Index Military Definitions

V&V (validation and verification) proponent. [TR 5-11] The government agency responsible for ensuring V&V is performed on a specific modeling and simulation. The V&V proponent may be the same as the modeling and simulation proponent.

valid test. One that separates those who can perform (performers) from those who can't (non-performers).

validate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Execution procedure used by combatant command components, supporting combatant commanders, and providing organizations to confirm to the supported commander and U.S. Transportation Command that all the information records in a time-phased force and deployment data not only are error-free for automation purposes, but also accurately reflect the current status, attributes, and availability of units and requirements. Unit readiness, movement dates, passengers, and cargo details should be confirmed with the unit before validation occurs.

validation. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A process normally associated with the collection of intelligence that provides official status to an identified requirement and confirms that the requirement is appropriate for a given collector and has not been previously satisfied.

l In computer modeling and simulation, the process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model or simulation.

See also accreditation; configuration management; independent review; verification. 2[TR 5-11] The process of determining the extent to which a modeling and simulation is an accurate representation of the real-world from the perspective of the intended use of the modeling and simulation. Validation methods include expert concensus, comparison with historical results, comparison with test data, peer review, and independent review. 3[TR 350-70]

l Validation is the process used to determine if new/revised courses and training products/materials accomplish their intended purpose efficiently and effectively. It is the process used to determine if training accomplishes its intended purpose. Validation and revising training are continuous actions in the teaching/revising process of training improvement. Validation of products/materials involves –

l Individual and/or group validation trials depending upon the nature of the training product.

l Verification of their training effectiveness in training the objective.

l Determination of beneficial improvements in the quality of training products and materials.

l identification of training product deficiencies.

l Improvement of efficiency, effectiveness, and utility of training objectives, structure, sequence, products, and materials. In the "testing" context, it is the process of determining the degree of validity of a measuring instrument (e.g., skill qualification, end-of-module, and end-of-course comprehensive tests).

l In the technical manual context, it is the process used by a contractor to test an equipment publication for completeness, compliance with contractual requirements, and technical accuracy.

4[TP 71-9] The review of documentation by an operational authority, other than the user, to confirm the need or operational requirement. As a minimum, the operational validation authority reviews the MNS, confirms that a nonmateriel solution is not feasible, assesses the joint Service potential, and forwards a recommendation to the MDA for MS 0 action. 5[DoD] The process by which products are reviewed for accuracy, completeness, adequacy, suitability for presentation, life-cycle maintenance capability, and effectiveness in providing for the student’s accomplishment of the learning objectives. Training data products are also validated for compliance with the provisions of the specifications and other contractual requirements. Validation is accomplished by comparing the data product with the actual use for which the data product was prepared. Validation is normally accomplished in tryouts with a representative student target population. The materials are revised as necessary based on the results of the validation process. 6A process normally associated with the collection of intelligence that provides official status to an identified requirement and confirms that the requirement is appropriate for a given collector and has not been previously satisfied. 7In computer modeling and simulation, the process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model or simulation. 8In combat developments the review of documentation by an operational authority other than the user to confirm the need or operational requirement. As a minimum, the operational validation authority reviews the mission needs statement, confirms that a nonmateriel solution is not feasible, assesses the joint service potential, and forwards a recommendation to the MDA for MS 0 action. 9[DSMC]

l The process by which the contractor (or as otherwise directed by the DoD component procuring activity) tests a publication/technical manual for technical accuracy and adequacy.

l The procedure of comparing input and output against an edited file and evaluating the result of the comparison by means of a decision table established as a standard. See also accreditation; configuration management; independent review; verification.

validation agent. The organization designated by the modeling and simulation sponsor to perform validation of a model, simulation, or federation of modeling and simulation.

validation documentation. A report which describes in detail how a specific course of instruction was validated and for what target population.

validation process. Testing instructional materials on a sample of the target population to ensure that the materials are effective.

validation. vision. [TP 71-9] A rudimentary abstract description of a desired endstate.

validity. [TR 350-70] A broad term which refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Although there are several types of validity and different classification schemes for describing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must be concerned with are content-related and criterion-related validity.

valuable cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Cargo which may be of value during a later stage of the war. See also cargo.

value engineering (VE). 1VE is projects and studies designed to seek lowest costs for items and systems consistent with requirements performance and reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM). 2The process of designing equipment or instruction to meet but not exceed the required outcomes. Generally it refers to the elimination of features or instructional objectives that have not been demonstrated to be positively necessary. 3[DSMC] Value engineering is a functional analysis methodology that identifies and selects the best value alternative for designs, materials, processes, systems, and program documentation. VE applies to hardware and software; development, production, and manufacturing; specifications, standards, contract requirements, and other acquisition program documentation; facilities design and construction; and management or organizational systems and processes to improve the resulting product. 4[JP 1-02] (DoD) An organized effort directed at analyzing the function of Department of Defense systems, equipment, facilities, procedures and supplies for the purpose of achieving the required function at the lowest total cost of effective ownership, consistent with requirements for performance, reliability, quality, and maintainability.

value engineering change proposal (VECP). [DSMC] Submitted by the contractor for review as to its value engineering applicability. If accepted by the government, normally the contractor is compensated for saving the government money.

variability. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The manner in which the probability of damage to a specific target decreases with the distance from ground zero; or, in damage assessment, a mathematical factor introduced to average the effects of orientation, minor shielding and uncertainty of target response to the effects considered.

variable attributes. Characteristics shared by some but not all members of a class of people, objects, events, ideas, or actions that are grouped together on the basis of shared critical attributes and called by the same concept name.

variable safety level. See safety level of supply.

variable cost (VC). [DSMC] A cost that changes with the production quantity or the performance of services. This contrasts with fixed costs that do not change with production quantity or services performed.

variant. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l One of two or more cipher or code symbols which have the same plain text equivalent.

l One of several plain text meanings that are represented by a single code group.

Also called alternative.

variability. The manner in which the probability of damage to a specific target decreases with the distance from ground zero; or, in damage assessment, a mathematical factor introduced to average the effects of orientation, minor shielding and uncertainty of target response to the effects considered.

variance (statistical). [DSMC] A measure of the degree of spread among a set of values; a measure of the tendency of individual values to vary from the mean value. It is computed by subtracting the mean value from each value, squaring each of these differences, summing these results, and dividing this sum by the number of values in order to obtain the arithmetic mean of these squares.

varied repetition. Design elements that repeat a segment of a lesson differently to enhance learning.

vector. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, close air support and air interdiction usage, a code meaning, "Alter heading to magnetic heading indicated." Heading ordered must be in three digits; e.g., "vector" zero six zero (for homing, use "steer").

vector graphics. Images which are stored and displayed as line segments identified by the X-Y coordinates of their end points.

vectored attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Attack in which a weapon carrier (air, surface, or subsurface) not holding contact on the target, is vectored to the weapon delivery point by a unit (air, surface or subsurface) which holds contact on the target.

vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A self-propelled, boosted, or towed conveyance for transporting a burden on land or sea or through air or space. See also air cushion vehicle; amphibious vehicle; combat vehicle; commercial vehicle; remotely piloted vehicle; special-equipment vehicle; special-purpose vehicle; substitute transport-type vehicle; transport vehicle. Also called [NATO] ground effect machine.

vehicle cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Wheeled or tracked equipment, including weapons, which require certain deck space, head room, and other definite clearance. See also cargo.

vehicle distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The clearance between vehicles in a column which is measured from the rear of one vehicle to the front of the following vehicle.

vehicle summary and priority table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A table listing all vehicles by priority of debarkation from a combat-loaded ship. It includes the nomenclature, dimensions, square feet, cubic feet, weight, and stowage location of each vehicle, the cargo loaded in each vehicle, and the name of the unit to which the vehicle belongs.

vendor. [DSMC] An individual, partnership, corporation, or other activity which sells property to the military establishment. A vendor may supply a government contractor.

verification. 1A review process to ensure that a training product meets all stipulated requirements, is in compliance with applicable DoD standards and specifications, is complete and consistent with the supported system configuration, is usable in the intended training environment, and supports effective training. 2I[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In arms control, any action, including inspection, detection, and identification, taken to ascertain compliance with agreed measures.

l In computer modeling and simulation, the process of determining that a model or simulation implementation accurately represents the developer's conceptual description and specifications.

See also accreditation; configuration management; independent review; validation. 3[TR 5-11] The process of determining that a modeling and simulation accurately represents the developer’s conceptual description and specifications. The verification process evaluates the extent to which the modeling and simulation has been developed using sound and established software engineering techniques.

verification agent. [TR 5-11] The organization designated by the modeling and simulation application sponsor to perform verification of a model, simulation or federation of modeling and simulation.

verify. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) To ensure that the meaning and phraseology of the transmitted message conveys the exact intention of the originator. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A request from an observer, a spotter, or a fire-control agency to reexamine firing data and report the results of the reexamination.

version. [TP 25-71] One of a sequence of documents having the same general form and specific subject and purpose. The sequence often reflects successive changes to a document.

vertex. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the highest point in the trajectory of a projectile.

vertex height. See maximum ordinate.

vertical air photograph. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air photograph taken with the optical axis of the camera perpendicular to the surface of the Earth.

vertical and/or short takeoff and landing. Vertical and/ or short takeoff and landing capability for aircraft.

vertical alignment of tasks. [TR 350-70] Tasks are vertically aligned when a task identified for a specific skill or organization level supports a task at the next higher skill level. Tasks in the same category or subject area must be progressive. They must show an increase in performance required at the next higher skill level, the conditions and standards must be more exacting, or there must be increased supervisory responsibilities when compared to supporting tasks. The task should indicate the increase in required performance or supervisory responsibilities.

vertical alignment of training. [TR 350-70] Training is vertically aligned when tasks for a particular skill level are built upon skills, knowledges, and behaviors gained during previous training and/or operational assignments. If tasks are in the same general categories, then their training must be progressive — they must show an increase in the skill level required to accomplish them, the conditions and standards must be more exacting, or the tasks must represent increased supervisory responsibilities when compared to related tasks trained earlier. Task statements should indicate the increase in required skill level or supervisory responsibility.

vertical and/or short takeoff and landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Vertical and/or short takeoff and landing capability for aircraft.

vertical envelopment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tactical maneuver in which troops, either air-dropped or air-landed, attack the rear and flanks of a force, in effect cutting off or encircling the force.

vertical interval. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Difference in altitude between two specified points or locations, e.g., the battery or firing ship and the target; observer location and the target; location of previously fired target and new target; observer and a height of burst; battery or firing ship and a height of burst, etc.

vertical loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of loading whereby items of like character are vertically tiered throughout the holds of a ship, so that selected items are available at any stage of the unloading. See also loading.

vertical probable error. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The product of the range probable error and the slope of fall.

vertical replenishment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of a helicopter for the transfer of materiel to or from a ship.

vertical separation. Separation between aircraft expressed in units of vertical distance.

vertical situation display. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An electronically generated display on which information on aircraft attitude and heading, flight director commands, weapon aiming and terrain following can be presented, choice of presentation being under the control of the pilot.

vertical strip. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single flightline of overlapping photos. Photography of this type is normally taken of long, narrow targets such as beaches or roads.

vertical sync. The pulse used to synchronize the vertical scan of the video monitor.

vertical takeoff and landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The capability of an aircraft to take off and land vertically and to transfer to or from forward motion at heights required to clear surrounding obstacles.

vertical/short takeoff and landing aircraft (V/STOL). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An aircraft capable of executing a vertical takeoff and landing, a short takeoff and landing or any combination of these modes of operation. See also short takeoff and landing; short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft; vertical takeoff and landing.

very high. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A height above fifty thousand feet.

very low. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A height below five hundred feet.

Very Low Altitude Gravity Extraction System (VLAGES). Airdropping at low altitude and low speed, without parachutes.

very seriously ill or injured (VSII). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The casualty status of a person whose illness or injury is classified by medical authority to be of such severity that life is imminently endangered. See also casualty status.

vesicant agent. See blister agent.

vectoring in forward flight (VIFF). Use of the vectoring jet nozzles of the Harrier to enhance maneuverability in combat. Never used operationally, because the large energy loss outweighs the advantages.

video address code. Time code, indicating each video frame by reel, hour, minutes, seconds, frame number, picture, chapter, or still cue code.

video crawl. Alphanumeric text that moves across a screen, horizontally or vertically. A steady controlled text movement, such as the display of credits.

video display unit. Television-type Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) (raster format) which decodes and displays information from a video source signal. Also called monitor.

video head. The unit within a videotape player/ recorder that reads video signals recorded on tape.

Video Home System (VHS). A consumer one-half inch videotape format. It employs 1/2 inch (12.65 mm) videotape in a 7 1/2 inch by 4 inch (190 mm x 105 mm) cassette.

video levels. Chrominance and luminance (color and brightness) levels.

video segment. Identical to the definition for video sequence. Also called video still.

video sequence. A segment of video that is intended to be displayed such that an on-screen display appears to be in smooth and continuous motion. A series of individual stills intended to be played sequentially to show motion of images. Two or more video frames forming one visual unit. Also called video segment and video still.

video still. Identical to the definition for still frame. Also called video segment.

video teletraining (VTT). [TR 350-70] Video training delivered via communication links such as satellite or cable links. There are two types of VTT: broadcast and desktop.

videodisk. A generic term used to describe a medium of audiovisual information storage. A thin circular plate composed of translucent layered plastics sandwiching a metal layer on which video, audio, and digital information are encoded as a series of shallow microscopic pits along a circular or spiral track for playback on a television monitor. Videodisk is an information storage medium for analog/ digital (e.g., video, audio, and control signals) data. There are many types of videodisk formats. See optical disk.

videodisk formats. The different forms and organization of data on a videodisk, such as reflective optical videodisk (laser), transmissive optical videodisk (laser film), capacitive electronic disk (CED), magnetic videodisk, and video high density (VHD).

videotape. A magnetic tape that can record and play back audio (sound) and video (pictures). It can also hold electrical signals used in editing and in interactive video applications. The tape is made of polyester film, which is strong and flexible, but not elastic. A carbon backing reduces the build-up of static electricity when the tape is in use. A magnetically sensitive emulsion, which commonly contains a magnetic oxide powder, a binder and a lubricant, forms the recording surface. A neutral topcoat helps to protect the emulsion against dirt and damage. Audio signals are usually recorded in a narrow band along one edge of the tape, in closely-packed vertical tracks. Audio signals are recorded and replayed by a separate audio head. A control track runs along a narrow band on the outer edge. This is where the field sync pulse is recorded; it regulates the running speed of the tape. A narrow cue track, which records signals, often contains codes and verbal memoranda used in editing. The video signal and the line sync pulse are recorded in shallow diagonal tracks on the wide band in the center of the tape.

vigilance level. General degree of watchfulness or attentiveness to what may come.

vignetting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of producing a band of color or tone on a map or chart, the density of which is reduced uniformly from edge to edge.

Viking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin turbofan engine, multicrew antisubmarine aircraft capable of operating off aircraft carriers. It is designed to detect, locate, and destroy submarines using an integrated, computer-controlled attack system and a variety of conventional and/or nuclear ordnance. Designated as S-3.

virtual M&S (models and simulations). [TR 350-70] A replication of actual warfighting equipment and munitions with the capability to execute collective training and rehearsal on a specific terrain data base. Links to live and constructive M&S through analog and/or digital links.

virtual training. [TR 350-70] Training executed using computer generated battlefields in simulators with approximate physical layout of tactical weapons systems and vehicles. Virtual tactical engagement simulation (TES) training permits units to maneuver over much larger areas.

visibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage, "Visibility (in miles) is ."

visibility range. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The horizontal distance (in kilometers or miles) at which a large dark object can just be seen against the horizon sky in daylight.

vision. A rudimentary abstract description of a desired endstate.

visual call sign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A call sign provided primarily for visual signaling. See also call sign.

visual form. In media selection, refers to whether alpha-numeric or pictorial characteristics are required in a learning situation.

visual identification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a flight control system, a control mode in which the aircraft follows a radar target and is automatically positioned to allow visual identification.

visual Information (VI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Use of one or more of the various visual media with or without sound. VI includes still photography, motion picture photography, video recording with or without sound, graphic arts, visual aids, models, displays, visual presentation services, and the support processes.

visual information documentation (VIDOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Motion media, still photography, and audio recording of technical and nontechnical events while they occur, usually not controlled by the recording crew. Visual information documentation encompasses combat camera, operational documentation, and technical documentation. See also combat camera; operational documentation; technical documentation.

visual information (VI) production. The process of combining or arranging any separate audio or visual product(s) in continuity in a self-contained, complete presentation that is developed according to a plan or script for conveying information to, or communicating with, an audience. A VI product is also the end item of the production process. Used collectively, VI production refers to the functions of procurement, production, or adoption from all sources; that is, in-house or contract production, off-the-shelf purchase, or adopting from another Federal agency.

visual interceptor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An interceptor which has no special equipment to enable it to intercept its target in dark or daylight conditions by other than visual means.

visual meteorological conditions (VMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Weather conditions in which visual flight rules apply; expressed in terms of visibility, ceiling height, and aircraft clearance from clouds along the path of flight. When these criteria do not exist, instrument meteorological conditions prevail and instrument flight rules must be complied with. See also instrument meteorological conditions.

visual mine firing indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device used with exercise mines to indicate that the mine would have detonated had it been poised.

visual report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See in-flight report.

visual simulation. The simulation of relevant parts of a place or object as seen by the eye, often as seen through an optical system. For a training simulator, usually the presentation of the external, out-the-window or through-the-periscope visual environment of a training program.

visual spectrum. The type of color required of instructional materials. Some must be with full color, some with reduced color pallets, others with black and white or shades of gray.

vital area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A designated area or installation to be defended by air defense units. See also area.

vital ground. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Ground of such importance that it must be retained or controlled for the success of the mission. See also key terrain.

vital records. [TP 25-71] Records which contain information that is essential to the continued functioning or reconstitution of an organization to achieve its mission during and after an emergency. These records are essential to the protection of the rights and interests of that organization and of the individuals directly affected by its activities.

vital record code. [TP 25-71] Code that indicates whether a record-category contains vital records.

voice call sign. A call sign provided primarily for voice communication. See also call sign.

voice-activated. Hardware or equipment activated by the sound of the human voice.

voice-frequency. That frequency in the part of the audio frequency range essential for the transmission of commercial quality speech.

voice-over. Typically, live action with the original soundtrack replaced by scripted or spontaneous commentary delivered by a speaker who may or may not appear before the camera.

Volant Dew. Supply missions to the Dew radar line in Greenland, flown by ski-equipped LC-130H aircraft.

Volant Forest. Fire-fighting program for the C-130 Hercules.

Volant Solo. Psychological warfare version of the C-130 Hercules. The EC-130E exists in Comfy Levi and Rivet Rider versions.

volatile memory. Identical to the definition for volatile storage.

volatile storage. A storage medium in which stored data is lost when operating power is removed. Also called volatile memory.

volume unit (VU) meter. A device used to measure audio signal levels.

Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The objective of the Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) is to provide the Department of Defense with assured access to US flag assets, both vessel capacity and intermodal systems, to meet DoD contingency requirements. VISA should eventually replace the current Sealift Readiness Program. This new concept is modeled after DoD's civil reserve air fleet program. Carriers will contractually commit specified portions of their fleet to meet time-phased DoD contingency requirements. A one year prototype was instituted on 1 October 1995. See also intermodal; intermodal systems; sealift readiness program.

voluntary tanker agreement (VTA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An agreement established by the Maritime Administration to provide for US commercial tanker owners and operators to voluntarily make their vessels available to satisfy Department of Defense needs. It is designed to meet contingency or war requirements for point-to-point petroleum, oil, and lubricants movements, and not to deal with capacity shortages in resupply operations.

voluntary training. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Training in a non-pay status for Individual Ready Reservists and active status Standby Reservists. Participation in voluntary training is for retirement points only and may be achieved by training with Selected Reserve or voluntary training units; by active duty for training; by completion of authorized military correspondence courses; by attendance at designated courses of instruction; by performing equivalent duty; by participation in special military and professional events designated by the military departments; or by participation in authorized Civil Defense activities. Retirees may voluntarily train with organizations to which they are properly preassigned by orders for recall to active duty in a national emergency or declaration of war. Such training shall be limited to that training made available within the resources authorized by the secretary concerned.

voluntary training unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unit formed by volunteers to provide reserve component training in a non-pay status for Individual Ready Reservists and active status Standby Reservists attached under competent orders and participating in such units for retirement points. Also called reinforcement training unit.

VOR. An air navigational radio aid which uses phase comparison of a ground transmitted signal to determine bearing. This term is derived from the words very high frequency omnidirectional radio range.

VTT instructor. [TR 350-70] The instructor who conducts training via a VTT system. Examples include Teletraining Network (TNET), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and Satellite Educational Network.

Vulcan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army air defense artillery gun which provides low-altitude air defense and has a direct fire capability against surface targets. The gun is a 6-barreled, air-cooled, 20-mm rotary-fired weapon.

vulnerability. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The susceptibility of a nation or military force to any action by any means through which its war potential or combat effectiveness may be reduced or its will to fight diminished.

l The characteristics of a system which cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of effects in an unnatural (manmade) hostile environment.

l In information operations, a weakness in information system security design, procedures, implementation, or internal controls that could be exploited to gain unauthorized access to information or an information system. Vulnerability is considered a subset of survivability.

See also information; information operations; information system; system.

vulnerability analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In information operations, a systematic examination of an information system or product to determine the adequacy of security measures, identify security deficiencies, provide data from which to predict the effectiveness of proposed security measures, and confirm the adequacy of such measures after implementation. See also analysis; information operations; information system; security; vulnerability.

vulnerability program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A program to determine the degree of, and to remedy insofar as possible, any existing susceptibility of nuclear weapon systems to enemy countermeasures, accidental fire, and accidental shock.

vulnerability study. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An analysis of the capabilities and limitations of a force in a specific situation to determine vulnerabilities capable of exploitation by an opposing force.

vulnerable area. See vital area.

vulnerable node. See target stress point.

vulnerable point. See vital area.