Index

Status and Development Prospects of NATO Navies

Moscow ZARUBEZHNOYE VOYENNOYE OBOZRENIYE
Feb 96 No 2, (signed to press 14 Feb 96) pp 41-51
by Captain 1st Rank A. Gladkov

The first part of the article1 covered questions concerning the status and development prospects of the U.S. Navy. The navies of Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy are examined further based on foreign press materials. Specifications and performance characteristics of these countries' combatant ships are shown in the table.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Specifications and Performance Characteristics of Combatant Ships of UK, Fre-|
|nch, German and Italian Navies                                               |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Ship Class--|Displacemen-|Principal D-|Maximum Spe-|Armament    |Crew        |
|Number (Und-|t,* t       |imensions,  |ed,* kts    |            |            |
|er Construc-|            |m: Length,  |            |            |            |
|tion)       |            |Beam, Draft |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|GREAT BRITAIN                                                                |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|SSBN's                                                                       |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Vanguard--2 |(15,900)    |149.9, 12.8,|25          |Trident II  |135         |
|(2)         |            | 12         |            |SLBM's--16, |            |
|            |            |            |            |533-mm torp-|            |
|            |            |            |            |edo tubes [-|            |
|            |            |            |            |TT]--4      |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Resolution--|7,600 (8,500|129.5, 10.1,|20 (25)     |Polaris A3  |143         |
|2           |)           | 9.1        |            |SLBM's--16, |            |
|            |            |            |            |533-mm TT--6|            |
|            |            |            |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Nuclear Powered Multipurpose Submarines                                      |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Trafalgar--7|4,700 (5,400|89.4, 9.8, 9|32          |Sub-Harpoon |97          |
| (5)        |)           |.5          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m, 533-mm T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T--5; mines |            |
|            |            |            |            |can be take-|            |
|            |            |            |            |n in place  |            |
|            |            |            |            |of torpedoe-|            |
|            |            |            |            |s           |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Swiftsure--5|4,000 (4,400|82.5, 9.8, 8|(30)        |Sub-Harpoon |116         |
|            |)           |.5          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m, 533-mm T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T--5; mines |            |
|            |            |            |            |can be take-|            |
|            |            |            |            |n in place  |            |
|            |            |            |            |of torpedoe-|            |
|            |            |            |            |s           |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Light Aircraft Carriers                                                      |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Invincible--|20,600      |209.1, 36, 8|28          |Sea Harrier |685         |
|3           |            |            |            |aircraft--9,|            |
|            |            |            |            | Sea King H-|            |
|            |            |            |            |AS-6 helico-|            |
|            |            |            |            |pters--9, S-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ea King AEW-|            |
|            |            |            |            |2 helicopte-|            |
|            |            |            |            |rs--3, Sea  |            |
|            |            |            |            |Dart SAM sy-|            |
|            |            |            |            |stems--2x2  |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Destroyers                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Birmingham--|4,100       |125, 14.3, 5|29          |Sea Dart SA-|253         |
|8           |            |.8          |            |M systems--2|            |
|            |            |            |            |x2, 114-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--6, |            |
|            |            |            |            |Lynx helico-|            |
|            |            |            |            |pter        |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Manchester--|4,675       |141.1, 14.9,|30          |Sea Dart SA-|301         |
|4           |            | 5.8        |            |M systems--2|            |
|            |            |            |            |x2, 114-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--6, |            |
|            |            |            |            |Lynx helico-|            |
|            |            |            |            |pter        |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Frigates                                                                     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Broadsword--|4,400       |131.2, 14.8,|30          |Antiship mi-|222         |
|3           |            | 6          |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms Exocet M-|            |
|            |            |            |            |M38--2x2 or |            |
|            |            |            |            |Harpoon--2x4|            |
|            |            |            |            |, Sea Wolf  |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM systems-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-2x6, 324-m-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m TT--6, Ly-|            |
|            |            |            |            |nx helicopt-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ers--2      |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Boxer--6    |4,800       |146.5, 14.8,|30          |Antiship mi-|273         |
|            |            | 6.4        |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms Exocet M-|            |
|            |            |            |            |M38--2x2 or |            |
|            |            |            |            |Harpoon--2x4|            |
|            |            |            |            |, Sea Wolf  |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM systems-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-2x6, 324-m-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m TT--6, Ly-|            |
|            |            |            |            |nx helicopt-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ers--2      |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Cornwall--4 |4,900       |148.1, 14.8,|30          |Harpoon ant-|250         |
|            |            | 6.4        |            |iship missi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |le systems--|            |
|            |            |            |            |2x4, Sea Wo-|            |
|            |            |            |            |lf SAM syst-|            |
|            |            |            |            |em; 114-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--6, |            |
|            |            |            |            |Lynx helico-|            |
|            |            |            |            |pters--2    |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Norfolk--10 |4,200       |133, 16.1, 7|28          |Harpoon ant-|174         |
|            |            |.3          |            |iship missi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |le systems--|            |
|            |            |            |            |2x4, Sea Wo-|            |
|            |            |            |            |lf SAM syst-|            |
|            |            |            |            |em; 114-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--4, |            |
|            |            |            |            |Lynx helico-|            |
|            |            |            |            |pter        |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|FRANCE                                                                       |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|SSBN's                                                                       |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Le Triompha-|12,640 (14,3|138, 17, 12.|(25)        |M45 SLBM's--|111         |
|nt--(3)     |35)         |5           |            |16, Exocet  |            |
|            |            |            |            |SM39 antish-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ip missile  |            |
|            |            |            |            |system, 533-|            |
|            |            |            |            |mm TT--4    |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|L'Inflexibl-|8,080 (8,920|128.7, 10.6,|20 (25)     |M4 SLBM's,  |114         |
|e--5        |)           | 10         |            |Exocet SM39 |            |
|            |            |            |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m, 533-mm T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T--4        |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Multipurpose Nuclear Powered Submarines                                      |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Rubis--5    |2,385 (2,670|72.1, 7.6, 6|25          |Exocet SM39 |70          |
|            |)           |.4          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m, 533-mm T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T--4; up to |            |
|            |            |            |            |32 FG 29 mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |nes can be  |            |
|            |            |            |            |taken in pl-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ace of torp-|            |
|            |            |            |            |edoes       |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Submarines                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Agosta--4   |1,230 (1,510|67.6, 6.8, 5|12 (20)     |Exocet SM39 |58          |
|            |)           |.4          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m, 533-mm T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T--4; up to |            |
|            |            |            |            |36 mines ca-|            |
|            |            |            |            |n be taken  |            |
|            |            |            |            |in place of |            |
|            |            |            |            |torpedoes   |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Daphne--3   |860 (1,038) |57.8, 6.8, 4|13.5 (16)   |550-mm TT--1|53          |
|            |            |.6          |            |2           |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Nuclear Powered Multipurpose Aircraft Carriers                               |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Charles de  |39,680      |265, 51.2, 8|27          |35--40 Rafa-|1,150       |
|Gaulle--(1) |            |.6          |            |le M, Super |            |
|            |            |            |            |Etendard, H-|            |
|            |            |            |            |awkeye airc-|            |
|            |            |            |            |raft, SAAM  |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM systems-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-4x4        |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Multipurpose Aircraft Carriers                                               |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Clemenceau--|32,780      |265, 51.2, 8|32          |Aircraft: S-|1,017       |
|2           |            |.6          |            |uper Etenda-|            |
|            |            |            |            |rd--18, Ete-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ndard IV-P--|            |
|            |            |            |            |4, Crusader-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-8, Alize--7|            |
|            |            |            |            |; Crotale S-|            |
|            |            |            |            |AM system, 1|            |
|            |            |            |            |00-mm guns--|            |
|            |            |            |            |4x1         |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Helicopter Carriers                                                          |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Jeanne d'Ar-|13,270      |182, 24, 7.3|26.5        |Exocet MM38 |626         |
|c--1        |            |            |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--2x3, 100|            |
|            |            |            |            |-mm guns--4-|            |
|            |            |            |            |x1          |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Destroyers                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Aconite--1  |3,900       |127, 13.4, 5|27          |Exocet MM40 |228         |
|            |            |.8          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--8x1, Si-|            |
|            |            |            |            |mbad SAM sy-|            |
|            |            |            |            |stem, Malaf-|            |
|            |            |            |            |on ASW guid-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ed missile, |            |
|            |            |            |            |100-mm guns-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-2x1, TT fo-|            |
|            |            |            |            |r firing L5 |            |
|            |            |            |            |torpedoes--2|            |
|            |            |            |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Georges Ley-|4,300       |139, 14, 5.7|30          |Exocet MM38(|218         |
|gues--7     |            |            |            |40) antishi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |p missile s-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ystems--8x1,|            |
|            |            |            |            | Crotale Na-|            |
|            |            |            |            |val SAM sys-|            |
|            |            |            |            |tem, 100-mm |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T for firin-|            |
|            |            |            |            |g L5 torped-|            |
|            |            |            |            |oes--2, Lyn-|            |
|            |            |            |            |x helicopte-|            |
|            |            |            |            |rs--2       |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Cassard--2  |4,700       |139, 14, 6.5|29.5        |Exocet MM40 |244         |
|            |            |            |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--8x1, St-|            |
|            |            |            |            |andard SAM  |            |
|            |            |            |            |system, 100-|            |
|            |            |            |            |mm gun--1x1,|            |
|            |            |            |            | TT for fir-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ing L5 torp-|            |
|            |            |            |            |edoes--2, L-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ynx helicop-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ter         |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Suffren--2  |6,910       |157.6, 15.5,|34          |Exocet MM38 |355         |
|            |            | 6.1        |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--4x1, Ma-|            |
|            |            |            |            |surca SAM s-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ystem, Mala-|            |
|            |            |            |            |fon ASW gui-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ded missile,|            |
|            |            |            |            | 100-mm gun-|            |
|            |            |            |            |s--2x1, TT  |            |
|            |            |            |            |for firing  |            |
|            |            |            |            |L5 torpedoe-|            |
|            |            |            |            |s--4        |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Tourville--2|5,950       |152.8, 16, 5|32          |Exocet MM38 |301         |
|            |            |.7          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--6x1, Cr-|            |
|            |            |            |            |otale Naval |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM system, |            |
|            |            |            |            |Malafon ASW |            |
|            |            |            |            |guided miss-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ile, 100-mm |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, T-|            |
|            |            |            |            |T for firin-|            |
|            |            |            |            |g L5 torped-|            |
|            |            |            |            |oes--2x2, L-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ynx helicop-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ters--2     |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Frigates                                                                     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|La Fayette--|3,500       |125, 15.4, 4|25          |Exocet MM40 |139         |
|(2)         |            |            |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--8x1, Cr-|            |
|            |            |            |            |otale Naval |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM system, |            |
|            |            |            |            |100-mm gun--|            |
|            |            |            |            |1x1, AS565M-|            |
|            |            |            |            |A helicopte-|            |
|            |            |            |            |r           |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Floreal--6  |2,950       |93.5, 14, 4.|20          |Exocet MM38 |86          |
|            |            |3           |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--2x1, Si-|            |
|            |            |            |            |mbad SAM sy-|            |
|            |            |            |            |stem, 100-m-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m gun--1x1, |            |
|            |            |            |            |helicopter  |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Commandant  |2,250       |102.7, 11.7,|25          |Exocet MM38 |159         |
|Riviere--1  |            | 4.3        |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--4x1, 100|            |
|            |            |            |            |-mm guns--2-|            |
|            |            |            |            |x1          |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|d'Estienne  |1,250       |80, 10.3, 5.|23          |Exocet MM40 |90          |
|d'Orves--17 |            |5           |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--4x1, 100|            |
|            |            |            |            |-mm gun--1x1|            |
|            |            |            |            |, TT for fi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ring L5 tor-|            |
|            |            |            |            |pedoes--4   |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|GERMANY                                                                      |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Submarines                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Type 205--2 |419 (450)   |43.9, 4.6, 4|10 (17)     |533-mm TT--8|22          |
|            |            |.3          |            |; up to 16  |            |
|            |            |            |            |mines can b-|            |
|            |            |            |            |e taken in  |            |
|            |            |            |            |place of to-|            |
|            |            |            |            |rpedoes     |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Type 206 an-|450 (498)   |48.6, 4.6, 4|10 (17)     |533-mm TT--8|22          |
|d 206A--18  |            |.5          |            |; 12 mines  |            |
|            |            |            |            |in containe-|            |
|            |            |            |            |r on extern-|            |
|            |            |            |            |al mounting,|            |
|            |            |            |            | up to 16 m-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ines can be |            |
|            |            |            |            |taken in pl-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ace of torp-|            |
|            |            |            |            |edoes       |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Type 212--(4|1,320 (1,800|53.2, 6.8, 5|12 (20)     |533-mm TT--6|            |
|)           |)           |.8          |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Destroyers                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Lutjens--3  |4,500       |133.2, 14.3,|32          |Harpoon ant-|337         |
|            |            | 6.1        |            |iship missi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |le system,  |            |
|            |            |            |            |Standard SA-|            |
|            |            |            |            |M system, A-|            |
|            |            |            |            |SROC ASW gu-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ided missil-|            |
|            |            |            |            |e, 127-mm g-|            |
|            |            |            |            |uns--2x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--2x3|            |
|            |            |            |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Frigates                                                                     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Brandenburg-|4,700       |138.9, 16.7,|29          |Exocet MM38 |199         |
|-(4)        |            | 4.4        |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--2x2, NA-|            |
|            |            |            |            |TO-Sea Spar-|            |
|            |            |            |            |row SAM sys-|            |
|            |            |            |            |tem, 76-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--2x2|            |
|            |            |            |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Bremen--8   |3,600       |130, 14.5, 6|30          |Harpoon ant-|207         |
|            |            |.5          |            |iship missi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |le systems--|            |
|            |            |            |            |2x4, NATO-S-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ea Sparrow  |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM system, |            |
|            |            |            |            |76-mm TT--2-|            |
|            |            |            |            |x2          |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|ITALY                                                                        |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Submarines                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Sauro--4 (m-|1,476 (1,662|66.4, 6.8, 5|11 (19)     |533-mm TT--6|45          |
|odified)    |)*          |.6          |            |, possibili-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ty of emplo-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ying Harpoo-|            |
|            |            |            |            |n antiship  |            |
|            |            |            |            |missile sys-|            |
|            |            |            |            |tem has bee-|            |
|            |            |            |            |n reserved  |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Sauro--4    |1,456 (1,631|63.9, 6.8, 5|11 (19)     |533-mm TT--6|45          |
|            |)           |.7          |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Light Aircraft Carriers                                                      |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Giuseppe Ga-|13,370      |180, 33.4, 6|30          |Harrier II  |780         |
|ribaldi--1  |            |.7          |            |aircraft--16|            |
|            |            |            |            |, Sea King  |            |
|            |            |            |            |helicopters-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-18, OTO Me-|            |
|            |            |            |            |lara antish-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ip missile  |            |
|            |            |            |            |systems--4x1|            |
|            |            |            |            |, Albatros  |            |
|            |            |            |            |SAM system, |            |
|            |            |            |            |324-mm TT--6|            |
|            |            |            |            |            |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Cruisers                                                                     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Vittorio Ve-|9,500       |179.6, 19.4,|32          |OTO Melara  |550         |
|neto--1     |            | 6          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--4x1, St-|            |
|            |            |            |            |andard SAM  |            |
|            |            |            |            |system, ASR-|            |
|            |            |            |            |OC guided m-|            |
|            |            |            |            |issile, 76--|            |
|            |            |            |            |mm guns--3x1|            |
|            |            |            |            |, 324-mm TT-|            |
|            |            |            |            |-6, AB-212  |            |
|            |            |            |            |ASW helicop-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ters--6     |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Destroyers                                                                   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Audace--2   |4,400       |136.6, 14.2,|34          |OTO Melara  |380         |
|            |            | 4.6        |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--8x1, St-|            |
|            |            |            |            |andard SAM  |            |
|            |            |            |            |system, 127-|            |
|            |            |            |            |mm gun--1x1,|            |
|            |            |            |            | 324-mm TT--|            |
|            |            |            |            |6, AB-212 A-|            |
|            |            |            |            |SW helicopt-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ers--2      |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Animoso--2  |5,400       |147.7, 16.1,|31.5        |OTO Melara  |400         |
|            |            | 5          |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--4(8)x1, |            |
|            |            |            |            |Standard SA-|            |
|            |            |            |            |M system, 12|            |
|            |            |            |            |7-mm gun--1-|            |
|            |            |            |            |x1, 324-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |TT--6, AB-21|            |
|            |            |            |            |2 ASW helic-|            |
|            |            |            |            |opters--2   |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Frigates                                                                     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Maestrale--8|3,200       |122.7, 12.9,|32          |OTO Melara  |185         |
|            |            | 4.6        |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ms--4x1, Al-|            |
|            |            |            |            |batros SAM  |            |
|            |            |            |            |system, 127-|            |
|            |            |            |            |mm gun--1x1,|            |
|            |            |            |            | 324-mm TT--|            |
|            |            |            |            |6, AB-212 A-|            |
|            |            |            |            |SW helicopt-|            |
|            |            |            |            |er          |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Lupo--8     |2,525       |113.2, 11.3,|35          |OTO Melara  |185         |
|            |            | 3.7        |            |antiship mi-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ssile syste-|            |
|            |            |            |            |m--8x1, NAT-|            |
|            |            |            |            |O-Sea Sparr-|            |
|            |            |            |            |ow SAM syst-|            |
|            |            |            |            |em, 127-mm  |            |
|            |            |            |            |gun--1x1, 32|            |
|            |            |            |            |4-mm TT--6, |            |
|            |            |            |            |AB-212 ASW  |            |
|            |            |            |            |helicopter  |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Alpino--2   |2,700       |113.3, 13.3,|28          |DCN8 SAM sy-|163         |
|            |            | 3.9        |            |stem, 76-mm |            |
|            |            |            |            |guns--6x1, 3|            |
|            |            |            |            |24-mm TT--6,|            |
|            |            |            |            | AB-212 ASW |            |
|            |            |            |            |helicopter  |            |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|*Data on displacement and maximum speed of submarines in a submerged conditi-|
|on are given in parentheses.                                                 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The British Navy, one of the largest in Western Europe, includes flotillas of submarines, surface ships, mine countermeasures forces and a task group. It numbers 94 combatant ships (4 nuclear powered missile submarines and 12 nuclear powered multipurpose submarines, 3 light carriers, 12 destroyers, 23 frigates, 11 patrol ships, 22 mine countermeasures ships and 7 landing ships) and 59 small combatants. The numerical strength is 51,000 persons. In the next four years it is planned to complete the replacement of obsolete Resolution-Class SSBN's built during 1967-1969 with new Vanguard-Class SSBN's (S 28-31). The lead SSBN, launched in March 1992, has been on combat patrol periodically since late 1994. The order for the fourth submarine was issued in July 1992.

The British Navy has 12 nuclear powered multipurpose submarines: 7 Trafalgar-Class (S 91-93, 107, 110, 117, 118), the most modern ones, and 5 Swiftsure-Class (S 104- 106, 108, 109). One submarine each of the Swiftsure and Valiant classes was decommissioned during 1994-1995. The 4 Upholder-Class diesel powered submarines (S 40- 43) operational with the Navy were placed in reserve and are destined for sale.

The largest ships of the British Navy are the light carrier R 05 Invincible, R 06 Illustrious (Fig. 1 [figure not reproduced]) and R 07 Ark Royal, built during 1980- 1985. Lately they have been undergoing modernization in succession, during which flight deck equipment is being upgraded and modern SAM systems and ZAK [air defense gun systems] are being installed.

The destroyer type is represented by 8 Birmingham- Class ships of three modifications (D 86-92 and 108), transferred to the Navy during 1976-1983, and 4 Manchester- Class (D 95-98) built during 1983-1985.

The British Navy has 23 frigates: 3 Broadsword-Class (F 89-91), 6 Boxer-Class (F 92-96, 98), 4 Cornwall-Class (F 85-87, 99) and 10 Norfolk-Class (F 229-231, 233-239). Construction of another three Norfolk-Class frigates presently is financed, with commissioning before the end of 1997. British, French and Italian specialists are considering a project for joint creation of a new-generation frigate displacing around 6,200 tonnes. The order for the lead ship in a series of 12 is to be placed in 1996 and she is to be commissioned in 2002.

The Navy's patrol forces include 11 ships earmarked for security of the 200-nm zone and oil and gas systems in the North Sea.

The British Navy has significant mine countermeasures forces numbering 22 ships: 13 Hunt-Class (M 29-41), 4 River-Class (M 2009, 2011, 2013, 2014) and 5 Sundown-Class (M 101-105). It is planned to complete construction of another seven ships of the latter class by 2002. The Navy has seven large landing ships in the order of battle: L 10 Fearless, 3 Sir Bedivere-Class (L 3027, 3036, 3505), Sir Galahad (L 3005), and 2 Ardennes-Class (L 4001, 4003). It is proposed to build two new ships displacing 14,300 tonnes to replace the obsolete Fearless (tentative commissioning of the lead ship is planned for 2000), and a helicopter carrier with a displacement of 20,500 tonnes (for 1998).

On the whole, the British Navy retains one of the leading places in the world in numbers, balance, degree of combat readiness and level of operational capabilities. The French Navy organizationally includes the Strategic Ocean Command and four naval operational commands (in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and in the Indian and Pacific ocean zones).

The Strategic Ocean Command has a subordinate squadron of SSBN's (four armed with M4C and one with M4 ballistic missiles). The Command has 3,150 persons, including 1,500 in SSBN crews and 1,650 in command, control and support entities.

Operationally subordinate to the Navy Atlantic Command is an Atlantic submarine flotilla, a formation of ASW ships, a formation of mine countermeasures forces, a flotilla of Flomanche patrol ships and a division of training ships. It has a total of 35 surface combatants and 6 submarines.

Subordinate to the Navy Mediterranean Command is a Mediterranean flotilla of submarines (6, of which 5 are nuclear powered multipurpose submarines), a formation of surface ships (2 multipurpose aircraft carriers, 10 destroyers, 7 landing ships, 2 general-purpose supply transports), and the Flomed Mediterranean flotilla of surface ships, consisting of two divisions of frigates and a division of minesweeper/hunters (a total of 10 combatant ships). Its order of battle has 29 surface combatants and 6 submarines.

The Navy Indian Ocean Command includes naval forces and assets in Djibouti and on Reunion Island and a task group deployed in the Indian Ocean. The order of battle usually numbers up to 5 combatant ships and 4 small combatants. Ships are assigned to the task group from the Navy Atlantic and Mediterranean commands. The Navy Pacific Ocean Command includes naval forces and assets in French Polynesia and New Caledonia and a group of ships of the Pacific Nuclear Test Center (a total of up to 15 ships and vessels).

According to data of JANE'S FIGHTING SHIPS, the overall numerical strength of naval personnel reaches 64,200. The ship makeup includes 91 combatants (5 nuclear powered missile submarines, 5 nuclear powered multipurpose submarines, 7 diesel powered submarines, 2 aircraft carriers, 1 helicopter carrier, 14 destroyers, 26 frigates, 1 patrol ship, 15 mine countermeasures ships and 15 landing ships) as well as 13 patrol and 26 landing craft. The strategic sea-based nuclear forces are represented by 5 L'Inflexible-Class SSBN's (S 610, 612-615) transferred to the Navy during 1974-1985. To replace them by 2005, three submarines of a new class, Le Triomphant (S 616-618), are being built and construction of another one equipped with M45 missiles is planned. This will permit increasing combat capabilities of strategic sea-based nuclear forces by 1.5 times.

The lead SSBN, Le Triomphant (see color insert [insert not reproduced]), whose construction has been under way since 1989, is to be commissioned in 1996. An order for a second submarine of this series (Temeraire) was placed in 1989 and commissioning is planned for 1998, and an order for building a third one was placed in 1993. It is envisaged allocating funds for the M5 SLBM program (planned to be operational in 2005). Development has concluded and production has begun on the first series of M45 SLBM's, an improved version of the M4C missile. Le Triomphant-Class submarines will be equipped with them before M5 missiles become operational.

By the end of the 1990's it is envisaged concluding work on the design project of a new-generation nuclear powered multipurpose submarine displacing 4,000 tonnes and equipped with a vertical launcher for antiship missiles; she will have greater speed and running depth, a lesser noise level and the newest sonar and navigation equipment. Commissioning of the first submarine is expected in 2007. It is planned to operate diesel powered submarines of the Daphne (S 648, 650 and 651) and Agosta (S 620-623) classes in the order of battle until the end of the current decade.

France is giving serious attention to upgrading naval carrier forces. At the end of 1999 its order of battle is to be augmented by the first nuclear powered carrier, Charles de Gaulle (R 91), which, it is assumed, will replace the obsolete carrier Clemenceau (R 98). According to a Ministry of Defense representative's statement, the decision to build a second such ship is to be made no later than the end of 1996 in order to ensure continuity of work at the Brest Yard. It is planned to commission her in 2004 to replace the carrier Foch (R 99). Modernization of this ship began in 1995 so that she could take aboard Rafale M aircraft in 1998.

The helicopter carrier Jeanne d'Arc (R 97) fulfills training ship functions in peacetime. In a period of threat she can be refitted as a landing ship capable of sealifting up to 700 infantrymen. It is proposed to decommission her in 2005.

Destroyers are represented by the following ships: 7 Georges Leygues-Class (D640-646) and 2 each Tourville (D611, 612), Suffren (D6 02, 603) and Cassard (D614, 615) classes. Frigates are the most numerous ships of the French Navy. Among them are 17 d'Estienne d'Orves-Class (F781-797), 1 Commandant Riviere-Class (F726), 6 Floreal-Class (F730- 735) and 2 La Fayette-Class (F710-711).

Plans for French Navy development envisage construction of new La Fayette-Class frigates (Fig. 2 [figure not reproduced]), intended for replacing Commandant Riviere-Class frigates. By 2005 it is planned to build a total of 10 such ships. Over a period of several years it is planned to decommission three d'Estienne d'Orves-Class frigates. Joint development with Great Britain and Italy of a new design-project frigate with a displacement of 6,200 tonnes is envisaged. Four such ships, the first to be commissioned in 2004, will be built under the agreement. Mine countermeasures forces include 10 Eridan-Class minesweeper/hunters (M641-650), created under a joint Franco-Belgian-Dutch Tripartite design project, and 5 Circe-Class minesweeper/hunters (M712-716).

The Navy's amphibious forces have 5 landing ships: 1 Champlain-Class (L 9030-9034), 2 Ouragan-Class (L 9021 and 9022), 1 Bougainville-Class (L 9077) and 1 Foudre-Class (L 9011). It is proposed to increase the combat capabilities of amphibious landing forces by replacing Ouragan-Class dock landing ships with three new Foudre-Class amphibious transport docks. The first already has been commissioned and orders for building a second and third were placed in 1994.

In the assessment of the command element, the French Navy is capable of performing its assigned missions with existing forces and assets. Plans for its development envisage a further buildup of combat potential with consideration of the country's interests in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans.

The German Navy included 79 combatant ships as of the beginning of the current year (20 diesel powered submarines, 3 destroyers, 10 frigates, 41 mine countermeasures ships and 5 landing ships) as well as 36 missile craft. In addition, there are 9 combatant ships in reserve, including 2 submarines, 2 destroyers and 5 minesweepers. The Navy's numerical strength is around 29,000 persons.

Submarine forces are represented by three classes of submarines: 2 Type 205 (S 190, 191), 6 Type 206 (S 170, 173, 192, 193, 198, 199) and 12 modernized Type 206A (S 171, 172, 174-179, 194-197). It is presumed that the service life of Type 206A submarines will be extended to 2005. A program is being realized for uparming submarines with new DM2 A3 Seehecht large dual-purpose torpedoes. The development of submarine forces basically is connected with construction of Type 212 submarines with power plants based on hydrogen-oxygen fuel elements.

Construction of a first series of four such submarines will begin in 1997 and commissioning of the lead ship is planned for 2002 (it is planned to build a total of seven). The specific combination of limited dimensions, concealment, high maneuverability and increased endurance will enable effective use of this class of submarines in coastal areas. In their operational-tactical characteristics--above all endurance, time of continuous submergence (range in a submerged condition at quiet speed is over 1,500 nm during more than 20 days), sonar outfitting and degree of automation--they will be comparable to a certain extent with nuclear powered submarines of other NATO countries and can be used in areas of the Northeast Atlantic and Norwegian, Barents and Mediterranean seas.

The destroyer type includes three Lutjens-Class ships (modernized U.S. Charles F. Adams-Class, D 185-187). All were built in the 1960's and will be decommissioned when new Brandenburg-Class frigates (Type 123) and Type 124 ships become operational.

Eight Bremen-Class frigates (F 207-214) transferred to the Navy during 1982-1990 are the most modern surface combatants of the German Navy. Two Brandenburg-Class frigates (F 215 and 216, Fig. 3 [figure not reproduced]) in a series of four are in the final stage of construction. Their primary mission is ASW and also medium and low altitude air defense and command and control of formation ships.

At present it is also planned to build 3 Type 124 frigates, which, it is assumed, will become operational by 2006. Their primary mission will be to provide air defense of ship formations, to destroy surface targets and to be used as a command ship in surface task groups. An agreement with respect to building Type 124 frigates was signed with the Netherlands and Spain which encompasses standardization of the platform and combat systems (chiefly the air defense and automated battle management systems).

Options are being studied for creating new models of torpedo ordnance to strengthen Navy ASW capabilities. It is planned to develop a small torpedo based on existing models (Stingray, MU-90, Mk 46 Mod. 5). The LCAW ultralight mine- torpedo is intended for use basically in shallow areas. A substantial increase in ship capabilities to engage surface targets should be expected after they are outfitted with advanced supersonic antiship missiles, which in the FRG Navy will replace Harpoon, Exocet and Cormoran antiship missiles. Beginning in 1999 it is planned to procure around 380 missiles. The ANF antiship missile of joint development with France is being examined as one option.

Construction of corvettes to replace missile craft possibly will begin. With an initial plan of 20-30 ships, their minimum number for procurements was 15, which will permit forming two groups of corvettes. Two series of 6-8 ships each are planned tentatively (beginning of construction of the first series--2003-2005, commissioning- -2007-2010, and commissioning of the second series--2010). The main mission of FRG Navy corvettes is to combat surface targets, to patrol, and to lay mines in narrows, shallow (coastal) seas, and areas constrained for operation independently, in coordination with frigates, and as part of multinational forces. They will be capable of operating in deep-water areas at greater distances from base than missile craft, which fully conforms with the expansion of the Navy operational zone (within the entire NATO zone of responsibility). It is planned to outfit them with new- generation supersonic antiship missiles to perform the primary missions. The question of creating a multipurpose landing ship (displacement 15,000-20,000 tonnes) to support the Bundeswehr Rapid Reaction Forces is being studied. According to preliminary data, the ship will be able to take aboard a Bundeswehr subunit up to a battalion in size (600-800 persons) with transportation assets and weapons. There will be a command post aboard for command and control of force operations and a sick bay for 100 persons. The ship will cost 500 million Marks and commissioning is planned for 2000-2005.

The mine countermeasures forces have 10 Lindau-Class (M 1070-1072, 1074, 1075, 1077, 1078, 1080, 1086, 1087), 5 Frauenlob-Class (M 2658, 2660-2662, 2665), 10 Hameln-Class (M 1090-1099), 10 Frankenthal-Class (M 1060-1069) and 6 Ulm- Class ships (M 1073, 1076, 1079, 1081-1083). It is planned to have a total of 20-30 mine countermeasures ships in the FRG Navy, of which at least 15 would be minehunters and 5 minesweepers.

Missile craft (36 as of the beginning of the current year) armed with Exocet antiship missiles are represented in the German Navy by three classes: Gepard (P 6121-6130), Albatross (P 6111-6120) and Tiger (P 6141, 6143, 6145-6150, 6153-6160). Craft of the latter class are being reduced. The FRG leadership's interest in missile craft predetermines the possibility of using them in specific military-geographic conditions (skerries, fjords, shallow waters and so on) to replace larger-displacement ships, which will be used to perform more important missions. Primary attention is being given to improving offensive capabilities, ability to stand up in combat, and seaworthiness, and to reducing the radar signature of craft. For this they will be armed with supersonic antiship missiles (ANF), SAM systems, and integrated missile and gunfire control systems.

Modernization of Type 143A (Gepard-Class) craft envisages their outfitting with a SAM system which will be integrated with the automated battle management system and an EW system, and modernization of Type 143 (Albatross- Class) envisages installation of an EW system. Type 148 craft (Tiger-Class) will be decommissioned by 2000 and Type 143 by 2005.

Western specialists assess the FRG Navy as one of the leading navies in Europe in terms of makeup, structure, outfitting with modern weapons and military equipment, and level of the personnel's professional training. As of the beginning of the current year the Italian Navy numbered 62 combatants (8 diesel powered submarines, a light aircraft carrier, a cruiser, 4 destroyers, 18 frigates, 13 corvettes, 14 mine countermeasures ships and 3 landing ships) and 6 missile craft. They are brought together in three divisions of surface ships and three brigades (submarines, corvettes and mine warfare forces). The numerical strength of the Navy reached 43,000 persons. The submarine forces include 8 Sauro-Class submarines: 4 modified (S 522-525) and 4 conventional (S 518-521). It is planned to begin building a new Type S 90 submarine with a submerged displacement of 2,780 tonnes in 1998.

The Italian Navy flagship is the light carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi (C 551), commissioned in 1987. It is planned to build a second carrier of this class in the future and to decommission the cruiser C 550 Vittorio Veneto after the second aircraft carrier is commissioned. The Navy order of battle has 2 Animoso-Class (D 560, 561, Fig. 4 [figure not reproduced]) as well as 2 Audace- Class destroyers (D 550, 551). The possibility of Italy's participation with Great Britain and France in creating a new destroyer design project is being considered. Frigates in the Italian Navy (a total of 18) are ships of Maestrale (F 570-577), Lupo (F 564-567, 582-585) and Alpino (F 580, 581) classes.

Combatant ships of the corvette type (a total of 13) are represented by the De Cristofaro (F 550), Cassiopea (P 401-404) and Minerva (F 551-558) classes. The newest Italian Navy mine warfare ships are 4 Lerici-Class minesweeper/hunters (M 5550-5553). Two ships of this class were purchased by Nigeria and 4 by Malaysia. The order of battle includes 3 Adjutant-Class minesweepers (M 5504, 5505, 5516) and 7 Gaeta-Class minesweeper/hunters (M 5554-5560).

The amphibious forces have 3 San Giorgio-Class amphibious transport docks (L 9892-9894). In its makeup and capabilities the Italian Navy is one of the most modern and combat effective among navies of Mediterranean NATO member countries. On the whole, realization of their development program will permit forming the necessary detail of mixed forces capable of effectively performing missions in the Mediterranean region by the end of the 1990's.

(To be concluded)

Footnotes

1. See ZARUBEZHNOYE VOYENNOYE OBOZRENIYE, No 1, 1996, pp 43-49--Ed.


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