Title: "Clinton Issues Pledge to NPT Non-Nuclear Weapon States." Declaration by President Clinton regarding America's commitment not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear
members of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Includes a fact sheet and remarks by Secretary of State Warren Christopher. (950406)
Translated Title:. (950406)
CLINTON ISSUES PLEDGE TO NPT NON-NUCLEAR WEAPON STATES (NPT Texts: Declaration, Christopher statement on it) (1850) Washington -- President Clinton, in a declaration issued April 5, reaffirms that the United States "will not use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states" that are parties to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
The only exception, the president states, would be "in the case of an invasion or any other attack on the United States, its territories, its armed forces or other troops, its allies, or on a state toward which it has a security commitment, carried out or sustained by such a non-nuclear weapon state in association or alliance with a nuclear weapon state."
Clinton also declares "that the United States intends to provide or support immediate assistance, in accordance with the United Nations Charter, to any NPT non-nuclear weapon state threatened with aggression involving nuclear weapons or which is the victim of such aggression," according to a State Department fact sheet on the declaration.
Following is the text of a statement by Secretary of State Christopher, which includes the text of the president's declaration and the fact sheet:
(begin text) The United States believes than universal adherence to and compliance with international conventions and treaties seeking to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a cornerstone of global security. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is a central element of this regime. March 5, 1995, was the 25th anniversary of its entry-into-force, an event commemorated by President Clinton in a speech in Washington on March 1, 1995. A conference to decide on extension of the treaty will begin in New York City on April 17, 1995. The United States considers the indefinite extension of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons without conditions as a matter of the highest national priority and will continue to pursue all appropriate efforts to achieve that outcome.
It is important that all Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons fulfill their obligations under the treaty. In that regard, consistent with generally recognized principles of international law, Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons must be in compliance with these undertakings in order to be eligible for any benefits of adherence to this treaty.
As a nuclear-weapon state the United States has consistently recognized its responsibilities under the treaty, and the importance of addressing the special needs of non-nuclear-weapon states parties to the treaty with regard to measures that would alleviate their legitimate security concerns. To that end, the president directed that the United States review its policies on security assurances for such non-nuclear-weapon states and that consultations be held with other nuclear-weapon states on this important topic.
Bearing the above considerations in mind, the president declares the following:
The United States reaffirms that it will now use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons except in the case of an invasion or any other attack on the United States, its territories, its armed forces or other troops, its allies, or on a state towards which it has a security commitment, carried out or sustained by such a non-nuclear-weapon state in association or alliance with a nuclear-weapon state.
Aggression with nuclear weapons, or the threat of such aggression, against a non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons would create a qualitatively new situation in which the nuclear-weapon state permanent members of the United Nations Security Council would have to act immediately through the Security Council, in accordance with the Charter, to take the measures necessary to counter such aggression or to remove the threat of aggression. Any state which commits aggression accompanied by the use of nuclear weapons or which threatens such aggression must be aware that its actions are to be countered effectively by measures to be taken in accordance with the U.N. Charter to suppress the aggression or remove the threat of aggression.
Non-nuclear-weapon States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have a legitimate desire for assurances that the U.N. Security Council, and above all its nuclear-weapon state permanent members, would act immediately in accordance with the charter, in the event such non-nuclear-weapon states are the victim of an act of, or object of a threat of, aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.
The United States affirms its intention to provide or support immediate assistance, in accordance with the Charter, to any non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons that is a victim of an act of, or an object of a threat of, aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.
Among the means available to the Security Council for assisting such a non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons would be an investigation into the situation and appropriate measures to settle the dispute and to restore international peace and security.
U.N. Member States should take appropriate measures in response to a request for technical, medical, scientific or humanitarian assistance from a non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons that is a victim of an act of aggression with nuclear weapons, and the Security Council should consider what measures are needed in this regard in the event of such an act of aggression.
The Security Council should recommend appropriate procedures, in response to any request from a non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons that is the victim of such an act of aggression, regarding compensation under international law from the aggressor for loss, damage or injury sustained as a result of the aggression.
The United States reaffirms the inherent right, recognized under Article 51 of the U.N. Charter, of individual and collective self-defense if an armed attack, including a nuclear attack, occurs against a member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.
(end text) (begin fact sheet) In an address on March 1, the president declared that nothing is more important in this critical year of decision for arms control and nonproliferation than to achieve the indefinite extension of the NPT without conditions. In that connection, the United States last year reviewed its policies on providing security assurances to NPT non-nuclear-weapon states and began consultations with other nuclear-weapon state NPT parties for the purpose of arriving at a common position. Today the secretary of state issued a statement on security assurances which includes the first comprehensive declaration by any President of the United States on this important topic, and one which we believe represents important progress. The release of the Presidential Declaration was announced this afternoon by Secretary of State Christopher.
Background Beginning with the negotiations on the NPT in the 1960s, many non-nuclear-weapon states made clear that in exchange for commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons they expected certain assurances from nuclear-weapon states. It was not possible to include such a provision in the NPT, but in 1968 the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union each announced that they would seek immediate Security Council action to provide assistance in accordance with the United Nations Charter to any NPT non-nuclear-weapon state threatened with aggression involving nuclear weapons, or which is the victim of such aggression. These so-called positive security assurances were "welcomed" in U.N. Security Council Resolution 255 which was adopted on June 19, 1968.
To further address concerns in this area, the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union each declared in 1978 a policy against the use of nuclear weapons toward NPT non-nuclear-weapon states. Russia adopted a new negative security assurance in 1993 which was closer in substance to the policies of the United Kingdom and United States.
France and China joined the NPT in 1992 and about a year ago all five NPT nuclear-weapon states began to address the security assurance issue during consultations on the margins of the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. One outcome of that effort was an agreement that each would issue a national statement with their release planned for this week.
Presidential Declaration The statement by the secretary of state begins with a reaffirmation of the administration's commitment to the NPT and to its indefinite extension without conditions. It also highlights the importance of compliance with the NPT and of the need to address ways to alleviate the legitimate security concerns of NPT non-nuclear-weapon states. It notes that the president directed a review of U.S. policy on security assurances and introduces the declaration.
The president declares that the United States will not use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states parties to the NPT except under certain circumstances. This declaration reaffirms long-standing U.S. policy in this area and is fully compatible with U.S. alliance obligations. Notably; the language of this negative security assurance is virtually identical to that which is scheduled to be released today by the United Kingdom, France and Russia. Many NPT non-nuclear-weapon states have long urged the nuclear-weapon states to achieve a common formula on negative security assurances. The fact that four of the five have done so is an important achievement. China will issue its own statement.
The president also declares that the United States intends to provide or support immediate assistance, in accordance with the U.N. Charter, to any NPT non-nuclear-weapon state threatened with aggression involving nuclear weapons or which is the victim of such aggression. This declaration reaffirms and makes more explicit the U.S. commitment first made in 1968. This revised U.S. positive security assurance underscores the 1968 pledge by elaborating on the type of assistance the U.N. Security Council could consider in these circumstances. Some NPT non-nuclear-weapon states have long urged such an elaboration as a way to make these assurances more credible. This positive security assurance language is included in a draft Security Council resolution supported by all five nuclear-weapon states that is under consideration in New York. France and China are also providing positive security assurances for the first time in national statements scheduled for release this week.
Conclusion It is the administration's view that the national statements being issued by all five NPT nuclear-weapon states, their co-sponsorship of a Security Council resolution on security assurances which is under consideration in New York, and the common negative security assurance achieved by four of the five -- together comprise a substantial response to the desire of many NPT non-nuclear-weapon states for strengthened security assurances. This outcome reinforces the international nuclear nonproliferation regime and deserves the support of all NPT parties.
(end fact sheet) NNNN
File Identification: 04/06/95, TXT401; 04/06/95, AXF403; 04/06/95, EPF402; 04/06/95, EUR402; 04/06/95, LEF410; 04/06/95, NEA408; 04/07/95, LSI502; 04/10/95, AFI104
Product Name: Wireless File
Product Code: WF
Languages: Spanish; French
Keywords: CHRISTOPHER, WARREN/Speaker; CLINTON, BILL/Speaker; DEFENSE POLICY; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT)
Document Type: TXT
Thematic Codes: 1AC
Target Areas: AF; AR; EA; EU; NE
PDQ Text Link: 386264; 386540; 386805
USIA Notes: *95040601.TXT