Index

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Long March Family and Its History

The development of Long March (LM) launch vehicles began in mid-1960s and a family suitable for various missions has been formed now. The launch vehicles (LV) adopt as much same technologies and stages as possible to raise the reliability. Seven members of Long March Family, developed by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), have been put into the international commercial launch services, i.e. LM-1D, LM-2C, LM-2E, LM-3, LM-3A, LM-3B and LM-3C, see Figure 1-1. The major characteristics of these launch vehicles are listed in Table 1-1.

Table 1-1 Major Characteristics of Long March

 

LM-1D

LM-2C

LM-2E

LM-3

LM-3A

LM-3B

LM-3C

Height (m)

31.3

40.4

49.7

44.6

52.5

54.8

54.8

Lift-off Mass (t)

85.4

213

460

204

241

425.8

345

Lift-off Thrust (kN)

1101

2962

5923

2962

2962

5923

4443

Fairing Diameter (m)

2.05

2.60/

3.35

4.20

2.60/

3.00

3.35

4.00/

4.20

4.00/

4.20

Main Mission

LEO

LEO

LEO/

GTO

GTO

GTO

GTO

GTO

Launch

Capacity (kg)

1000

2800

9500/

3500

1500

2600

5100

3800

Launch Site

TSLC

JSLC/

XSLC/

TSLC

JSLC/

XSLC

XSLC

XSLC

XSLC

XSLC

LM-1 successfully launched the first China-made satellite into low earth orbit (LEO) in April 1970. To meet the launch requirements of small satellite, LM-1 has been evolved into commercially available LM-1D, of which the launch capability is 1000kg for LEO. LM-1D can also perform multiple-launch.

LM-2 is a two-stage launch vehicle, of which the first launch failed in 1974. An upgraded version, designated as LM-2C, successfully launched in November 1975. Furnished with a solid upper stage and dispenser, LM-2C/SD can send two Iridium satellites into LEO (h=630 km) for each launch. The accumulated launch times of LM-2C have reached 20 till December 1998.

LM-2E takes modified LM-2C as the core stage and is strapped with four boosters (F 2.25m´ 15m). LM-2E made a successful maiden flight in July 1990 and seven launches have been conducted till December 1995.

LM-3 is a three-stage launch vehicle, of which the first and second stages are developed based on LM-2C. The third stage uses LH2/LOX as cryogenic propellants and is capable of re-start in the vacuum. LM-3 carried out twelve flights from January 1984 to June 1997.

LM-3A is also a three-stage launch vehicle in heritage of the mature technologies of LM-3. An upgraded third stage is adopted by LM-3A. LM-3A is equipped with the newly developed guidance and control system, which can perform big attitude adjustment to orient the payloads and provide different spin-up operations to the satellites. Till May 1997, LM-3A has flown three times, which are all successful.

LM-3B employs LM-3A as the core stage and is strapped with four boosters identical to those on LM-2E. The first launch failed in February 1996, and other four launches till July 1998 are all successful.

LM-3C employs LM-3A as the core stage and is strapped with two boosters identical to those on LM-2E. The only difference between LM-3C and LM-3B is the number of the boosters.

 

1.2 Launch Sites for Various Missions

There are three commercial launch sites in China, i.e. Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC), Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC). Refer to Figure 1-2 for the locations of the three launch sites.

Figure 1-2 Locations of China's Three Launch Sites

1.2.1 Xichang Satellite Launch Center

Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) is located in Sichuan Province, southwestern China. It is mainly used for GTO missions. There are processing buildings for satellites and launch vehicles and buildings for hazardous operations and storage in the technical center. Two launch complexes are available in the launch center, Launch Complex #1 for LM-3 and LM-2C, and Launch Complex #2 for LM-3A, 3B & 3C as well as LM-2E.

The customers' airplanes carrying the Spacecraft (SC) and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) can enter China from either Beijing or Shanghai with customs exemption according to the approval from Chinese Government. The SC team can connect their journey to XSLC by plane or train at Chengdu after the flights from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou or Hong Kong.

1.2.2 Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) is located in Shanxi province, Northern China. It is mainly used for the launches of LEO satellites by LM-2C.

The customerís airplanes carrying the SC and GSE can clear the Customs in Taiyuan free of check and the SC and equipment are transited to TSLC by train. The SC team can connect their journey to TSLC by train.

1.2.3 Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center

Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) is located in Gansu Province, Northwestern China. This launch site has a history of near thirty years. It is mainly used for the launches of LEO satellites by LM-2C and LM-2E.

The customerís airplanes carrying the SC and GSE can clear the Customs in Beijing or Shanghai free of check. The SC team can connect their flight to Dingxin near JSLC.

1.3 Launch Record of Long March

Table 1-2 Flight Record of Long March till January 26, 2000

NO.

LV

Date

Payload

Mission

Launch Site

Result

1

LM-1 F-01

70.04.24

DFH-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

2

LM-1 F-02

71.03.03

SJ-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

3

LM-2 F-01

74.11.05

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Failure

4

LM-2C F-01

75.11.26

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

5

LM-2C F-02

76.12.07

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

6

LM-2C F-03

78.01.26

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

7

LM-2C F-04

82.09.09

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

8

LM-2C F-05

83.08.19

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

9

LM-3 F-01

84.01.29

DFH-2

GTO

XSLC

Failure

10

LM-3 F-02

84.04.08

DFH-2

GTO

XSLC

Success

11

LM-2C F-06

84.09.12

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

12

LM-2C F-07

85.10.21

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

13

LM-3 F-03

86.02.01

DFH-2A

GTO

XSLC

Success

14

LM-2C F-08

86.10.06

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

15

LM-2C F-09

87.08.05

FHW-1

LEO

JSLC

Success

16

LM-2C F-10

87.09.09

FHE-1A

LEO

JSLC

Success

17

LM-3 F-04

88.03.07

DFH-2A

GTO

XSLC

Success

18

LM-2C F-11

88.08.05

FHW-1A

LEO

JSLC

Success

19

LM-4 F-01

88.09.07

FY-1

SSO

TSLC

Success

20

LM-3 F-05

88.12.22

DFH-2A

GTO

XSLC

Success

21

LM-3 F-06

90.02.04

DFH-2A

GTO

XSLC

Success

22

LM-3 F-07

90.04.07

AsiaSat-1

GTO

XSLC

Success

23

LM-2E F-01

90.07.16

BARD-1/DP1

LEO

XSLC

Success

24

LM-4 F-02

90.09.03

FY-1/A-1, 2.

SSO

TSLC

Success

25

LM-2C F-12

90.10.05

FHW-1A

LEO

JSLC

Success

26

LM-3 F-08

91.12.28

DFH-2A

GTO

XSLC

Failure

27

LM-2D F-01

92.08.09

FHW-1B

LEO

JSLC

Success

28

LM-2E F-02

92.08.14

Aussat-B1

GTO

XSLC

Success

29

LM-2C F-13

92.10.05

Freja/FHW-1A

LEO

JSLC

Success

30

LM-2E F-03

92.12.21

Optus-B2

GTO

XSLC

Failure

31

LM-2C F-14

93.10.08

FHW-1A

LEO

JSLC

Success

32

LM-3A F-01

94.02.08

SJ-4/DP2

GTO

XSLC

Success

33

LM-2D F-02

94.07.03

FHW-1B

LEO

JSLC

Success

34

LM-3 F-09

94.07.21

APSTAR-I

GTO

XSLC

Success

35

LM-2E F-04

94.08.28

Optus-B3

GTO

XSLC

Success

36

LM-3A F-02

94.11.30

DFH-3

GTO

XSLC

Success

37

LM-2E F-05

95.01.26

APSTAR-II

GTO

XSLC

Failure

38

LM-2E F-06

95.11.28

AsiaSat-2

GTO

XSLC

Success

39

LM-2E F-07

95.12.28

EchoStar-1

GTO

XSLC

Success

40

LM-3B F-01

96.02.15

Intelsat-7A

GTO

XSLC

Failure

41

LM-3 F-10

96.07.03

APSTAR-IA

GTO

XSLC

Success

42

LM-3 F-11

96.08.18

ChinaSat-7

GTO

XSLC

Failure

43

LM-2D F03

96.10.20

FHW-1B

LEO

JSLC

Success

44

LM-3A F-03

97.05.12

DFH-3

GTO

XSLC

Success

45

LM-3 F-12

97.06.10

FY-2

GTO

XSLC

Success

46

LM-3B F-02

97.08.20

Mabuhay

GTO

XSLC

Success

47

LM-2C F-15

97.09.01

Iridium-DP

LEO

TSLC

Success

48

LM-3B F-03

97.10.17

APSTAR-IIR

GTO

XSLC

Success

49

LM-2C F-16

97.12.08

Iridium-D1

LEO

TSLC

Success

50

LM-2C F-17

98.03.26

Iridium-D2

LEO

TSLC

Success

51

LM-2C F-18

98.05.02

Iridium-D3

LEO

TSLC

Success

52

LM-3B F-04

98.05.30

ChinaStar-1

GTO

XSLC

Success

53

LM-3B F-05

98.07.18

SinoSat-1

GTO

XSLC

Success

54

LM-2C F-19

98.08.20

Iridium-R1

LEO

TSLC

Success

55

LM-2C F-20

98.12.19

Iridium-R2

LEO

TSLC

Success

56

LM-4 F-03

99.05.10

FY-1

SSO

TSLC

Success

57

LM-2C F-21

99.06.12

Iridium-R3

LEO

TSLC

Success

58

LM-4 F-04

99.10.14

ZY-1

SSO

TSLC

Success

59

LM-2F F-01

99.11.20

Manned Capsule

LEO

JSLC

Success

60

LM-3A F-04

2000.01.26

ChinaSat-22

GTO

XSLC

Success