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NEWS AND VIEWS

Summaries of and links to online news reports and commentaries.

* USSR planned own Star Wars' defenses - Jane's
* Mir crew struggles to repair decrepit station
* No chance of demise despite space station stumbles
* RUSSO-AMERICAN MISSION TO MARS COULD BE CARRIED
   OUT IN THE NEXT DECADE 
* India says pushing ahead with missile programme
* Japan says North Korea may have deployed missiles
* N.Korea slams U.S., Seoul for aid, talks linkage
*  RUSSIA COULD PARTICIPATE IN RE-PROFILING OF NORTH
   KOREAN NUCLEAR FACILITIES 
* Cohen tells N.Korea to dismantle military threat
* U.N. tells Iraq to come clean on past arms programs
* U.N. worried about arms surveillance in Iraq
* Israel says Iran, Russia ground test missile
* RUSSO-IRANIAN MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING 
  IN EXPORT CONTROL 
* Can Iran and Europe ride out the storm?
* First the Treaty, Then the Hard Work [CWC]
* Summary of Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968, Volume XI,
  Arms Control and Disarmament 


USSR planned own Star Wars' defenses - Jane's
http://www.merc.com/stories/cgi/story.cgi?id=2379071-81b
The former Soviet Union tried to develop a satellite defense network
in the 1980s at the same time it was attacking U.S. plans to build a
"Star Wars" system, the Jane's defense analysis group said Friday. An
article in the May edition of the Jane's Intelligence Review said
Soviet specialists had worked on a series of complex space battle
stations. The planned network was more complex than the U.S.'s
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) -- designed to destroy Soviet
ballistic missiles in space. 

Mir crew struggles to repair decrepit station
http://www.merc.com/stories/cgi/story.cgi?id=2378526-df6
Cosmonauts may drink as Russia ponders space future
http://www.merc.com/stories/cgi/story.cgi?id=2378432-e12
"A U.S.-Russian crew is struggling to keep the increasingly decrepit
Mir space station habitable, NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger said from
space Friday. The 11-year-old space station has run into numerous
problems in recent months, including a fire, the loss of its main
oxygen generators and a leak in the cooling system. NASA officials
said recently they would review safety aboard Mir before sending any
more astronauts to live there. Linenger is due to end his tour of duty
aboard Mir in May." 

No chance of demise despite space station stumbles
news:Rspace-stationURGU2_7AC.RVFR_7AC@clari.net
Date: Sat, 12 Apr 1997 19:00:50 PDT (Reuter / Deborah Zabarenko)
"WASHINGTON (Reuter) - When it comes to the International  
Space Station, critics say money shouts and science whispers.... 
``Russia is never going to pay for its obligations (to the  
international space station) and the rest of the world is going 
to have to complete it without the Russians,'' said 
Sensenbrenner in a telephone interview. ...
Robert Park of the American Physical Society told  
lawmakers ... the United States should use the expected  
seven-month delay caused by Russia to re-evaluate the project. 
''If this is simply an exercise in international cooperation, we 
should say so and drop the pretence of scientific research,'' 
Park said."" 

USA*RUSSIA*SPACE EXPLORATION GEORGE ABBEY, HEAD OF 
THE US ASTRONAUTS' TRAINING CENTRE, THINKS THE 
RUSSO-AMERICAN MISSION TO MARS COULD BE CARRIED
OUT IN THE NEXT DECADE HOUSTON, APRIL 12, RIA 
NOVOSTI'S VALERY VDOVENKO AND ALEXANDER NADZHAROV - 
	http://www.russia.net/ria/hotline/hl14041.htm

India says pushing ahead with missile programme
news:Rindia-defenceURtjF_7AD@clari.net
Date: Sun, 13 Apr 1997 1:00:26 PDT (Reuter / Sonali Verma)
"In the absence of any movement towards universal nuclear  
disarmament, New Delhi also plans to retain the option to build 
nuclear arms, the ministry said in its report for the year 
ending March 31, 1997, obtained by Reuters on Sunday.... 
``As with India's nuclear capability, it has also had  
occasionally to withstand international pressures brought to 
bear on its missile programme. The indigenous development of 
missile capability by India is in response to the evolving 
security environment in its region,'' the report said. ...
Indian Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda last month threw his  
weight behind a programme to indigenously develop the 
intermediate range Agni missile, a 2,500-km (1,500-mile) missile... 
The Agni was mothballed last December due to what defence  
analysts said was U.S.-led opposition to India's missile 
programme ...This is the first time that the ministry's annual
report has identified China's nuclear weapons and missile 
programmes as a significant Indian security concern, defence
analysts say.... ``In order to ensure that Trishul, Akash and 
Nag systems are developed in the shortest possible time, the
existing linkages with national science and technology 
resources have been strengthened further and the projects 
are being closely monitored,'' it added. ...``Those who have 
been seeking to impose restraints on India have in the 
meanwhile themselves continued their nuclear weapons 
and missile research programmes,'' the report said." 

Japan says North Korea may have deployed missiles
news:Rkorea-northURvzu_7AD.R_Hy_7AE@clari.net
Date: Mon, 14 Apr 1997 2:21:12 PDT (Reuter / Eugene Moosa)
"TOKYO, April 14 (Reuter) - Japan's foreign minister  
highlighted North Korea's potential threat to East Asia on 
Monday by quoting unconfirmed reports that Pyongyang may have 
deployed ballistic missiles capable of hitting most of Japan.... 
Japan's NHK public television reported last Friday that  U.S. 
spy satellites had detected three Rodong-1 missiles on 
mobile launchers in position on North Korea's eastern coast. 
NHK, quoting U.S. intelligence sources, said seven more  
Rodong-1 missiles were being prepared for deployment." 

N.Korea slams U.S., Seoul for aid, talks linkage
news:Rkorea-northUR9ZW_7AC@clari.net
Sat, 12 Apr 1997 7:00:48 PDT
"TOKYO, April 12 (Reuter) - North Korea criticised the United  
States and South Korea for what it termed linkage between food 
aid and peace talks, the state-run Korean Central News Agency 
(KCNA), monitored in Tokyo, reported on Saturday." 

* RUSSIAN FEDERATION * NORTH KOREA * NUCLEAR
FACILITIES * E X C L U S I V E ----------------- RUSSIA
COULD PARTICIPATE IN RE-PROFILING OF NORTH
KOREAN NUCLEAR FACILITIES ONLY IF HER EARLIER
EXPENDITURES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF KOREA'S
NUCLEAR ENERGY SECTOR ARE COUNTED SEOUL,
APRIL 13, /FROM RIA NOVOSTI CORRESPONDENT
SERGEY KUDASOV/- 
	http://www.russia.net/ria/hotline/hl140416.htm

Cohen tells N.Korea to dismantle military threat
http://www.merc.com/stories/cgi/story.cgi?id=2371650-d79 
U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen said Friday large-scale food aid
to North Korea was unlikely until Pyongyang began dismantling its
powerful military machine threatening the South. He bluntly warned
Pyongyang any aggression would be suicidal, resulting in "overwhelming
damage and defeat." Cohen made clear the international community would
not feed a hungry nation pouring scarce resources into a military
geared for war and armed with chemical weapons and long-range
missiles. Earlier, Pyongyang demanded South Korea apologize over a
shooting incident.

U.N. tells Iraq to come clean on past arms programs
http://www.merc.com/stories/cgi/story.cgi?id=2380129-90d
"Rolf Ekeus, the chief U.N. arms inspector, called on Iraqi President
Saddam Hussein's government Friday to abandon "once and for all"
ambitions to retain or acquire weapons of mass destruction. In a major
half-year report to the Security Council, Ekeus said remaining
problems in ridding Iraq of dangerous arms and related materials were
political rather than technical. A clean bill of health by Ekeus is a
key requirement before the embargo on Iraqi oil exports can be lifted
entirely."

U.N. worried about arms surveillance in Iraq
news:Riraq-un-weaponsUReFF_7AB.R-ye_7AC@clari.net
Fri, 11 Apr 1997 23:40:24 PDT (Reuter / Evelyn Leopold)
"UNITED NATIONS(Reuter) -...In a major half-year report to
the Security Council Friday,  Rolf Ekeus, head of the U.N. 
Special Commission (UNSCOM) in charge of Iraqi disarmament, 
said Iraq's leadership had to make a political decision ``once
and for all'' on its ambitions to retain and acquire dangerous arms.
... Ekeus ...said little remained unknown about Baghdad's 
nuclear, biological, chemical and ballistic missile potential,
but what was unknown could still cause devastating 
damage and casualties." 

Israel says Iran, Russia ground test missile
news:Risrael-iranUR9bL_7AD@clari.net
Sun, 13 Apr 1997 17:10:44 PDT
"JERUSALEM (Reuter) - Israel's air force chief said Sunday  
that Iran had ground tested a missile capable of hitting the 
Jewish state with the help of Russian experts. ``Only two weeks 
ago the Iranians held a test, albeit only on the ground for the
moment, with the Russians for the development of a missile
with a range of 950 miles which could reach from Iran to
the state of Israel by means of ballistic missiles,'' Maj. Gen.
Eitan Ben Eliahu said in remarks broadcast on Israel's army radio." 

RUSSIA*FOREIGN MINISTRY*IRAN RUSSO-IRANIAN
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING IN EXPORT
CONTROL A PROOF OF THE TWO COUNTRIES'
RESPECT FOR THE NON-PROLIFERATION NORMS -
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION AND THE PRESS OF
THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY MOSCOW, APRIL 12,
RIA NOVOSTI -
	http://www.russia.net/ria/hotline/hl14046.htm

Can Iran and Europe ride out the storm?
news:Riran-rowUR534_7AD@clari.net
Sun, 13 Apr 1997 4:51:45 PDT  (Reuter / Diana Abdallah)
"DUBAI, April 13 (Reuter) - Iran and Europe are unlikely to  
allow a row over a German court ruling that Tehran ordered 
political killings in Berlin in 1992 to go beyond diplomatic 
moves and hurt commercial ties, diplomats and analysts say.... 
Analysts and diplomats who follow Iran said they did not  
believe Europe -- which had so far resisted U.S. pressure to 
follow suit and impose sanctions on the Islamic republic -- 
would escalate the row beyond the diplomatic moves. 
``The European Community wants to make a political point to  
Tehran,'' one Western diplomat said. ``It does not look like it 
wants to jeopardise trade relations.''" 

First the Treaty, Then the Hard Work 
http://wp2.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-04/13/105L-041397-idx.html
By David Kay, Ronald F. Lehman and R. James Woolsey;
The Washington Post 13 April 1997; page C07
"The debate over ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention
(CWC) is primarily about the political psychology of arms control.
Is the arms-control process soporific? Do treaties lull us into
ignoring threats and neglecting our defenses? Do we substitute
paper for reality? Do decision makers avoid politically incorrect
declarations of violations in the face of conflicting strategic or trade
calculations? Do governments hesitate to enforce obligations in a
world routinely opposed to rocking the boat?"

Summary of Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968, Volume XI,
Arms Control and Disarmament 
http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/arms_summary.html
The documents in this volume are drawn primarily from the
Lyndon B. Johnson Library in Austin, Texas, pertinent
decentralized lot files from the Executive Secretariat of the
Department of State, and records of the Department of Defense
and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency presently stored
at the Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland.
A distinctive feature of this Foreign Relations volume is that it is
the first one to utilize the tape recordings of President Lyndon B.
Johnson's telephone conversations.