Heart Models 

1.  Raimond L. Winslow, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Associate Director, The Whitaker Biomedical Engineering Institute
Co-Director, Center for Computational Medicine and Biology, Johns Hopkins University

"Computational biology, biophysical models of channels, cells, and cell networks, high performance computing; scientific visualization, nonlinear systems." Computational Cardiology Laboratory

Reference-
General:

"The Heart that Numbers Built"
Johns Hopkins Magazine, June 2000 

Review:

Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 2000. 2:119-155.

Electrophysiological Modeling of Cardiac Ventricular Function: From Cell to Organ
R. L. Winslow D. F. Scollan A. Holmes C. K. Yung J. Zhang and M. S. Jafri

KEY WORDS: excitation-contraction coupling, magnetic resonance, calcium, parallel computing, ion channels

Three topics of importance to modeling the integrative function of the heart are reviewed. The first is modeling of the ventricular myocyte. Emphasis is placed on excitation-contraction coupling and intracellular Ca2+ handling, and the interpretation of experimental data regarding interval-force relationships. Second, data on use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging for measuring the anatomical structure of thecardiac ventricles are presented. A method for the semi-automated reconstruction of the ventricles using a combination of gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) and DTMR images is described. Third, we describe how these anatomically and biophysically based models of the cardiac ventricles can be implemented on parallel computers.

2. Christopher Johnson, Ph.D.
Director, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute (SCI)
Director, Center for Bioelectric Field Modeling, Simulation, and Visualization (NIH NCRR)
Co-Director, Advanced Visualization Technology Center (AVTC)
Associate Professor of Computer Science
Associate Professor of Physics
Research Associate Professor of Bioengineering
Co-Director, Computational Engineering and Science (CES)
Program Co-Founder, Visual Influence Inc. http://www.sci.utah.edu/ncrr/

"The NIH Center for Bioelectric Field Modeling, Simulation, and Visualization is a collaboration between the Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute and the Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute to conduct research and development in advanced modeling, simulation, and visualization methods for solving bioelectric field problems. Modern medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and positron emission tomography, provide a wealth of anatomical information to doctors and researchers. Measurements of the electric and magnetic fields from the body, such as electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetoencephalogrphy (MEG), reflect the underlying bioelectrical activity of the tissues and organs. However, without equally advanced modeling and visualization technologies, much of the potential value of this information is lost. Our goal is to couple advanced medical imaging technology with state of the art computer simulation and modeling techniques to produce new methods and tools, which will allow doctors and researchers to tackle immediately important medical problems... To accomplish this goal, we have created an integrated software tool for bioelectric field problems called "Bioelectric Problem Solving Environment" or more regularly, "BioPSE."

Reference-
General:

C. Johnson, S. Parker, C. Hansen, G. Kindlmann, and Y. Livnat. Interactive Simulation and Visualization.
IEEE Computer, December 1999.


3.  James B. Bassingthwaighte, M.D., Ph.D.
Director of National Simulation Resource
Professor of Bioengineering, Biomathematics and Radiology

University of Washington

"General consultation on approaches to modeling of biological systems, problem formulation, and strategies for experiment design. Interests are in developing large scale models via collaborative efforts. Particular interest in myocardial transport and metabolism and in the use of general purpose modeling for analyzing cardiac behavior."
email :  jbb@bioeng.washington.edu                   
TEL: (206) 685-2005

4. Andrew McCulloch, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Bioengineering
Whitaker Institute for Biomedical Engineering

University of California, San Diego

Reference-
General:

McCulloch AD (2000) Modeling the human cardiome in silico. J Nucl Cardiol Sep-Oct;7(5):496-9

Review:

Annual Review Biomedical Engineering 2000. 2:431-456.

Imaging Three-Dimensional Cardiac Function
W. G. O'Dell and A.D. McCulloch Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0412; e-mail: wodell@ucsd.edu

KEY WORDS: review, myocardial strain, myocardial stress, 3D imaging

The three-dimensional (3-D) nature of myocardial deformations is dependent on ventricular geometry, muscle fiber architecture, wall stresses, and myocardial-material properties. The imaging modalities of X-ray angiography, echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) aredescribed in the context of visualizing and quantifying cardiac mechanical function. The quantification of ventricular anatomy and cavity volumes is then reviewed, and surface reconstructions in three dimensions are demonstrated. The imaging of myocardial wall motion is discussed, with an emphasis on current MRI and tissue Doppler imaging techniques and their potential clinical applications. Calculation of 3-D regional strains from motion maps is reviewed and illustrated with clinical MRI tagging results. We conclude by presenting a promising technique to assess myocardial-fiber architecture, and we outline its potential applications, in conjunction with quantification of anatomy and regional strains, for the determination of myocardial stress and work distributions. The quantification of multiple components of 3-D cardiac function has potential for bothfundamental-science and clinical applications.

5. Professor Peter Hunter
Professor, Biomedical Engineering
University of Auckland

"Soft tissue biomechanics, electro-physiology, cell biophysics, finite element techniques. Biological applications of continuum mechanics, particularly where these involve large-deformation finite element techniques and coupled field problems. Experimental measurement and theoretical modelling of biomaterials.”

Reference:

B00. Hunter, P.J.
Integrative physiology of the heart: The development of anatomically and biophysically based mathematical models of myocardial activation, cardiac mechanics and coronary flow.
Procs. of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand.
Wellington, Aug 7-11, 1999.

B101. Nickerson, D.P., Kohl, P., Smith, N.P and Hunter, P.J.
Cardiac electro-mechanics: cell and tissue modeling.
Procs. of the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) Annual Conference.
Seattle, USA. Oct 12-14, 2000.

B102. Hedley, W.J., Nielsen P. F., and Hunter, P.
An XML language for describing biological models and data.
Procs. of the World Congress on Medical Physics and Bioengineering.
Chicago, Jul 23-28, 2000.

B103. Hunter, P.J.
Auckland whole heart model.
Procs. of The Second International Workshop on Computer Simulation and Experimental Assessment of Electrical Cardiac Function.
Lausanne, Dec 4 -5, 2000.

B104. Buist, M.L., Pullan, A.J. and Hunter, P.J.
Modelling heart activation.
Procs. of PSNZ 2000 Conference New Zealand.
Waiheke Island, Dec 4-6, 2000.

B106. Hedley, W.J., Nelson, M.R., Nielsen P. F., Bullivant, D. P. and Hunter, P.J.
XML languages for describing biological models and data.
Procs. of PSNZ 2000 Conference New Zealand.
Waiheke Island, Dec 4-6, 2000.

6. Charles S. Peskin, Ph.D.
Professor of Mathematics
Courant Insitute
New York University

Lay article: http://www.hpc-book.com/throb.html

Images and movies:
http://www.psc.edu/science/Peskin/Peskin.html
http://www.psc.edu/MetaCenter/MetaScience/Articles/Peskin/Peskin.html