time planning occurs. See also deliberate planning.

time-sensitive targets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those targets requiring immediate response because they pose (or will soon pose) a clear and present danger to friendly forces or are highly lucrative, fleeting targets of opportunity.

time-to-go. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) During an air intercept, the time to fly to the offset point from any given interceptor position; after passing the offset point, the time to fly to the intercept point.

times. [JP 1-02] (DoD) (C-, D-, M-days end at 2400 hours Universal Time (Zulu time) and are assumed to be 24 hours long for planning.) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff normally coordinates the proposed date with the commanders of the appropriate unified and specified commands, as well as any recommended changes to C-day. L-hour will be established per plan, crisis, or theater of operations and will apply to both air and surface movements. Normally, L-hour will be established to allow C-day to be a 24-hour day.

l F-hour. The effective time of announcement by the Secretary of Defense to the military departments of a decision to mobilize Reserve units.

l H-hour. The specific hour on D-day at which a particular operation commences.

l L-hour. The specific hour on C-day at which a deployment operation commences or is to commence.

l C-day. The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. The deployment may be movement of troops, cargo, weapon systems, or a combination of these elements using any or all types of transport. The letter "C" will be the only one used to denote the above. The highest command or headquarters responsible for coordinating the planning will specify the exact meaning of C-day within the aforementioned definition. The command or headquarters directly responsible for the execution of the operation, if other than the one coordinating the planning, will do so in light of the meaning specified by the highest command or headquarters coordinating the planning.

l D-day. The unnamed day on which a particular operation commences or is to commence.

l M-day. The term used to designate the unnamed day on which full mobilization commences or is due to commence.

l N-day. The unnamed day an active duty unit is notified for deployment or redeployment.

l R-day. Redeployment day. The day on which redeployment of major combat, combat support, and combat service support forces begins in an operation.

l S-day. The day the President authorizes Selected Reserve callup (not more than 200,000).

l T-day. The effective day coincident with Presidential declaration of National Emergency and authorization of partial mobilization (not more than 1,000,000 personnel exclusive of the 200,000 callup).

l W-day. Declared by the National Command Authorities, W-day is associated with an adversary decision to prepare for war (unambiguous strategic warning).

tip. See pitch.

tips. [JP 1-02] (DoD) External fuel tanks.

title. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that is the distinguishing name of a document or documentary materials, such as films, sound recordings, images or graphics. The name may or may not be descriptive. In Government Information Locator Service terminology, the Title data element is used to convey the most significant aspects of the referenced resource and is intended for initial presentation to users independently of other elements. It should provide sufficient information to allow users to make an initial decision on likely relevance. It should convey the most significant information available, including the general topic area, as well as a specific reference to the subject.

title block. See information box.

TNT equivalent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A measure of the energy released from the detonation of a nuclear weapon, or from the explosion of a given quantity of fissionable material, in terms of the amount of TNT (Trinitrotoluene) which could release the same amount of energy when exploded.

tolerance. [DSMC] A measure of the accuracy of the dimensions of a part, or the electrical characteristics of an assembly or function.

tolerance dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The amount of radiation which may be received by an individual within a specified period with negligible results.

Tomahawk. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-, land-, ship-, or submarine-launched cruise missile with three variants: land attack with conventional or nuclear capability, and tactical anti-ship with conventional warhead.

Tomcat. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin turbofan, dual-crew, supersonic, all-weather, long-range interceptor designed to operate from aircraft carriers. It carries a wide assortment of air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles and conventional ordnance. Primary mission is long-range fleet air defense with secondary close air support capability. Designated as F-14.

tone down. See attenuation.

tooling costs. [DSMC] Costs incurred by the contractor in establishing certain functions of the manufacturing process to produce an end item.

top line. [DSMC] Fiscal guidance promulgated for programming purposes — the maximum dollar amount the DoD, the services, or other activities can expect to receive. Represents core plus marginal programs.

top secret. See security classification.

tophandler. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers from the top with rough terrain container handlers. See also container.

topic. The basic organizational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related learning objectives.

topical outline. An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. It provides course learning objectives, a listing of part, section, and topic titles and statements of rationale to explain or justify the training. It is used by the curriculum designer to develop the instructor guides.

topographic base. See chart base.

topographic map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map which presents the vertical position of features in measurable form as well as their horizontal positions. See also map.

topography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The configuration of the ground to include its relief and all features. Topography addresses both dry land and the sea floor (underwater topography).

torpedo defense net. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A net employed to close an inner harbor to torpedoes fired from seaward or to protect an individual ship at anchor or underway.

toss bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of bombing where an aircraft flies on a line towards the target, pulls up in a vertical plane, releasing the bomb at an angle that will compensate for the effect of gravity drop on the bomb. Similar to loft bombing; unrestricted as to altitude. See also loft bombing; over-the-shoulder bombing.

total active aircraft authorization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The sum of the primary and backup aircraft authorizations.

total active aircraft inventory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The sum of the primary and backup aircraft assigned to meet the total active aircraft authorization.

total allocated budget. [DSMC] The sum of all budgets allocated to the contract. Total allocated budget consists of the performance measurement baseline and all management reserve.

total Army. [TR 350-70] Active and Reserve Component (Army Nation-al Guard and U.S. Army Reserve Forces) and Department of the Army civilians.

Total Army School System (TASS). [TR 350-70] A composite school system comprised of the AC, ARNG, and USAR institutional training systems. The TASS, through the Army’s training proponents, provides standard training courses to America’s Army, focusing on three main points of effort – standards, efficiencies, and resources. The TASS is composed of accredited and integrated AC/ARNG/USAR schools that provide standard institutional training and education for the Total Army. The TASS training battalions are arranged in regions and functionally aligned with the training/TD (task) proponents. (TR 351-18)

Total Army School System (TASS) school battalions. The training institution of both the ARNG (state military academies, National Guard Bureau (NGB), regional NCOA/schools, etc.) and USAR (U.S. Army Reserve Forces schools/USARC NCOA, etc.). TASS school battalions comprise all NCOAs and schools of the Reserve Component.

Total Army Training System (TATS) course. [TR 350-70] A single course designed to train the same military occupational specialty (MOS)/area of concentration (AOC) skill level, skill qualification identifier (SQI), additional skill identifier (ASI), language identifier code (LIC), and skill identifier (SI) within the total Army. It also includes MOS qualification (MOSQ, i.e., reclassification), Army leadership, functional, professional development, and civilian courses. The course’s total Army structure (phases, modules, tracks, lessons, tests) and media ensure standardization by training all soldiers (regardless of component) on course critical tasks to task performance standard. Course lengths, but not academic hours, may vary due to such differences as Active and Reserve Component (AC/RC) training day lengths.

Total Army Training System (TATS) POI. [TR 350-70] A requirements document that provides a general description of the Total Army Training System Course content, duration of instruction, and methods of instruction and media. It lists critical tasks taught and resources required to conduct peacetime and mobilization training.

Total Army Training System (TATS) training year. [TR 350-70] A training year that meets both the requirements and constraints, to include equipment and time, of the total Army. Reserve Components are generally limited to 323 academic hours during a training year, consisting of annual training (AT)/active duty for training (ADT); inactive duty training (IDT); and non-resident, self-paced distance learning (DL).

total asset visibility (TAV). [DSMC] The ability to gather information at any time about the quantity, location, and condition of assets anywhere in the DoD logistics system.

total dosage attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chemical operation which does not involve a time limit within which to produce the required toxic level.

total materiel assets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total quantity of an item available in the military system worldwide and all funded procurement of the item with adjustments to provide for transfers out of or into the inventory through the appropriation and procurement lead-time periods. It includes peacetime force materiel assets and war reserve stock.

total materiel requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The sum of the peacetime force material requirement and the war reserve material requirement.

total mission awareness. The ability of commanders at all levels to consider everything that affects their operation — applies to operations other than war and war.

total mobilization. See mobilization.

total nuclear war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See general war.

total obligation authority (TOA). [DSMC] A DoD financial term which expresses the value of the direct program for a given fiscal year. It is based on the Congressionally approved budget authority for the program, plus or minus financing and receipts or other adjustments.

total overall aircraft inventory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The sum of the total active aircraft inventory and the inactive aircraft inventory.

total package fielding (TPF). [TP 71-9] TPF is the Army's standard materiel fielding process (see AR 700-142 and DA Pam 700-142). Successful implementation of TPF requires that:

l Each gaining command define how it supports the system (prepare and submit the Mission Support Plan).

l The materiel developer generates and coordinates the Materiel Requirements List (MRL). The MRL identifies the materiel and support requirements to each gaining and supporting unit. The MRL will contain the initial ASL/PLL which is calculated using sparing to availability.

l The fielding and gaining commands coordinate directly to determine the required contents of the total package.

total package/unit materiel fielding (TP/UMF). TP/UMF is a materiel distribution control process that provides a consolidated support package of equipment and materiel for the gaining command.

total pressure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The sum of dynamic and static pressures.

total quality management (TQM). [DSMC] A management philosophy committed to a focus on continuous improvements of product and services with the involvement of the entire workforce.

total risk assessing cost estimate (TRACE). [DSMC] A management system based on scientific methods, set procedures, and effective controls used in the development of research, development, test, and evaluation program and budget requirements to arrive at cost estimates that more closely approach the eventual actual system costs.

total risk assessing cost estimate for production (TRACE-P). TRACE-P provides the same function for production programs as TRACE (see above) does for research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE) programs.

total system. A total system is a composite of skilled people, procedures, materials, tools, equipment, and software that provides an operational capability to perform a stated mission or a particular function or set of functions.

total system performance. Total system performance is customarily measured in effectiveness and suitability. Operational effectiveness is defined as the overall degree of mission accomplishment of a system when used by representative personnel in the environment planned or expected (for example, natural, electronic, threat, and so forth) for operational employment of the system considering organization, doctrine, tactics, survivability, vulnerability, and threat (including countermeasures; initial nuclear weapons effects; nuclear, biological, and chemical contamination threats). Operational suitability is defined as the degree to which a system can be satisfactorily placed in field use with consideration given to availability, compatibility, transportability, interoperability, reliability, wartime usage rates, maintainability, safety, human factors, manpower supportability, logistic supportability, and training requirements.

total task inventory. [TR 350-70] A listing of all the individual tasks performed as part of a job. Critical tasks for the job are derived from this inventory. Also called task inventory. See job, task, and job task inventory.

total war.[JP 1-02] (DoD) [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See general war.

touch labor. [DSMC] Defined as production labor which can be reasonably and consistently related directly to a unit of work being manufactured, processed, or tested. Hands-on labor effort.

touchdown. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The contact, or moment of contact, of an aircraft or spacecraft with the landing surface.

touchdown zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l For fixed wing aircraft - the first 3,000 feet or 1,000 meters of runway beginning at the threshold.

l For rotary wings and vectored thrust aircraft - that portion of the helicopter landing area or runway used for landing.

TOW (missile). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A component of a tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-command link guided missile weapon system which is crew-portable.

toxic chemical, biological, or radiological attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An attack directed at personnel, animals, or crops, using injurious agents of radiological, biological, or chemical origin.

toxin agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A poison formed as a specific secretion product in the metabolism of a vegetable or animal organism as distinguished from inorganic poisons. Such poisons can also be manufactured by synthetic processes.

track. 1[TR 350-70] A designed, sequential, and progressive training path for a course. A single course may have multiple tracks, e.g., tracks for different equipment. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A series of related contacts displayed on a plotting board.

l To display or record the successive positions of a moving object.

l To lock onto a point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom.

l To keep a gun properly aimed, or to point continuously a target-locating instrument at a moving target.

l The actual path of an aircraft above, or a ship on, the surface of the Earth. The course is the path that is planned; the track is the path that is actually taken.

l One of the two endless belts on which a full-track or half-track vehicle runs.

l A metal part forming a path for a moving object, e.g., the track around the inside of a vehicle for moving a mounted machine gun.

track correlation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Correlating track information for identification purposes using all available data.

track crossing angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, the angular difference between interceptor track and target track at the time of intercept.

track mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, a control mode in which the ground track of an aircraft is maintained automatically.

track of interest (TOI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, contacts that meet the initial sorting criteria applicable in the area where the contacts are detected. See also special interest target; suspect.

track production area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area in which tracks are produced by one radar station.

track symbology. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Symbols used to display tracks on a data display console or other display device.

track telling. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of communicating air surveillance and tactical data information between command and control systems or between facilities within the systems. Telling may be classified into the following types: back tell; cross tell; forward tell; overlap tell; and relateral tell. Syn. lateral tell.

tracking. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Precise and continuous position-finding of targets by radar, optical, or other means. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "By my evaluation, target is steering true course indicated."

tractor group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A group of landing ships in an amphibious operation which carries the amphibious vehicles of the landing force.

trade-off. 1[TRADOC] In any systematic approach to instruction, it is necessary to make compromises between what is desirable and what is possible. Ordinarily, these decisions involve increases or decreases in time, money, facilities, equipment, or personnel. Training aids and simulators are examples of trade-offs. 2[DSMC] Selection among alternatives to obtain optimum balance for a system. Often the decision is made to opt for less of one parameter (i.e., fully funded) program.

trade-off analysis (TOA). This is a document prepared by a special task force (STF) a special study group (SSG), or jointly by the combat and materiel developers, to determine which technical approach offered in the trade-off determination (TOD) is best.

trade-off determination (TOD). This is a document prepared by the materiel developer. It is sent to the combat developer or to a special task force (STF) or special study group (SSG) to convey the feasibility of a potential system. Included are technical risks related to each approach, estimated research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE) and procurement costs, and schedules.

TRADOC budget guidance (TBG). [TR 350-70] Narrative guidance and funding trails issued twice a year, for the command budget estimate (CBE) and the appropriation TRADOC budget guidance (ATBG), based on the appropriation funding letter received from HQ DA.

TRADOC Long-Range Plan. [TR 350-70] The document which prescribes directions the command will follow over the next 10 years in preparing the Army for war and developing characteristics of the Army of the future. It also provides a structure upon which resources will be more accurately justified and allocated at every level and a framework from which subordinate plans will be prepared.

TRADOC Materiel Evaluation Committee (TMEC). [TR 350-70] The TMEC reviews all IPR/Army Systems Acquisition Review Council (ASARC) milestone decision review positions or test waivers of IOTE.

TRADOC Requirements Analysis System (TRAS). A systematic management process which facilitates the timely development and implementation of resident and exported training by documenting the plans and supporting requirements.

TRADOC review of manpower (TRM). [TR 350-70] An annual process requiring TRADOC schools to submit manpower requirements. The TRADOC staff validates and recognizes these requirements, and available manpower is allocated to meet TRADOC priorities.

TRADOC Staff and Faculty Common Core. [TR 350-70] A series of training requirements that provide critical baseline skills in the conduct, development, and management of training.

TRADOC Study Program. [TR 350-32] The TRADOC (Training and Doctrine Command) Study Program (TSP) is part of the Army Study Program governed by AR 5-5. It is a comprehensive listing of TRADOC studies and analytical projects that meet all AR 5-5 criteria and that require at least 0.5 professional staff years to accomplish. TSP is a management tool that HQ TRADOC staff personnel use to provide direction and oversight of AR 5-5 studies. The TSP is used by DCST for committing funds and programming manpower support for studies, and for allocating resources to address other analytic requirements within TRADOC.

TRADOC system manager (TSM). [TR 350-70] An individual appointed by CG, TRADOC, responsible for coordinating the CD, user, and trainer efforts in the life cycle management of the assigned system(s). This individual is also responsible for doctrinal and organizational standardization or interoperability with NATO.

TRADOC system staff officer (TRASSO). The TRASSO is a HQ TRADOC point of contact for assigned materiel systems/ projects/programs.

traffic circulation map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map showing traffic routes and the measures for traffic regulation. It indicates the roads for use of certain classes of traffic, the location of traffic control stations, and the directions in which traffic may move. Also called a circulation map. See also map.

traffic control police. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any persons ordered by a military commander and/or by national authorities to facilitate the movement of traffic and to prevent and/or report any breach of road traffic regulations.

traffic density. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The average number of vehicles that occupy one mile or one kilometer of road space, expressed in vehicles per mile or per kilometer.

traffic flow. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total number of vehicles passing a given point in a given time. Traffic flow is expressed as vehicles per hour.

traffic flow security. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The protection resulting from features, inherent in some cryptoequipment, which conceal the presence of valid messages on a communications circuit, normally achieved by causing the circuit to appear busy at all times.

traffic information (radar). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Information issued to alert an aircraft to any radar targets observed on the radar display which may be in such proximity to its position or intended route of flight to warrant its attention.

traffic management. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The direction, control, and super-vision of all functions incident to the procurement and use of freight and passenger transportation services.

traffic pattern. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The traffic flow that is prescribed for air-craft landing at, taxiing on, and taking off from an airport. The usual components of a traffic pattern are upwind leg, crosswind leg, downwind leg, base leg, and final approach.

trafficability. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Capability of terrain to bear traffic. It refers to the extent to which the terrain will permit continued movement of any and/or all types of traffic.

trail. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A term applied to the manner in which a bomb trails behind the aircraft from which it has been released, assuming the aircraft does not change its velocity after the release of the bomb. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) Track (or shadow). (The words land-ward or seaward may be used to indicate from which side of enemy unit to shadow.)

trailer aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Aircraft which are following and keeping under surveillance a designated airborne contact.

train. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A service force or group of service elements which provides logistic support, e.g., an organization of naval auxiliary ships or merchant ships or merchant ships attached to a fleet for this purpose; similarly, the vehicles and operating personnel which furnish supply, evacuation, and maintenance services to a land unit.

l Bombs dropped in short intervals or sequence.

train headway. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The interval of time between two trains boarded by the same unit at the same point.

train path. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In railway terminology, the timing of a possible movement of a train along a given route. All the train paths on a given route constitute a timetable.

trained strength in units. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those Reservists assigned to units who have completed initial active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent and are eligible for deployment overseas on land when mobilized under proper authority. Excludes personnel in nondeployable accounts or a train-ing pipeline.

trainee. See student. Also called learner.

trainee guide (TG). A publication that provides each student with the data necessary for the successful completion of a course of study. The materials may be in the form of information, diagram, job, assignment, problem, and outline sheets. Also called student guide.

trainer. 1[TR 350-70]

l An individual who conducts training, whether in a unit or a training institution.

l For the Train the Trainer Program, it implies all training related personnel involved in the training mission, such as instructors, training developers, analysts, small group leaders, and evaluators.

2[TP 71-9] The agency that trains personnel to operate and maintain development items or systems. For most equipment, this is TRADOC.

trainer appraisal kit. A package of instructional materials designed to provide a course instructor with practice in instruction preparation, presentation, and validation.

trainer’s guide (TG). Trainer’s guides can be a separate document but is usually published as chapter 2 of an upper SL SM; contain an MOS/AOC (job) training plan; list critical tasks to be trained in MOS by duty position and subject area.

training. 1Instruction and applied exercises for the attainment and retention of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. 2Consideration of the training necessary and time required to impart the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities to qualify Army personnel for use, operation, maintenance, and support of Army systems or items. It involves:

l The formulation and selection of engineering design alternatives which are supportable from a training perspective.

l The documentation of training strategies.

l The timely determination of resource requirements to enable the Army training system to support system fielding.

3Human factors engineering techniques are used to determine the tasks which must be performed by the system user, operator, maintenance and support personnel; the conditions under which they must be performed; and the performance standards which must be met. Training is linked with personnel analyses and actions in that availability of qualified personnel is a direct function of the training process. As a minimum, the following must be considered:

l Training effort and costs versus system design.

l Training times.

l Training program development, considering aptitudes of available personnel.

l Sustainment training, distinguished from training associated with initial system fielding.

l Developmental training, as distinguished from initial entry training.

l Training devices – design, development and, use.

l Training base resourcing – manpower and personnel implications.

l New equipment training (NET).

l Formal training base instruction, versus on-the-job training (OJT) in units.

l Unit training.

l Operational testing of the adequacy of training programs and techniques.

Training, Exercises, and Military Operations (TEMO). [TR 350-70] One of the three domains for Army M&S (models and simulations) domains which manages Army M&S application. TEMO includes most forms of training support at echelons, from individual simulation trainers through collective, combined arms, joint, and/or combined exercises. TEMO includes military operations’ mission rehearsals and war planning evaluations of all phases of the operations. Exercises may be joint, combined, or single service. Training is the Army’s Title 10 responsibility to educate and train individuals and organizations.

training aid. An item developed, procured, or fabricated for the purpose of assisting in the conduct of training and the process of learning, such as models, mockups, interactive courseware, audio-visual aids, displays, slides, books, pictures, and magnetic/optical recordings.

training aids. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any item which is developed and/or procured with the primary intent that it shall assist in training and the process of learning.

training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS). [TR 350-70] A general term that includes Combat Training Center (CTC) and training range instrumentation; tactical engagement simulation (TES); battle simulations; targetry; training-unique ammunition; dummy, drill, and inert munitions; casualty assessment systems; graphic training aids; and other training support devices. All of these are subject to the public laws and regulatory guidance governing the acquisition of materiel. TADSS are categorized as system and nonsystem:

l system training devices (STDs): STDs are designed for use with a specific system, family of systems, or item of equipment, including subassemblies and components. STDs may be designed/configured to support Individual, crew, collective, or combined arms training tasks. They may be stand-alone, embedded, or appended. Using system-embedded TADSS is the preferred approach where practical and cost effective.

l nonsystem training devices (NSTDs): NSTDs are designed to support general military training and nonsystem-specific training requirements.

training analysis data sheet (TADS). A document that defines a task (unit of work) hierarchically in terms of subject, task, subtask, element, and subelement. The level of indenture is developed to the level required by the using service or agency. It also includes information related to level of activity, occupational skill level, materiel system with which used, and level of knowledge or skill at which used.

training and evaluation guide. [TR 350-70] The section of the task summary in a soldier’s manual which lists the pass/fail performance measures for evaluating the soldier’s performance on the task.

training and evaluation outlines (T&EO). Part of the Mission Training Plan (MTP) which provides collective task specifications. The outlines are the basis for evaluation.

training and retirement category. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The category identifying (by specific training and retirement category designator) a reservist's training or retirement status in a reserve component category and reserve component.

training and training support. [DSMC] The processes, procedures, techniques, training devices, and equipment used to train civilian and active duty and reserve military personnel to operate and support a materiel system. This includes individual and crew training; new equipment training; initial, formal, and on-the-job training; and logistic support (LS) planning for training equipment and training device acquisitions and installations. A traditional element of LS.

training assessment. [TR 350-70] An analytical process used by Army leaders to determine an organization’s current levels of training proficiency on mission essential tasks. (FM 25-100)

Note: Leaders use the results of training evaluations to make commander’s training assessments.

training capabilities analysis. An analysis that provides information about what the training material or training equipment could train.

training circular (TC). [TR 350-70] TCs are publications (paper or computer-based) which provide a means to distribute unit or individual soldier training information that does not fit standard requirements for other established types of training publications. They may contain training reference data; procedures for using equipment, devices, or simulators; training procedures; training development procedures; and training material. TCs are part of the Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature Program (ADTLP).

training concept. A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms of type of training, presentation environment, presentation techniques, presentation media, pipeline, location, and other considerations.

training course. [TR 350-70] Structured, sequenced training designed to train a student to performed identified learning objectives to a prescribed standard. The training may be presented by advanced technology, such as computers; by conventional methods, such as conference using trained instructors; by distance learning techniques, such as distributed print or interactive multimedia instruction courseware (IMIICW) modules; or by a combination thereof.

training data product. [TR 350-70] Contains information related to the analysis, design, development, presentation, evaluation, or the lifecycle maintenance of training, regardless of it’s form or physical characteristics. See training development products.

training data product. [TR 350-70] Contains information related to the analysis, design, development, presentation, evaluation, or the life-cycle maintenance of training, regardless of its form or physical characteristics.

training developer (TD) 1[TR 350-70]

l The individual whose function is to analyze, design, develop, and evaluate training and training products, to include development of training strategies, plans, and products to support resident, non-resident, and unit training. Any individual functioning in this capacity is a training developer regardless of job or position title.

l In developing systems, the command or agency responsible for the development and conduct of training which will provide the tasks necessary to operate and logistically support the new materiel system.

2[TP 71-9] Command or agency that formulates, develops, and documents or produces training concepts, strategies, requirements (materiel and other), and programs for assigned mission areas and functions. Serves as user (trainer and trainee) representative during acquisitions of their approved training materiel requirements (MNS and ORDs) and training program developments.

training developer. training development. [TP 71-9] The conception, development, and execution of solutions to training requirements identified through the combat development process. The solutions may include new or revised training programs, material, methods, media, and system and nonsystem training devices.

Training Developer Workload Planner-Automated Systems Approach to Training (TDWP-ASAT). An automated TD workload database used to assist the management of the TD workload. It will be subsumed into ASAT as a workload management menu option.

training development (TD). 1The conception, development, and execution of solutions to training requirements identified through the combat development process. The solutions may include new or revised training programs, material, methods, media, and system and nonsystem training devices. 2[TR 350-70] The Army's training development process is the Systems Approach to Training (SAT). It is a systematic, spiral approach to making collective, individual, and self-development training decisions for the total Army. It determines whether or not training is needed; what is trained; who gets the training; how, how well, and where the training is presented; and the training support/resources required to produce, distribute, implement, and evaluate those products. The process involves five training related phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Note : Do not confuse the overall TD process with the particular Systems Approach to Training (SAT) phase called development, which is related specifically to the development of training and training products following analysis and design.

training development and delivery (MANPRINT domain). Consideration of the necessary time and resources required to impart the requisite knowledges, skills, and abilities to qualify Army personnel for operation, maintenance, repair, and support of Army systems.

l It involves:

l The formulation and selection of engineering design alternatives which are supportable from a training perspective.

l The documentation of training strategies.

l The timely determination of resource requirements to enable the Army training system to support system fielding.

l It includes:

l Analyses of the tasks performed by the operator, maintainer, repairer, and supporter.

l The conditions under which the tasks must be performed.

l The performance standards which must be met.

Training is linked with personnel analyses and actions in that availability of qualified personnel is a direct function of the training process.

training development management. [TR 350-70] The process TRADOC schools use to plan TD, determine and allocate TD resources, schedule TD, and ensure quality training products are produced.

training development plan. [TR 350-70] The title training development plan is a generic name for a master planning document. Different proponent schools may have used different titles in the past. It functions as a top-level plan covering all resourced requirements (reflected in training development project management plans) and unresourced requirements. It includes all required training products (resident and nonresident courses, training support package, etc.) and all training development processes (mission analysis, job analysis, etc.). It shows what training development workload must be accomplished during the execution, budgeting, and programming years; and it increases in detail up to the execution year. It does not have to be a formal plan: the requirements can be in a database and not formalized in a report. The plan is for internal proponent school use.

training development planning. [TR 350-70] The planning of all aspects of training development including but not limited to funding, staffing, resourcing, and scheduling. The degree of planning varies with the office or command level and products produced. Long-range planning covers years three through twenty past the execution year. Planning helps ensure the most efficient use of manpower and other resources to develop the important training first. See training development project management plan and the training development plan.

training development products. [TR 350-70] Products of the training development process that enable the formulation and implementation of training programs. They include items such as critical task lists, correspondence courses, lesson plans, and training materials.

training development project management plan. [TR 350-70] The training development project management plan is the proponent plan for developing training for a single, resourced, TD requirement, such as development or revision of resident and nonresident courses, analyses, doctrine literature, and strategies/plans is based on a valid TD requirement identified during needs analysis or training design strategy development; details the personnel, milestones, costs, material, TDY and all other factors required to develop the training; is for internal use, and can vary in details and complexity, depending on the training development project. This plan can be simple, unwritten (i.e., the project requirements exist but are not formalized in a report) or complex, very detailed, and may even include a Memorandum of Understanding. See project management plan. Examples:

l course development plan. A type of TD project management plan which details the proponent plan for designing and developing a course. It may include projected timelines as well as time, personnel, and TDY resource requirements

l job and task analysis plan. A type of TD project management plan which details the proponent plan for conducting a job and task analysis. It may include projected timelines; time, personnel, and TDY resource requirements; and data collection strategies

training development requirement. [TR 350-70] The training solution to a performance deficiency defined during needs analysis or training strategy development.

training development (TD) team. The TD team is responsible for the development of all media, courseware, training devices, syllabi, and hands-on events. The team is the office/unit designated with the primary responsibility for training development and maintenance and evaluation for lesson plans, phase manuals, and syllabi. The TD team may consist of a project leader, subject matter experts, ISD technicians, education and training officers, and instructional systems specialists.

Training Development Workload Planner– Automated Systems Approach to Training (TDWP-ASAT). [TR 350-70] An automated training development (TD) workload database used to assist in the management of TD workload. Will be subsumed into ASAT (Workload Management menu option).

training device. 1[TR 350-70] Three-dimensional object and associated computer software developed, fabricated, or procured specifically for improving the training process. Categorized as either system or nonsystem devices.

l system device. A device, including subassemblies and components, designed for use with a system, family of systems, or item of equipment, including subassemblies and components. It may be standalone, embedded, or appended.

l nonsystem device. A device assigned to support general military training and non-system-specific training requirements. Example: operational flight trainer (OFT).

2[TP 71-9] TADSS which simulate or demonstrate the function of equipment or weapon systems. These items are categorized as follows:

l stand-alone TADSS. An autonomous item of training equipment designed to enhance or support individual or collective training.

l embedded. Training that is provided by capabilities designed to be built into or added onto operational systems to enhance and maintain the skill proficiency necessary to operate and maintain that system. Embedded training capabilities encompass four training categories:

l category A– individual/operator. To attain and sustain individual, maintenance, and system orientation skills.

l category B – crew. To sustain combat ready crews/teams. This category builds on skills acquired from category A.

l category C – functional. To train or sustain commander, staffs, and crews/teams within each functional area to be utilized in their operational role.

l category D – force level (combined arms command and battle staff). To train or sustain combat ready commanders and battle staffs utilizing the operational system in its combat operational role.

l system. A TADSS item that supports a system or family of systems program material.

l nonsystem. All TADSS not defined as system TADSS.

l simulators. A training medium that replicates or represents the functions of a weapon, weapon system, or item of equipment generally supporting individual, crew, or crew subset training. Simulators may stand alone or be embedded.

l simulations. A training medium designed to replicate or represent battlefield environments in support of command and staff training. Simulations may stand alone or be embedded.

training device needs statement. [TR 350-70] The proponent's documentation describing the role of the proposed nonsystem training device in the training programs and the exact basis of issue plan.

training device requirement (TDR). [TR 350-70] A TDR is the proponent's documentation of requirements for a nonsystem training device which requires research and development.

training effectiveness (TE). 1[DoD] The training benefit gained in terms of operational readiness. Also, the thoroughness with which training objectives have been achieved, regardless of training efficiency. 2[TR 350-70] A measure of how well the learning objectives have been met. The evaluator determines whether the unit or soldier meets or exceeds established training standards.

training effectiveness analysis (TEA). [TR 350-70] A general category of studies for assessing the cost and/or effectiveness of TRADOC's training strategies, programs, and products.

training effectiveness evaluation. The systematic process of measuring the training benefit gained through a course of instruction in terms of operational readiness. Also, the process of determining the thoroughness with which training objectives have been achieved, regardless of training efficiency.

training efficiency. [TR 350-70] The determination of how well training resources were used to train effectively. See training effectiveness.

training emphasis. See task selection models.

training environment. [TR 350-70] The physical and cognitive environment which fosters, stimulates and facilitates learning. This environment includes a myriad of variables, such as the physical location or site where unit or individual training is conducted; training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS), to include level of simulation (live/virtual/ constructive); automation hardware/software; suitability (change to "applicability and effectiveness") of training materials; delivery technique (small group instruction, IMI, VTT, etc.); instructor/facilitator effectiveness/ competency.

training equipment. [TR 350-70] An item of tactical or nontactical equipment or components used for training purposes in which the pieces of equipment do not lose their identity as end items for operational purposes, e.g. rifles, vehicles, communication equipment, and aircraft. Note: Subject to availability, conversion of operational equipment that is already in the Army inventory to training equipment will be accomplished by executing a change to the gaining organization's TDA, thereby authorizing the item of equipment to be issued to the organization. Operational equipment required for training that is not in the Army inventory will be procured as items of TADSS IAW AR 70-1 and AR 350-38.

training evaluation. [TR 350-70] The process used to measure the demonstrated ability of individuals or units to perform a task to the task performance standard; e.g., GO or NO GO.

training event. [TR 350-70] Scheduled training activity for initial or sustainment training of a mission, collective task or individual task in a unit as identified by a CATS short-range unit training strategy.

training exercise. A practice problem conducted in the field, for example, a simulation of the real situation (operational situation), and conducted in an environment approximating the significant features of the real (operational) environment.

training facility. [TR 350-70] A permanent or semi-permanent facility, such as a firing range (range towers, scoring benches, lane markers, range signs), confidence course, military operations on urbanized terrain (MOUT) complex, aircraft mock-up, jump school tower, or training area.

training feature. An element of the training medium that provides sensory inputs to the student or receives sensory outputs from the learner. The sensory inputs and outputs may be utilized as stimulus and feedback for the purpose of training. Training features correspond to the attributes defined for a given task, learning objective, or student for which the training medium is designed. Examples of training features include motion, level of fidelity, G-forces, visual imagery, cue enhancement, and response rate control.

training fidelity. The extent to which cue and response capabilities in training allow for the learning and practice of specific tasks so that what is learned will transfer to performance of the tasks in the operational environment.

training gate. [TR 350-70] Prerequisite training that must be attained by the members of the training audience prior to the execution of planned training. If the training audience hasn’t attained the specified level of proficiency, the training to be presented cannot be accomplished to the required standard.

training level assignment (TLA). A tabular listing in a Personnel Performance Profile (PPP) table number sequence that imposes training levels for the PPP items and identifies the environment where training for a particular PPP item will take place.

training logistics support requirements. Logistics support necessary to establish a training capability. This includes technical training equipment, training devices, test equipment, special tools, training services, curricula materials, training aids, technical manuals, and facility support requirements.

training management. [TR 350-70] The process commanders and their staff use to plan training and related resource requirements needed to conduct and evaluate training. It involves all echelons and applies to any unit in the Army regardless of strength, mission, organization, or equipment assigned.

training management plan (TMP). A [DIA] plan of action prepared by the requester and the program manager in coordination with the DIA/MITC which delineates the procedures and responsibilities required the necessary new joint general intelligence training or systems training.

training material outline (TMO). A document that defines in detail the training package content in relation to each lesson in the outline. It is the second stage of instruction media material development.

training materials. [TR 350-70] Those materials developed as a result of training design and provided to teach or evaluate training. They include, but are not limited to, computer based instruction, correspondence courses, training literature products, student handouts, and other products used to train to a prescribed standard.

training means. [TR 350-70] Combinations of events and media (live or simulation) that might be selected to train a mission/task. You must select an appropriate means for each time you intend to conduct training on a task. See training event.

training media. See media.

training method. [TR 350-70] The procedure or process for attaining a training objective. Examples include lecture, demonstration, discussion, assigned reading, exercise, examination, seminar, and programmed instruction.

training mission. The stated objective and purpose of an activity whose principal role is to provide training.

training objective. [TR 350-70] A statement that describes the desired outcome of a training activity in the unit. It consists of the following three parts: task, condition(s), standard.

training objective statements (TOS). A group of statements that describe the system, subsystem, equipment, or task/function depths and skill levels to be attained in support of coordinating, directing, or performing operation and maintenance. They define depth and level of training for personnel performance profile (PPP) items.

training path system (TPS). A coordinated system for identifying the training requirements for categories of personnel in a training program. The student must obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to coordinate, direct, or perform operation and maintenance of a system, subsystem, or equipment or perform task/functions. It is based on the knowledge and skill items set forth in the personnel performance profile (PPP), and upon an orderly categorization of these items.

training performance measure. An instrument used to evaluate the proficiency of a job holder on a given task the student performed in training.

training period. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An authorized and scheduled regular Reserve inactive duty training period. A training period must be at least two hours for retirement point credit and four hours for pay. Previously used interchangeably with other common terms such as drills, drill period, assemblies, periods of instruction, etc.

training pipeline. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Reserve Component category designation that identifies untrained officer and enlisted personnel who have not completed initial active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent. See also nondeployable account.

training pipeline/track. Sequence of training courses required for an occupational group.

training plan. [TR 350-70] A detailed description of the actions, milestones, and resources required to implement a training strategy. The detail depends on the plan type and level. See project management plan and training development plan.

training prerequisite. See prerequisite.

training program. [TR 350-70] An assembly or series of courses or other training requirements organized to fulfill a broad overall training goal.

training proponent. Organization responsible for managing and presenting training of a materiel system, functional area, or task. See training/TD (task) proponent.

training rate. The number of personnel trained in a specific course in a given period of time.

training readiness. The quality of being up-to-date (i.e., able to provide training on the latest model, device, version, technique, information, and other essentials) and be able to provide the necessary instruction.

training requirements. 1[TR 350-70]

l As related to training implementation – the critical tasks Army's units and soldiers must be able to perform to the standard required if they are to be able to fight, win, and survive on the battlefield. Army training and training products will only be produced to meet a valid training requirement and to train soldiers and units to perform critical collective and individual tasks to established standards.

l As related to resident course management – the number of personnel required to enter into training to meet commitments of the military services concerned.

2[DoD] Those skills that are required for satisfying the job performance requirements and not already in the student's incoming repertoire.

training requirements analysis. A determination of the requirements to resolve a performance deficiency.

Training Requirements Analysis System (TRAS). [TR 350-70] The management system that documents training resource requirements in time to inject them into resource acquisition systems. The TRAS uses three types of documents: individual training plans (ITPs), course administrative data (CADs), and programs of instruction (POI).

training resource requirements. The training staff and student billets, training equipment and devices, test equipment, spare parts, training services, materials (e.g., texts, references, films, graphics, and other instructional media materials), construction for (or modification of) training facilities, technical services, funds, time, necessary to conduct required training and support training.

training resources. [TR 350-70] Those human, physical, financial, and time requirements used to conduct and support training.

training safety. [TR 350-70] Deals with how we train. It is achieved by identifying task performance safety hazards and integrating safety in training procedures during training design, development, and implementation. Safety in training and training safely are not one and the same.

training sequence. [TR 350-70] Ordering the parts of a training program/ course to optimize learning.

training setting criteria. In media selection, the options that training must be either small group, large group, individualized at a fixed location, or individualized independent of location.

training simulator. A generic term that refers to a group of training devices that can range from simple procedures trainers to high fidelity devices, all capable of simulating various aspects of reality.

training site. [TR 350-70] Any location where training is implemented, to include proponent school, soldier's home, learning centers, and units.

training site selection. In training analysis and design, the decision regarding where a task should be trained (i.e., resident or institution versus unit or job site). See training strategy.

training situation analysis. A document used to verify the effectiveness of a training system to meet existing training needs and to survey training programs and technologies for applicability to new training needs.

training solution. Solving a performance deficiency with training. See needs analysis and training development requirement.

training specifications. A detailed description for the development of the job task analysis (job analysis), instructional materials, and the conduct of courses designed for preparing personnel to perform assigned tasks within their occupational fields.

training staff. The administration staff and instructors required to manage/operate a training activity.

training standard. A quantitative or qualitative measure for the determination of a level of competence or readiness. A standardized procedure or exercise.

training strategy. [TR 350-70] The general description of the methods and resources required to implement a training concept. It lays out the who, what, where, when, why, how, and cost of the training. The development of a training strategy includes determining the training site and media selected to train each critical task.

l Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS). See "Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS)" in TR 350-70, under Section "C."

l unit training strategy The training design (plan) to attain and sustain the desired level of performance proficiency on mission essential or critical collective tasks. These strategies are based on mission and critical collective analysis data and evaluation feedback. They establish the need to produce collective training products and materials. Unit strategies are prepared in the form of a gunnery, maneuver/collective, and soldier matrix.

l individual training strategy (ITS). A cradle-to-grave description of the methods and resources required to develop and implement individual training. It describes, who (soldier), what (task), where (training site), when, and at what cost the training will be developed and implemented. There are long-range and short-range individual training strategies.

l long-range training strategy. The long-range estimation of who, how, when, and where training will be provided. The time period extends from the third year following the execution year and beyond. It also identifies resource estimates for the POM. Long-range training strategies are developed/updated after needs analysis determines a training requirement(s) exists. Long-range plans, e.g., ITP, document future training requirements. Example: Needs analysis determines a requirement to develop training to support a new MOS or system. Strategy development determines the best way to train these tasks is by a training device. This requirement is entered in the ITP for the affected MOS skill level(s).

l short-range training strategies. The short-range determination of who, how, when and where tasks will be trained. The time period includes the execution plus the two budget years. Short-range training strategies are developed following the critical individual task analysis. They are supported by updated long-range plans (e.g., ITP) and development/update of short-range training plans/models. Example: Strategy development determines that CBI is the best way to train several of the approved critical tasks. Developers then develop a CBI project management plan and design the CBI product.

training structure. [TR 350-70] The organization of instruction into logical groupings to facilitate learning. The basic segments of formal training are courses, phases, modules (annex, subcourse), and lessons. See sequencing.

training subsystem. [TR 350-70] A new system's training support system. Training products included in the training subsystem include: soldier's manuals, trainer's guides, skill development tests, Army Mission Training and Evaluation Plan (ARTEP), crew/battle drills, and training devices. The system also uses: technical manuals, extension training materials, facilities, ranges, targets, training ammunition, training literature, television, graphic training aids, motion pictures, programs of instruction, and lesson plans.

training support. [TR 350-70] The provision of the materials, personnel, equipment, or facilities when and where needed to implement the training. It includes such functions as the reproduction and distribution of training products and materials, training scheduling, student record maintenance.

training support agency. A bureau, command, office, headquarters, or other organization responsible for supporting the training agencies by providing resources and other forms of support within their cognizance.

Training Support Center (TSC). [TR 350-70] An authorized installation activity with area responsibility to provide storage, instruction, loan/issue, accountability, and maintenance for TADSS.

training support material. Those materials used as instructor aids for presenting information in a lecture or discussion and as student aids in an individualized training course or some other self-learning process.

training support package (TSP). [TR 350-70] A complete, exportable package integrating training products, materials, and/or information necessary to train one or more critical tasks. Its contents will vary depending on the training site and user. A TSP for individual training is a complete, exportable package integrating training products/materials necessary to train one or more critical individual tasks. A TSP for collective training is a package that can be used to train critical collective and supporting critical individual, leader, and battle staff tasks. TSPs are in these categories:

l collective/Warfighter TSP. A complete, stand alone, exportable training package integrating training products and materials needed to train one or more critical collective tasks and supporting critical individual tasks (including leader and battle staff). It is a task-based information package that provides a structured situational training scenario for live, virtual, or constructive unit or institutional training.

l common or shared individual task TSP. This is a TSP for one or more common or shared tasks.

l lane training TSP. A package of material used to plan, execute, and assess lane training.

l RC3TSP. A package of course training material configured (redesigned) from AC resident courses. Note: TATS course TSPs will replace RC3 TSPs.

l TADSS TSP. A TADSS TSP is a complete package integrating all training products and materials needed to provide individual or collective training in the operational use or maintenance of a TADSS. It may be an exportable package for use in units to "train-the-trainer", a package for use in units to train individuals or teams, or a package exclusively used within an institution to train instructors or students on the utilization of the TADSS. The primary TADSS TSP product is an approved, validated TSP containing all material required to implement the training at the unit or institution. Its contents will vary depending on its type or use.

l training/TATS course TSP. This TSP contains all guidance and materials needed to train all critical tasks in a course to the total Army.

l TSP for collective task(s) trained in the unit. A TSP prepared or approved by the proponent school for unit training of critical collective task(s).

l TSP for individual task(s) trained in the unit. A TSP prepared by the proponent school for critical individual task(s) selected during the media selection process for training at the unit. It contains all guidance/material needed to train the task.

l Warfighter TSP. A collective TSP that fully supports training for all units; i.e., both current and Force XXI units (sometimes referred to as analog and digital, respectively). See collective/Warfighter TSP.

l Warrior TSP. A package of training products/ materials necessary train one or more critical individual tasks anywhere in the world, to include the institution, the unit, or in a soldier's home. Training may be conducted using formal instruction, self study, or distance learning in a live, virtual, or constructive environment.

l WarMod TSP. A package of training products/materials used to initially train individual operator/maintainer/repairer, battle staff, or collective tasks for new equipment/systems. It provides the means to deliver training anywhere in the world, to include in the institution, at the unit, or at the contractor facility. Training may be conducted via formal instruction or distance learning in a live, virtual, or constructive environment. It will be used for instructor and key personnel training (IKPT) and may include doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures training.

l training test support package (TTSP). Information provided the tester for use in evaluating training on new systems. This package includes the program of instruction, soldier's manual, trainer's guide, ARTEP mission training plan changes, and training devices. It also lists embedded training components, training ammunition, targets, technical documentation, and training extension materials.

training support requirements (TSR) annex (A) to the ORD. It identifies resourcing requirements for all training, including devices, embedded training, and facilities. (obsolete)

training system. [TR 350-70] A training system is the combination of all elements of a training program working together to bring about the preparation of units to perform their missions and/or personnel to effectively perform their assigned jobs. A training system consists of training hardware, facilities, and personnel subsystems.

training system utilization handbook. A document that is designed for user personnel to aid them in operating and achieving full utilization of a specific training system during the presentation of a course(s) of instruction, training exercise(s) or mission(s).

training task. A task selected for training.

training task analysis. The process of examining each unique unit of work from the job task analysis to derive descriptive information (e.g., procedural steps, elements, task conditions, standards, and other information) used in the design, development and testing of training products.

training technology. [TR 350-70] The use of technology for the development, delivery, and/or implementation of learning oriented activities to accomplish the learning objective. It includes hardware/software solutions and/or human learning process solutions to training problems. Examples of hardware/software training technologies include Interactive Multimedia instruction (IMI), linked simulations, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, embedded training, voice input/out devices and global networks.

training transfer. [TR 350-70] The ability to apply learned behavior, tasks, supporting skills and knowledges, or performance to an operational setting under operational conditions.

training unique equipment. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment, modified operational equipment, and equipment specifically designed for a training system as an integral part of the training system. See commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and training device.

training unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unit established to provide military training to individual reservists or to reserve component units.

training utilization. The extent to which the capacity of a training activity, school, device, or course is being used.

training week. [TR 350-70] Consists of the total number of hours that training can be conducted during any given week. A normal training week is 40 hours; mobilization, 60 hours. The training week includes academic and administrative time.

training-on-demand. [TR 350-70] Training provided to a unit at the commander's request to meet an immediate mission need. See Just-in-time Training.

training-pay category. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designation identifying the number of days of training and pay required for members of the Reserve Components.

Training/leader development requirements. [TP 71-9] Changes or additions to any of the Army’s training or professional development programs. These range from institutional training conducted at TRADOC schools to individual self-development and unit training programs conducted in the field.

training/TD (task) proponent. [TR 350-70] There are two basic organizational functions as described below:

l training proponent. Organization responsible for managing and presenting training of a materiel system, functional area, or task. May or may not also be the TD (task) proponent.

l TD (task) proponent. The organization responsible for managing and conducting development of training for a materiel system, functional area, or task as well as managing the development thereof. May be a school or another activity. May or may not also be the Training Proponent.

See proponent school and non-TD (task) proponent.

trajectory. See ballistic trajectory.

transattack period. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In nuclear warfare, the period from the initiation of the attack to its termination.

l As applied to the Single Integrated Operational Plan, the period which extends from execution (or enemy attack, whichever is sooner) to termination of the Single Integrated Operational Plan.

See also postattack period.

transfer area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, the water area in which the transfer of troops and supplies from landing craft to amphibious vehicles is effected.

transfer loader. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A wheeled or tracked vehicle with a platform capable of vertical and horizontal adjustment used in the loading and unloading of aircraft, ships, or other vehicles.

transfer of training (student). Ability of the student to apply old (familiar) concepts to new situations. Transfer of training is most effective when the learning situation is so organized as to facilitate generalization and the recognition of relationships.

transient. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Personnel, ships, or craft stopping temporarily at a post, station or port to which they are not assigned or attached, and having destination elsewhere.

l An independent merchant ship calling at a port and sailing within 12 hours, and for which routing instructions to a further port have been promulgated.

l An individual awaiting orders, transport, etc., at a post or station to which he is not attached or assigned.

transient forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forces which pass or stage through, or base temporarily within, the area of responsibility of another command but are not under its operational control.

transit area. See staging area.

transit bearing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A bearing determined by noting the time at which two features on the Earth's surface have the same relative bearing.

transit route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sea route which crosses open waters normally joining two coastal routes.

transit zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The path taken by either airborne or seaborne smugglers. Zone can include transfer operations to another carrier (airdrop, at-sea transfer, etc.). See also arrival zone.

transition. A logical flow from one section of interactive courseware to another.

transition altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to true altitude.

transition layer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level.

transition level. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude. See also altitude; transition altitude.

transition screen. A screen that provides a smooth instructional flow from one section of interactive courseware to another.

transition to production. [DSMC] The period during which the program shifts (passes) from development to production. It is not an exact point, but is a process consisting of disciplined engineering and logistics management to ensure the system is ready for manufacture.

transition training. [TR 350-70] Training provided to personnel who are qualified on one system or equipment to support a replacement system or equipment. Unit training that is responsive to changes in equipment, doctrine, or organization. It has three parts:

l Training individuals assigned to the unit before the change.

l Training those assigned to the unit after the change without prior experience.

l Embedding in the unit's training program the sustainment training of the required individual and collective tasks.

transmission. The transfer of a signal, message, or other data from one location to another.

transmission data. [TP 25-71] Information in electronic message systems regarding the identities of sender and addressee(s), and the date and time messages were sent or received.

transmission factor (nuclear). The ratio of the dose inside the shielding material to the outside (ambient) dose. Transmission factor is used to calculate the dose received through the shielding material. See also half thickness; shielding.

transmission security. See communications security.

transonic. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Of or pertaining to the speed of a body in a surrounding fluid when the relative speed of the fluid is subsonic in some places and supersonic in others. This is encountered when passing from subsonic to supersonic speeds and vice versa. See also speed of sound.

transparent. Reduction of the user's perception of the delivery system in the process of interacting with the system. The user's ability to readily understand, uninhibited by lack of mechanical or programming skills.

transparency. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An image fixed on a clear base by means of a photographic, printing, chemical or other process, especially adaptable for viewing by transmitted light. See also diapositive.

transponder. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply signal upon proper interrogation. See also responsor.

transponder india. [JP 1-02] (DoD) International Civil Aviation Organization/secondary surveillance radar.

transponder sierra. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Identification Friend or Foe mark X (selective identification feature).

transponder tango. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Identification Friend or Foe mark X (basic).

transport aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo. Transport aircraft may be classed according to range, as follows:

l short-range. Not to exceed 1200 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (2222 Km).

l medium-range. Between 1200 and 3500 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (2222 and 6482 Km).

l long-range. Exceeds 3500 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (6482 Km).

See also strategic transport aircraft; tactical transport aircraft.

transport area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, an area assigned to a transport organization for the purpose of debarking troops and equipment. See also inner transport area; outer transport area.

transport control center (air transport). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The operations center through which the air transport force commander exercises control over the air transport system.

transport group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An element that directly deploys and supports the landing of the landing force (LF) is functionally designated as a transport group in the amphibious task force organization. A transport group provides for the embarkation, movement to the objective, landing, and logistic support of the LF. Transport groups comprise all sealift and airlift in which the LF is embarked. They are categorized as airlifted groups, Navy amphibious ship transport groups, or strategic sealift shipping groups.

transport stream. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Transport aircraft flying in single file, either in formation or singly, at defined intervals. See also column formation.

transport vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A motor vehicle designed and used without modification to the chassis, to provide general transport service in the movement of personnel and cargo. See also vehicle.

transportability. [DSMC] The capability of materiel to be moved by towing, self-propulsion, or carrier through any means, such as railways, highways, waterways, pipelines, oceans, and airways. (Full consideration of available and projected transportation assets, mobility plans and schedules, and the impact of system equipment and support items on the strategic mobility of operating military forces is required to achieve this capability). See portability.

transportability approval. This is a statement by the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) (the Army transportability agent), that an item of materiel, in its shipping configurations, is transportable by the required mode(s) of transportation.

transportability engineering analysis. This is an evaluation of the transportability of a materiel system/ item and its components, auxiliary and ancillary equipment. An analysis will summarize its ability to be transported by the required modes of transportation.

transportability report (TR). This report on transportability problem items is submitted by the materiel developer or field unit. All information necessary for a comprehensive transportability engineering analysis is included.

transportation closure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The actual arrival date of a specified movement requirement at port of debarkation.

transportation component command (TCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The three component commands of USTRANSCOM: Air Force Air Mobility Command, Navy Military Sealift Command, and Army Military Traffic Management Command. Each transportation component command remains a major command of its parent service and continues to organize, train, and equip its forces as specified by law. Each transportation component command also continues to perform service-unique missions.

transportation emergency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A situation created by a shortage of normal transportation capability and of a magnitude sufficient to frustrate military movement requirements, and which requires extraordinary action by the President or other designated authority to ensure continued movement of essential Department of Defense traffic.

transportation movement requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The need for transport of units, personnel, or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination within a specified timeframe.

transportation operating agencies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those Federal agencies having responsibilities under national emergency conditions for the operational direction of one or more forms of transportation. Also called federal modal agencies; federal transport agencies.

transportation priorities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Indicators assigned to eligible traffic which establish its movement precedence. Appropriate priority systems apply to the movement of traffic by sea and air. In times of emergency, priorities may be applicable to continental United States movements by land, water, or air.

transportation system. All the land, water, and air routes and transportation assets engaged in the movement of U.S. forces and their supplies during peacetime training, conflict, or war, involving both mature and contingency theaters and at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war.

transporting (ordnance). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The movement or repositioning of ordnance or explosive devices along established explosive routes (does not apply to the aircraft flight line). See also ordnance.

transshipment point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A location where material is transferred between vehicles.

traverse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l To turn a weapon to the right or left on its mount.

l A method of surveying in which lengths and directions of lines between points on the earth are obtained by or from field [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) measurements, and used in determining positions of the points.

traverse level. That vertical displacement above low-level air defense systems, expressed both as a height and altitude, at which aircraft can cross the area.

traverse racking test load value. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Externally applied force in pounds or kilograms at the top-corner fitting that will strain or stretch end structures of the container sideways.

treason. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Violation of the allegiance owed to one's sovereign or state; betrayal of one's country.

treatment or treatment plan. A design document that describes in general terms the scope and sequence of the instruction. A description of the subject, the audience, the interactive features, and other salient information regarding an interactive courseware project. An initial outline of an interactive courseware unit of instruction, including an initial flowchart depicting major branching design.

trench burial. A method of burial resorted to when casualties are heavy whereby a trench is prepared and the individual remains are laid in it side by side, thus obviating the necessity of digging and filling in individual graves. See also burial.

trench interment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of interment in which remains are placed head-to-toe. Used only for temporary multiple burials. See also emergency interment; group interment; mortuary affairs, temporary interment.

trend. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The straying of the fall of shot, such as might be caused by incorrect speed settings of the fire support ship.

tri-camera photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Photography obtained by simultaneous exposure of three cameras systematically disposed in the air vehicle at fixed overlapping angles relative to each other in order to cover a wide field. See also fan camera photography.

triage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The evaluation and classification of casualties for purposes of treatment and evacuation. It consists of the immediate sorting of patients according to type and seriousness of injury, and likelihood of survival, and the establishment of priority for treatment and evacuation to assure medical care of the greatest benefit to the largest number.

trial. See small group trial.

triangulation station. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point on the Earth, the position of which is determined by triangulation. Also called trig point.

Trident. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A general descriptive term for the sea-based strategic weapon system consisting of the highly survivable nuclear-powered Trident submarine, long-range Trident ballistic missiles and the integrated refit facilities required to support the submarine and missile subsystems as well as associated personnel.

Trident I. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A three-stage, solid propellant ballistic missile capable of being launched from a Trident submarine either surfaced or submerged. It is sized to permit backfit into Poseidon submarines and is equipped with advanced guidance, nuclear warheads, and a maneuverable bus which can deploy these warheads to separate targets. It is capable of carrying a full payload to 4000 nautical miles with greater ranges achievable in reduced payload configurations. Designated as UGM-96A.

Trident II. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A solid propellant ballistic missile capable of being launched from a Trident submarine. It is larger than the Trident I missile and will replace these missiles in Ohio-class submarines. It will provide the option to deploy a higher throw weight, more accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile.

trig list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A list published by certain Army units which includes essential information of accurately located survey points.

trigger based item management (TBIM). [DSMC] Management approach which relies on predetermined indicators (triggers) to inform management of the need to take corrective action prior to a situation deteriorating to a crisis point.

triggering circumstance. [TR 350-70] The report or action that causes the conduct of a needs analysis. The report may be formal or informal.

trim. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The difference in draft at the bow and stern of a vessel or the manner in which a vessel floats in the water based on the distribution of cargo, stores and ballast aboard the vessel. See also draft; watercraft.

trim for takeoff feature. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flight control system feature in which the control surfaces of an aircraft are automatically trimmed to a predetermined takeoff position.

trim size. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The size of a map or chart sheet when the excess paper outside the margin has been trimmed off after printing.

triple point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The intersection of the incident, reflected, and fused (or Mach) shock fronts accompanying an air burst. The height of the triple point above the surface, i.e., the height of the Mach stem, increases with increasing distance from a given explosion.

troop basis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An approved list of those military units and individuals (including civilians) required for the performance of a particular mission by numbers, organization and equipment, and, in the case of larger commands, by deployment.

troop safety (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An element which defines a distance from the proposed burst location beyond which personnel meeting the criteria described under degree of risk will be safe to the degree prescribed.

troop space cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo such as sea or barracks bags, bedding rolls or hammocks, locker trunks, and office equipment, which is normally stowed in an accessible place. This cargo will also include normal hand-carried combat equipment and weapons to be carried ashore by the assault troops. See also cargo.

troop test. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A test conducted in the field for the purpose of evaluating operational or organizational concepts, doctrine, tactics, and techniques, or to gain further information on material. See also service test.

troops. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A collective term for uniformed military personnel (usually not applicable to naval personnel afloat). See also airborne troops; combat service support elements; combat support troops; combat troops; service troops; tactical troops.

tropical storm. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tropical cyclone in which the surface wind speed is at least 34, but not more than 63 knots.

tropopause. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transition zone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. The tropopause normally occurs at an altitude of about 25,000 to 45,000 feet (8 to 15 kilometers) in polar and temperate zones, and at 55,000 feet (20 kilometers) in the tropics. See also atmosphere.

troposphere. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The lower layers of atmosphere, in which the change of temperature with height is relatively large. It is the region where clouds form, convection is active, and mixing is continuous and more or less complete. See also atmosphere.

tropospheric scatter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The propagation of electromagnetic waves by scattering as a result of irregularities or discontinuities in the physical properties of the troposphere.

true airspeed indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays the speed of the aircraft relative to the ambient air.

true altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The height of an aircraft as measured from mean sea level.

true bearing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The direction to an object from a point, expressed as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from true north.

true convergence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The angle at which one meridian is inclined to another on the surface of the Earth. See also convergence.

true horizon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The boundary of a horizontal plane passing through a point of vision.

l In photogrammetry, the boundary of a horizontal plane passing through the perspective center of a lens system.

true north. The direction from an observer's position to the geographic North Pole. The north direction of any geographic meridian.

true north. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The direction from an observer's position to the geographic North Pole. The north direction of any geographic meridian.

tryout. Practice test; the purpose is to make the tryout as realistic as possible by eliminating as many sources of unreliability as possible.

tryout, individual. See individual tryouts.

tryout, small group. See small group trial.

turbojet. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A jet engine whose air is supplied by a turbine-driven compressor, the turbine being activated by exhaust gases.

turn and slip indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which combines the functions of a turn indicator and a slip indicator.

turn indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays the aircraft's rate and direction of turn.

turn-in point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point at which an aircraft starts to turn from the approach direction to the line of attack. See also contact point; pull-up point.

turn-off guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Information which enables the pilot of a landing aircraft to select and follow the correct taxiway from the time the aircraft leaves the runway until it may safely be brought to a halt clear of the active runway.

turnaround. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The length of time between arriving at a point and being ready to depart from that point. It is used in this sense for the loading, unloading, refueling and rearming, where appropriate, of vehicles, aircraft and ships. See also turnaround cycle.

turnaround cycle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A term used in conjunction with vehicles, ships and aircraft, and comprising the following:

l Loading time at departure point.

l Time to and from destination.

l Unloading and loading time at destination.

l Unloading time at returning point; planned maintenance time, and where applicable, time awaiting facilities.

See also turnaround.

turnaround time. [DSMC] Time required to return an item to use between missions or after removed from use.

turning movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A variation of the envelopment in which the attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemy's rear to force the enemy to abandon his position or divert major forces to meet the threat.

turning point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, a point of the centerline of a mine strip or row where strips or rows change direction.

tutorial. An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design used to teach an entire concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based on the information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates student responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally involves some questioning, branching, and options for review.

two-dimensional simulation. Simulations that are viewed in a horizontal and vertical nature (no physical depth).

two-person rule. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system designed to prohibit access by an individual to nuclear weapons and certain designated components by requiring the presence at all times of at least two authorized persons, each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized procedures with respect to the task to be performed.

two-step sealed bids. [DSMC] A method of procurement that combines competitive procedures in order to obtain the benefits of sealed bidding when adequate specifications are not available. In step one, firms are allowed to submit technical (not price) proposals to satisfy a requirement. In step two, each firm with a satisfactory technical approach is then allowed to submit a sealed bid (price) which uses that firm's approach as the contract specification. Award goes to the low responsive and responsible bidder. Formerly called two-step formal advertising.

two-way street. [DSMC] Philosophy encouraging U.S. to buy arms from, in addition to selling arms to, NATO and other friendly nations.

two-way video. [TR 350-70] A satellite or terrestrial based teletraining system. The students can see the instructor and the other students, and the instructor can see the students. The same link that provides the video provides two-way audio. See one-way video.

two-year budget. [DSMC] Beginning with the President's budget submitted in January 1987, the DoD portion was for a two-year period (FY88/89). The intent was for the Congress to authorize and appropriate for DoD for a two-year period, providing program stability among other positive effects. This was requested by Congress on behalf of DoD. The even years (1986, etc.) are on-years, the odd ones off-years. To date, DoD has not received a two year appropriation.

type classification (TC). TC identifies the life cycle status of a materiel system after a production decision. It assigns a type classification designation, and records the status of a materiel system in relation to its overall life history as a guide to procurement, authorization, logistic support, and asset and readiness reporting. Satisfies DoD requirement to designate when a system is approved for service use.

l Army: procurement code A.

l Navy: approved for full production.

l AF: classified standard or alternate standard.

It is the implementation of the Office of the Secretary of Defense designation accepted for service use.

type command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An administrative subdivision of a fleet or force into ships or units of the same type, as differentiated from a tactical subdivision. Any type command may have a flagship, tender, and aircraft assigned to it.

type unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A type of organizational or functional entity established within the Armed Forces and uniquely identified by a five-character, alphanumeric code called a unit type code.

type unit data file. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A file that provides standard planning data and movement characteristics for personnel, cargo, and accompanying supplies associated with type units.

types of burst. See airburst; fallout safe height of burst; height of burst; high airburst; high altitude burst; low airburst; nuclear airburst; nuclear exoatmospheric burst; nuclear surface burst; nuclear underground burst; nuclear underwater burst; optimum height of burst; safe burst height