COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST-BAN TREATY SIGNATORIES/RATIFIERS
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature on September 24, 1996. President Clinton was the first to sign the Treaty. As of November 26, 2001, 164 nations have signed the CTB and 89 states have ratified the treaty. 41 of the 44 Annex 2 states, those that have nuclear weapons or nuclear facilities whose signature and ratification are required to bring the treaty into force, have signed the treaty and 31 of these states have submitted their ratification of the treaty. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), India, and Pakistan have not signed or ratified the treaty. Of the 13 states that have signed, but not ratified the treaty the United States of American and the People's Republic of China are notable exceptions.
Entry into force (EIF) will occur 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by 44 required signatories. The 44 nations whose ratification is required for EIF must either 1) have been Conference on Disarmament (CD) members as of June 18, 1996, which formally participated in the work of the CD's 1996 session, or 2) possess nuclear research or power reactors. They must include the five acknowledged nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, and China) and the three threshold states (India, Pakistan, and Israel). The Indian Foreign Ministry stated in early October 1999 that India planned to try to get a consensus within the country for signing the treaty when the new parliament is in place. Pakistan has refused to sign as a deterrent to India's potential for continuing to develop its nuclear weapons, but has have indicated they want to sign.
The CTBT was negotiated over a period of two-and-a-half years in the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva. However, the CD was not able to reach a consensus decision to forward the text to the United Nations. On August 22, 1996, Australia requested the Secretary General of the United Nations to reconvene the 50th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for the purpose of receiving and acting on the Treaty. On September 10, 1996, the UNGA adopted the CTBT by a vote of 158 to 3, with 5 abstentions.
On November 19, 1996, the signatories adopted a resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission (Prepcom) for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO). The CTBTO Prepcom consists of all signatory states, and meets in Vienna. It has established two working groups, on verification and administration, and a Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS). Under Prepcom direction the PTS is working to establish the verification regime required by the Treaty. This includes the International Monitoring System, with global monitoring capabilities in four technologies -- seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide, and infrasound; the International Data Center, for receiving and processing data from the monitoring stations; and capabilities for carrying out on-site inspections, once the Treaty enters into force.
The President transmitted the CTBT to the Senate in September 1997 for its advice and consent to ratification. In his January 19 State of the Union address, President Clinton called on the Senate to approve the Treaty this year, asking the Senate to "take this vital step, approve the Treaty now to make it harder for other nations to develop nuclear arms, and to make sure we can end nuclear testing forever."
|Bold: One of 44 countries whose ratification is required for Entry-Into-Force|
|Antigua and Barbuda||4/16/97|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||9/24/96|
|Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville)||10/4/96|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of (Kinshasa)||10/4/96|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)|
|Iran (Islamic Rep. of)||9/24/96|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||7/30/97||10/5/00|
|Libyan Arab Jamahiriya||11/13/01|
|Micronesia (Federated States of)||9/24/96||7/25/97|
|Papua New Guinea||9/25/96|
|Republic of Korea||9/24/96||9/24/99|
|Sao Tome and Principe||9/26/96|
|United Arab Emirates||9/25/96||9/18/00|
|TOTAL: 164 Signed; 89 Ratified|
|Annex 2 States: 41 Signed: 31 Ratified|