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B-1B Lancer 


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The B-1B is a multi-role, long-range bomber, capable of flying intercontinental missions without refueling, then penetrating present and predicted sophisticated enemy defenses. It can perform a variety of missions, including that of a conventional weapons carrier for theater operations. Through 1991, the B-1 was dedicated to the nuclear deterrence role as part of the single integrated operational plan (SIOP)

The B-1B's electronic jamming equipment, infrared countermeasures, radar location and warning systems complement its low-radar cross-section and form an integrated defense system for the aircraft.

The swing-wing design and turbofan engines not only provide greater range and high speed at low levels but they also enhance the bomber's survivability. Wing sweep at the full-forward position allows a short takeoff roll and a fast base-escape profile for airfields under attack. Once airborne, the wings are positioned for maximum cruise distance or high-speed penetration. The B-1B holds several world records for speed, payload and distance. The National Aeronautic Association recognized the B-1B for completing one of the 10 most memorable record flights for 1994.

The B-1B uses radar and inertial navigation equipment enabling aircrews to globally navigate, update mission profiles and target coordinates in-flight, and precision bomb without the need for ground based navigation aids. Included in the B-1B offensive avionics are modular electronics that allow maintenance personnel to precisely identify technical difficulties and replace avionics components in a fast, efficient manner on the ground.

The aircraft's AN/ALQ 161A defensive avionics is a comprehensive electronic counter-measures package that detects and counters enemy radar threats. It also has the capability to detect and counter missiles attacking from the rear. It defends the aircraft by applying the appropriate counter-measures, such as electronic jamming or dispensing expendable chaff and flares. Similar to the offensive avionics, the defensive suite has a re-programmable design that allows in-flight changes to be made to counter new or changing threats.

The B-1B represents a major upgrade in U.S. long-range capabilities over the B-52 -- the previous mainstay of the bomber fleet. Significant advantages include:

  • Low radar cross-section to make detection considerably more difficult.
  • Ability to fly lower and faster while carrying a larger payload.
  • Advanced electronic countermeasures to enhance survivability.

Numerous sustainment and upgrade modifications are ongoing or under study for the B-1B aircraft. A large portion of these modifications which are designed to increase the combat capability are known as the Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. In FY93, The Air Force initiated CMUP in FY1993 to improve the B-1’s conventional warfighting capabilities. The $2.7 billion CMUP program is intended to convert the B-1B from a primarily nuclear weapons carrier to a conventional weapons carrier. Capability will be delivered in blocks attained by hardware modifications with corresponding software updates:

  • Initial conventional capability was optimized for delivery of Mk-82 non-precision 500lb gravity bombs
  • Current capability (Block C) also provides delivery of up to 30 Cluster Bomb Units (CBUs) per sortie for enhanced conventional capability against advancing armor. Initial capability achieved in September 1996 with FOC in August 1997. The upgrade consists of modification for B-1B bomb module from the original configuration of 28 500-pound bombs per unit to 10 1,000-pound cluster bombs per bomb rack. The modifications apply to a total to 50 refitted bomb racks -- enough to equip half the B-1B fleet.
  • Block D integrates the ALE-50 repeater decoy system, the first leg of the electronic countermeasures upgrade, and JDAM for near precision capability and adds anti-jam radios for secure communication in force packages. FY96 and FY97 Congressional plus-ups are being used to accelerate JDAM initial capability by 18 months (1QFY99). Congress has provided extra funding to allow a group of seven aircraft to be outfitted and ready a full 18 months early, with the first three JDAM equipped aircraft to be ready by December 1998, and the last of those seven aircraft are planned to arrive at Ellsworth AFB by Feb 99.
  • Block E upgrades the current avionics computer suite and integrates Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD), Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) and Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) for standoff capability (FY02)
  • Block F improves the aircraft’s electronic countermeasures’ situational awareness and jamming capabilities in FY02

Payloads     Return to Top

Background    Return to Top

The B-1B is a modified B-1A with major revisions in offensive avionics, defensive avionics, weapon payload, range, and speed. These modifications were made to incorporate certain technological advances that had occurred between the original B-lA contract award in 1970 and the LRCA competition in 1980. Improvements consist primarily of off-the-shelf technology such as a new radar, new generation computers, expanded ECM capabilities, reduced RCS, and avionics compatibility with the ALCM. The wing sweep is restricted to 60 which limits the maximum speed to just above supersonic. Rockwell also estimated range increases for the modified B-1.

Differences between the B-1B and its predecessor, the B-1A of the 1970s, are subtle, yet significant. Externally, only a simplified engine inlet, modified over-wing fairing and relocated pilot tubes are noticeable. Other less-evident changes include a window for the offensive and defensive systems officers' station and engine housing modifications that reduces radar exposure. The B-1B was structurally redesigned to increase its gross takeoff weight from 395,000 to 477,000 pounds (177,750 to 214,650 kilograms). Still, the empty weight of the B-1B is but 3 percent greater than that of the B-1A. This added takeoff weight capacity, in addition to a movable bulkhead between the forward and intermediate weapons bay, allows the B-1B to carry a wide variety of nuclear and conventional munitions. The most significant changes, however, are in the avionics, with low-radar cross-section, automatic terrain-following high-speed penetration, and precise weapons delivery.

Prior to 1994 B-1B fleet had never achieved its objective of having a 75-percent mission capable rate. In 1992 and 1993 the B-1B mission capable rate averaged about 57 percent. According to the Air Force, a primary reason for the low mission capable rate was the level of funding provided to support the B-1B logistics support system. Concerned about the low mission capable rate, a history of B-1B problems, and the Air Force's plans to spend $2.4 billion modifying the B-1B to become a conventional bomber, the Congress directed the Air Force to conduct an Operational Readiness Assessment (ORA) from June 1, 1994, through November 30, 1994. The purpose of the ORA was to determine whether one B-1B wing was capable of achieving and maintaining its planned 75-percent operational readiness rate for a period of 6 months, if provided the full complement of spare parts, maintenance equipment and manpower, and logistic support equipment. During the ORA the test unit achieved an 84.3-percent mission capable rate during the test period. The ORA demonstrated that, given a full complement of spare parts, equipment, and manpower, the Air Force could achieve and sustain a 75-percent mission capable rate for the B-1B. The Air Force projects that the entire B-1B fleet will reach a 75-percent mission capable rate by 2000 by virtue of numerous on-going and future reliability, maintainability, and management initiatives. However, as of mid-October 1999 the Air Force wide mission capable rate of the B-1 had fallen to 51.1 percent -- mainly because of maintenance problems and a shortage of parts. Over the previous 12 months, the Kansas Guard had maintained a mission capable rate of 71.1 percent for the 10 usable aircraft assigned to it.

The basis for the projection of useful life of the B-1 is the Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP). The useful life of the structure is assumed to be the point at which it is more economical to replace the aircraft than to continue structural modifications and repairs necessary to perform the mission. The limiting factor for B-1’s service life is the wing lower surface. At 15,200 hours, based on continued low level usage, the wing’s lower skin will need replacement. Current usage rates, operational procedures, and mishap attrition will place the inventory below the requirement of 89 aircraft in 2018, while the service life attrition will impact around 2038.

The first B-1B, 83-0065, The Star of Abilene, was delivered to the Air Force at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, in June 1985, with initial operational capability on Oct. 1, 1986. The 100th and final B-1B was delivered May 2, 1988. The Air Force has chosen to fully fund the operation of only 60 B-1Bs for the next few years, compared with plans to fund 82 beyond fiscal year 2000. In the short term, the Air Force has classified 27 of 95 B-1Bs as "reconstitution aircraft." These aircraft are not funded for flying hours and lack aircrews, but they are based with B-1B units, flown on a regular basis, maintained like other B-1Bs, and modified with the rest of the fleet. B-1B units will use flying hours and aircrews that are based on 60 operational aircraft to rotate both the operational aircraft and the reconstitution aircraft through its peacetime flying schedule. These 27 aircraft will be maintained in reconstitution reserve status until the completion of smart conventional munition upgrades. At that time, around the year 2000, there will be 95 aircraft providing an operational force of 82 fully modified B-1s. The B-1 will complete its buy back of attrition reserve by the fourth quarter of FY03, and re-code six training aircraft to attain 70 combat-coded aircraft by the fourth quarter of FY04. During the Cold War, heavy bombers were used primarily for nuclear deterrence and were operated solely by the active duty Air Force. According to the Air Force, the National Guard's part-time workforce was incompatible with the bombers' nuclear mission because of a requirement for continuously monitoring all personnel directly involved with nuclear weapons. With the end of the Cold War and increased emphasis on the bombers' conventional mission, the Air Force initiated efforts to integrate Guard and reserve units into the bomber force. As part of its total force policy, the Air Force assigned B-1B aircraft to the National Guard. Heavy bombers entered the Air Guard's inventory for the first time in 1994 with a total of 14 B-1Bs programmed by the end of fiscal year FY 1997 for two units, the 184th Bomb Wing (BW), Kansas, and the 116th BW, Georgia. The 184th completed its conversion in FY 1996 at McConnell Air Force Base (AFB), Kansas. After a long political struggle that involved resisting the planned conversion from F-15s and an associated move from Dobbins AFB near Atlanta to Robins AFB near Macon, the 116th began its conversion on 1 April 1996. The unit completed that process in December 1998. All the bombers in both units were configured for conventional, not nuclear, missions. Prior to 1994, the B-1B fleet operated out of four bases: Dyess Air Force Base, Texas; Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota; McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas; and Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. In 1994, the Air Force realigned the B-1B fleet by closing the Grand Forks Air Force Base and transferring the aircraft at McConnell Air Force Base to the Air National Guard. With the transfer, the B-1B support structure, including spare parts, was distributed to the two remaining main operating bases. The concentration of aircraft and repair facilities at Dyess and Ellsworth Air Force Bases resulted in improved support capabilities, which improved mission capable [MC] rates.

On 26 March 1996 it was announced that the 77th Bomb Squadron would return to Ellsworth. On 1 April 97, the squadron again activated at Ellsworth as the geographically separated 34th Bomb Squadron completed its transfer to its home at the 366th Wing, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. By June 1998, the 77th had six of its B-1Bs out of the reconstitution reserve. This number ballanced those lost by the 34th BS.

Upgrades     Return to Top

Cockpit Upgrade Program (CUP) - Current B-1 cockpit display units are not capable of supporting graphic intensive software modifications. The CUP installs a robust graphic capability via common display units throughout the front and aft stations. This program increases B-1 survivability by providing critical situational awareness displays, needed for conventional operations, keeping pace with current and future guided munitions integration, enhancing situational awareness, and improving tactical employment. Link-16 – Providing Line-of-Sight (LOS) data for aircraft-to-aircraft, aircraft-to-C2, and aircraft-to-sensor connectivity, Link-16 is a combat force multiplier that provides U.S. and other allied military services with fully interoperable capabilities and greatly enhances tactical Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence mission effectiveness. Link-16 provides increased survivability, develops a real-time picture of the theater battlespace, and enables the aircraft to quickly share information on short notice (target changes). In addition to a localized capability, the B-1’s datalink will include BLOS capability increasing flexibility essential to attacking time-sensitive targets. B-1 Radar Upgrade is a candidate Long Term Upgrade that would improve the current Synthetic Aperture Radar resolution from three meters to one foot or better, allowing the B-1 to more autonomously and precisely Find, Fix, Target, Track, Engage, and Assess enemy targets with guided direct-attack or standoff munitions (JDAM/JSOW). Finally, the upgrade would replace older components that will be difficult to maintain due to obsolescence and vanishing vendors.

Specifications      Return to Top

Primary Function: Long-range, multi-role, heavy bomber
Builder: Rockwell International, North American Aircraft
Operations Air Frame and Integration: Offensive avionics, Boeing Military Airplane; defensive avionics, AIL Division
Power Plant: Four General Electric F-101-GE-102 turbofan engine with afterburner
Thrust: 30,000-plus pounds (13,500-plus kilograms) with afterburner, per engine
Length: 146 feet (44.5 meters)
Wingspan: 137 feet (41.8 meters) extended forward, 79 feet (24.1 meters) swept aft
Height: 34 feet (10.4 meters)
Weight: Empty, approximately 190,000 pounds (86,183 kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 477,000 pounds (214,650 kilograms)
Speed: 900-plus mph (Mach 1.2 at sea level)
Rotate and Takeoff Speeds: 210 Gross - 119 Rotate kts / 134 kts Takeoff
390 Gross - 168 kts Rotate / 183 kts Takeoff
Landing Speeds: 210 Gross - 145 kts
380 Gross - 195 kts
Range: Intercontinental, unrefueled
Ceiling: Over 30,000 feet (9,000 meters)
Crew: Four (aircraft commander, pilot, offensive systems officer and defensive systems officer)
84 Mk 62
84 MK82
30 CBU 87
30 CBU 89
30 CBU 97
12 Mk 65
12 GBU-27
12 AGM-154 JSOW
Date Deployed: June 1985
Unit Cost: $200-plus million per aircraft
Inventory: 100 total production
93 total current inventory

Active force, 51 PMAI (69 actual)
ANG, 18 PMAI (22 actual)
Reserve, 0
AFMC, 2 (Test)


Cmd # Location Unit
ACC 39 Dyess AFB, TX 9th Bomb Wing
ACC 21 Ellsworth AFB, SD 28th Bomb Wing
ACC 9 Mountain Home AFB, ID 366th Air Expeditionary Wing
ANG 10 Robins AFB, GA 116th Bomb Wing
ANG 12 McConnell AFB, KS 184th Bomb Group
AMC 2 Edwards AFB, CA test aircraft
  6 lost to mishaps [as of 18 Feb 98]
  1 eliminated under START II Treaty

Airframe Inventory       Return to Top

# Tail # Name Location Comment
2 83-0065 Star of Abilene Dyess  
3 83-0066 Ole' Puss Dyess  
4 83-0067 Texas Raider Dyess  
5 83-0068 Predator Dyess  
6 83-0069 The Beast Dyess  
7 83-0070 7 Wishes Dyess  
8 83-0071 Spitfire Dyess  
9 84-0049   Edwards  
10 84-0050 Dawg B-One Dyess  
11 84-0051 Boss Hog Dyess  
12 84-0052     Lost 09-25-87 @ La Junta, Colorado
13 84-0053 Lucky 13 Dyess  
14 84-0054 Rage [Tasmanian Terror] Dyess  
15 84-0055 Shockwave [Lethal Weapon] Dyess  
16 84-0056 Sweet Sixteen Dyess  
17 84-0057 Hellion Dyess  
18 84-0058 Eternal Guardian Dyess  
19 85-0059      
20 85-0060   McConnell  
21 85-0061   Ellsworth  
22 85-0062 Uncaged Dyess  
23 85-0063     Lost 11-09-88 @ Dyess AFB, Texas
24 85-0064   McConnell  
25 85-0065      
26 85-0066 On Defense Ellsworth  
27 85-0067      
28 85-0068   Edwards  
29 85-0069   McConnell  
30 85-0070      
31 85-0071      
32 85-0072 Polarized Dyess  
33 85-0073   McConnell  
34 85-0074 Crew Dawg Dyess  
35 85-0075   Ellsworth  
36 85-0076     Lost 11-17-89 @ Ellsworth AFB S.D.
37 85-0077   Ellsworth  
38 85-0078   Ellsworth  
39 85-0079   Ellsworth  
40 85-0080      
41 85-0081      
42 85-0082 Global Power Dyess  
43 85-0083   Ellsworth  
44 85-0084   Ellsworth  
45 85-0085   Ellsworth  
46 85-0086   Ellsworth  
47 85-0087   Ellsworth  
48 85-0088      
49 85-0089      
50 85-0090   Ellsworth  
51 85-0091   Robins  
52 85-0092   Ellsworth  
53 86-0093   Ellsworth  
54 86-0094   Ellsworth  
56 86-0096   Ellsworth  
57 86-0097   Robins  
58 86-0098   Ellsworth  
59 86-0099   Ellsworth  
60 86-0100 Phoenix Dyess  
61 86-0101 Heavy Metal Dyess  
62 86-0102   Ellsworth  
63 86-0103 Reluctant Dragon Dyess  
64 86-0104   Robins  
65 86-0105 Snake Eyes Dyess  
66 86-0106     Lost 12-01-92 @ IR 165, Van Horne TX
67 86-0107      
68 86-0108 Alein With An Attitude Dyess  
69 86-0109 Spectre Dyess  
70 86-0110 Stairway to Heaven Dyess  
71 86-0111   Ellsworth  
72 86-0112 Black Widow Dyess  
73 86-0113   Ellsworth  
74 86-0114   Ellsworth  
75 86-0115      
76 86-0116   Robins  
77 86-0117 Night Stalker Dyess  
78 86-0118   Robins  
79 86-0119 The Punisher Dyess  
80 86-0120 Iron Horse Dyess  
81 86-0121   Robins  
82 86-0122      
83 86-0123 [none]    
84 86-0124   Dyess  
85 86-0125   Robins  
86 86-0126      
87 86-0127      
88 86-0128   Ellsworth  
89 86-0129   Ellsworth  
90 86-0130 Bad Company Dyess  
91 86-0131   Robins  
92 86-0132 Oh, Hard Luck Dyess  
93 86-0133   Ellsworth  
94 86-0134   Robins  
95 86-0135 Deadly Intentions Dyess  
96 86-0136      
97 86-0137 Ace In The Hole Dyess  
98 86-0138   Robins  
99 86-0139   Robins  
100 86-0140 Last Lancer Dyess  

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