Chapter 4 ARMY CONCEPT FOR SPACE
4-1 Overview
Purpose a. The Army Concept for Space provides a benchmark for the Army's disciplined evolution to the future, using the Army's principle doctrinal publication, FM 100­5, Operations, and emerging concepts as the foundation for articulating required space capabilities. This concept focuses on the employment of space system capabilities that will support the Army's strategic, operational and tactical missions across the operational continuum in the near, mid­, and far­term.
General b. Space capabilities are essential to promote national security and to deter aggression. The world geopolitical environment requires the Army to be capable of executing multiple missions, across the operational continuum, in support of the national military strategy. To accomplish these missions, the Army must project its power and influence from the Continental U.S. (CONUS), or other staging areas, to support operations anywhere in the world. This requires the capability to conduct timely worldwide reconnaissance and surveillance, to effectively communicate and disseminate information among forces, to know the precise location of friendly and enemy force elements, and to deny the enemy knowledge of friendly operations, capabilities or intentions. Integrating space capabilities into Army operations offers a substantial increase in the Army's ability to satisfy requirements at the strategic, operational and tactical levels of warfare or operations other than war.
Future Army Missions c. The U.S. will face a broad spectrum of conflicts ranging from peacetime competition to global war. The diversity of missions and the lethality of future battlefields requires the integration of capabilities that will increase readiness, combat power and force survivability. The Army must be capable of adapting to the demands of the situation. Employment of space systems will enhance the Army's overall capabilities, lighten the force and improve the "tooth­to­tail" ratio. The ability to see and communicate, regardless of distance or theater maturity, enables Army forces to react faster than the enemy and to execute their missions more effectively and efficiently. Assured access to space systems is essential to Army operations. Satellites provide the means for enhancing command and control, facilitating the maneuver of forces, reducing the commander's uncertainty, and improving fire support, air defense, intelligence collection, and combat service support operations. The success of future Army missions will be enhanced by further development and optimum integration of space operations into land operations.
Threat d. Realignment of international relationships and alliances, coupled with social, economic and political changes will continue to create a period of uncertainty for the Army. The proliferation of weapons and technology, to include missiles and access to satellite systems and their capabilities and products, is increasing. International willingness to share or sell these capabilities and products is also increasing. These trends will continue. In this environment, it will be common for Army forces to be confronted by adversaries with high technology systems. The increased capabilities of regional powers and the instability found in many nations will pose the most probable threats to U.S. security and national interests.
Collapse of Soviet Union e. While the Soviet Union has collapsed, its space capabilities remain viable and are potentially the greatest threat to U.S. interests in space. It is probable that former Soviet states will market "dual­use" space systems, i.e., systems that have military significance and also have commercial/civil uses, to obtain foreign currency and improve their economic position. Increasing numbers of nations will exploit the use of space systems and related technologies to enhance their national interests. They will develop, acquire or gain access to more sophisticated space systems and equipment, resulting in an increase in national warfighting capabilities, including the expansion of anti­satellite (ASAT) capabilities. This could result in strategic or regional imbalance and instability, increasing the threats to U.S. national interests. Operationally, this would lessen the advantage that deployed U.S. forces have had with their access to space systems and space­based products.
4-1 Overview cont'd
Future Technologies Use f. As space systems become more important to the success of military operations, they will become high­value targets and subject to both direct and indirect, e.g., intentional jamming of communications satellites, attack. In the near­term, attack of selected space systems or capabilities is extremely difficult to accomplish. Future technologies may permit the attack of selected satellites in the mid­ and far­term. This will require development of greater protection and survivability techniques for U.S. satellites. Vulnerability may be eliminated or reduced by "hardening" individual satellites or through redundancy, i.e., increased number of smaller satellites.
Joint, Combined, Coalition, Interagency Environment g. The Army routinely operates with other military services, national agencies or other nations to protect U.S. national interests. Space systems enhance interoperability and facilitate coordination during joint and combined operations, especially in immature theaters of operation. These theaters may have little or no supporting civilian or military infrastructure. Space­based systems provide the capability required to operate in such an austere environment without the need to deploy and install networks of ground terminals and relays. Satellites can provide worldwide responsiveness and interoperability needed for communications and information exchange. Access to these assets by joint, combined and interagency organizations facilitates coordination, standardization and understanding of intent across the operational continuum.
4-2 Space Concept
Overview a. Army doctrine, proposed revisions to doctrine, and emerging operational concepts emphasize the requirement to seize the initiative when executing missions across the operational continuum. This necessitates the rapid projection of influence to support operations short of war and the projection of combat power in times of crisis. The major focus of Army space operations is to provide assured global access to satellites. Globally responsive command and control and information distribution systems are essential to the readiness, deployability, effectiveness and survivability of Army forces.
Advantages through Space b. Space is an operational domain that the Army must exploit. Space capabilities are imperative for the successful execution of the Army's strategic, operational and tactical missions. Space capabilities significantly alter and enhance the nature of Army operations. Experience has demonstrated the operational and tactical advantages of space systems. Responsive, large area coverage and direct access to widely separated locations are vital to the planning and execution of Army operations. The success of future operations and retention of a decisive advantage over potential adversaries will depend on further research, development, integration and application of space capabilities.
Army Strategic Roles c. The U.S. military strategy has changed as a result of fundamental changes in the political environment, both abroad and at home. While the future Army continues to be a strategic force, the Army has become smaller in size, with fewer forces based overseas. Subsequently, the Army must be more versatile, providing an increased number of strategic options for the National Command Authority, to include the protection of the U.S., its allies and deployed U.S. forces. The Army's roles in support of commanders­in­chief (CINC) implementation of the national military strategy include:
  • Providing forces for forward presence.
  • Maintaining combat­ready forces for power projection.
  • Maintaining forces for reinforcement.
  • Participating in interagency operations and providing support to civil authority.
  • Contributing to regional stability through support to allies.
Force Multipliers d. Space systems are vital for Army operations. Space capabilities are integral to the Army's strategic roles and are important "force multipliers" for operational and tactical missions. Satellites in orbit are forward deployed, mission ready and responsive to user requirements around the world. Space assets can be used to acquire and distribute timely information that reduces the level of uncertainty about a given situation or condition without revealing interest or intent. The worldwide presence of space systems enhances stability by permitting the U.S. and its allies to see the area of operations and provides early warning of activities adverse to U.S. interests. During combat, this would include information about an adversary's readiness, force location and posture, direction of movement, and terrain/battlefield visualization, thereby facilitating power projection and knowledgeable entry into a theater. These same space systems provide information essential to security assistance, nation building, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance operations. Satellites provide the means for assessing disasters, predicting crop growth, and analyzing the development of a nation's infrastructure in support of non-combat operations.
4-3 Army Force Characteristics
Versatile a. The Army will become more involved with other services, national agencies and nations to protect U.S. national interests. The ability of the Army to conduct a wide variety of operations under various command and control relationships will be essential in future operations. The Army must be capable of supporting non-combat operations as well as warfighting. The diversity of missions, coupled with anticipated budget restrictions mandates the Army do more with less, i.e., use all available capabilities to increase the operational effectiveness of the force without increasing the force structure. In response to the commander's needs, space systems can provide near real­time information and data dissemination. In the future, space systems will be able to fuse data and generate tactical decision aids based on the mission, enemy situation, troops available, terrain and time (METT­T).
Deployable b. Power projection is the cornerstone of the successful implementation of the national military strategy. Space systems currently in orbit are highly reliable and can support the Army prior to and during deployment. Satellites provide the initial communication, surveillance and weather system infrastructures to support deployability. Satellites gather information and provide a means for rapid dissemination of data to appropriate echelons of command. Space assets facilitate mission planning, enhance deployability by reducing the amount and size of ground­based equipment that must be transported and ensure knowledgeable entry into and exit from the area of operations.
Lethal c. Lethality is essential for the rapid defeat of an adversary. The ability of the commander to effectively command and control forces, and to see the battlefield, regardless of size or maturity, permits Army forces to react faster than the enemy. This quick reaction can be obtained by the application of space­related capabilities. Near­real­time communications and intelligence, precise positioning and location information and environmental monitoring translate directly into increased weapon system performance and lethality for Army forces.
Expansible d. The Army must be able to meet several threats to U.S. national interests simultaneously. This may require expanding the size of the active Army by activating reserve components, creating new units and mobilizing the industrial base. Accordingly, to support an expanding Army, space assets can be reallocated, moved, leased or purchased, improving the operational effectiveness of the expanding force. The use of civil and commercial systems, on­orbit spares and a robust launch capability will increase the number of space assets available to support Army users.
4-5 Army Space Operations Concept
Introduction a. The Army Space Operations Concept describes the space capabilities the Army requires to support its missions across the operational continuum in the near­, mid­ and far­term. These capabilities will evolve from the use of ground receivers in the near­term, to direct, satellite to user, linkage in the far­term. This evolution will permit tailoring of space capabilities, consistent with METT­T, in support of all tactical echelons. Tailoring includes reallocating or augmenting existing resources, e.g., configuring ground or space­based assets, or launching mission specific satellites to support Army requirements within the theater of operation. The Army Space Operations Concept acknowledges that many of the unique capabilities provided by space systems cannot be effectively provided to the Army by ground­based or airborne systems, during either peacetime or wartime operations, and that actions are required now to ensure attainment of the near­, mid­, and far­term capabilities addressed in this document. The figure below depicts the concept for the Army's evolution of the use of space systems.
Strategy to Integrate b. The strategy to integrate space into the Army may be summarized as follows:
  • In the near­term, acquire receivers to take advantage, i.e., "leverage," currently deployed space system capabilities.
  • In the mid­term, acquire or develop processors for more direct interface with space systems.
  • In the far­term, interface with space systems that have been totally, or in part, designed to meet specifically stated Army requirements.
These three phases occur concurrently, not sequentially. To gain the advantages in the mid­ and far­terms, appropriate actions must be initiated in the near­term that will result in the desired outcome. Most U.S. space systems were designed and justified to support strategic versus tactical requirements. These systems, however, make valuable contributions to Army operations and, in times of crisis, have been tailored to satisfy Army requirements and optimize force capabilities. The Army will continue to take full advantage of space systems that will contribute to requirements solutions, regardless of the intent for which the system may have been originally designed. This may continue to take the form of acquiring off­the shelf receivers and processors.
4-5 Army Space Operations Concept, cont'd
Near Term c. In the near­term, the Army:
  • Uses existing space systems capabilities.
  • Exploits new applications of existing capabilities.
  • Plans for the use of programmed systems and capabilities.
  • Participates with other services or agencies in the development and operation of space systems.
Much of the Army's space support will be indirect. Existing systems link the space segment to a ground segment that has specific capabilities and protocols, i.e., that require data to be received and processed prior to further dissemination.

Near Term Capabilities d. Satellites augment terrestrial systems by providing the range extension necessary to support dispersed operations and a means for tactical users to access the databases required to facilitate effective decision­making. The information generated from available satellite systems provides Army commanders a view of the area of operation. This view facilitates tailoring of forces and allocation of resources to accomplish assigned objectives. Positioning and navigation data, some weather information, and communications capability will be provided directly to selected users by space systems. Both combat and non-combat operations are facilitated by space systems that provide communications, reconnaissance and surveillance, positioning and navigation data, mapping, weather information, and target identification and acquisition. Some of the products generated as a result of space capabilities may have application to a variety of areas not yet documented. The Army will continue to acquire ground­based terminals to interface with space systems and their associated processors to complement terrestrial systems in satisfying its requirements.
Mid Term e. In the mid­term, space applications will spread to new functional areas and Army operations will increasingly depend on space capabilities. The Army will develop, deploy and operate small, lightweight, mobile ground­based processors necessary to exploit the opportunities afforded by advancing space technology and systems. The application of new space capabilities derived from systematic research offers greater force enhancement and increases the ability to support Army forces conducting combat or non-combat operations. In the mid­term, mobile, ground­based processing terminals will be able to integrate, process and display space derived weather, terrain, imagery and intelligence data with ground and airborne collection systems to fuse data and generate products tailored to support the specific requirements of an Army force. This capability will reduce analysis and processing time and improve decision­making and C2 throughout the Army.

4-5 Army Space Operations Concept, cont'd
Mid Term Capabilities f. These ground­processing terminals enhance the deployment of forces and improve the Army's ability to:
  • Project power globally while "lightening the force."
  • Integrate space capabilities into ground operations.
  • Expand opportunities to exploit other space capabilities.
Far Term g. In the far­term, integrated space platforms provide the Army a direct link that enables users to interact effectively with supporting space systems. The Army will require space systems that are mission configurable, tailored as part of the total force package to directly support specific needs. Global, space­based command, control and communications (C3) and integrated surveillance/weapon systems will be tailored to mission requirements. Advancing technologies, to include exploitation of on­board processing and product generation, will provide systems capable of satisfying requirements to the lowest tactical levels and enhancing the Army's overall operational effectiveness. Space platforms will link finished products to the ground force to provide optimum responsiveness and effectiveness. Fully integrated with other space and terrestrial­based systems, the use of space capabilities is transparent to the user. (Figure 4­4, Far­term Space Support).

4-6 Space Support to Army Operations
Introduction a. During normal peacetime operations the Army must monitor world situations and prepare its units for missions across the operational continuum. Space assets can cross international boundaries unobstructed and perform two primary functions ­ information gathering and information dissemination. The information gained by the use of satellites may allow the U.S. to reach a political settlement in case of a crisis or conflict without deploying Army forces. However, the information obtained by satellites facilitates the development of predictive models, situation displays and simulations useful for planning and training for any mission. Specifically, the Army employs space systems to detect the problem, provide early warning, reduce the vulnerability of its forces and facilitate a knowledgeable entry into the theater of operation. Predicated on the factors of METT­T, Army forces are tailored, trained and equipped to meet specific operational requirements.
Army Commanders Use b. Prior to deployment, satellite systems provide Army commanders with:
  • Communications to support responsive command and control.
  • Intelligence and data to support infrastructure analysis, mission planning, training and rehearsals.
  • Mapping and imagery to support deployment and mission planning, terrain analysis and training.
  • Meteorology to support trafficability analyses and route selection.
Information from Space Systems c. Continued enhancement of near­term capabilities offers increasingly accessible and responsive capabilities that increase the protection for the force. In the far­term, tailored space support speeds the planning process at all echelons of command. Data from supporting systems will be processed, collated and disseminated simultaneously, from space, to multiple users, thereby reducing the proliferation, size and vulnerability of ground­based facilities. Many of the decisions concerning what units will be deployed and when, will be based on information gathered and disseminated by space systems. Based on this information, deploying units will be tailored for combat or non-combat missions and sequenced into the area of operations. Space systems and capabilities enhance deployability by facilitating a knowledgeable entry into the area of operations, tracking movements and reducing the amount and size of equipment deployed. Satellites provide communication connectivity, prior to deployment and enroute from the Continental U.S. (CONUS) or forward staging areas to the destination, enhancing command and control. This connectivity and the near­real­time data provided by space­based observation and environmental monitoring systems enhance the flexibility and agility of Army forces. Once in theater, communications can be established rapidly because the space infrastructure is already in place. Space­based positioning and navigation systems enhance command and control by enabling commanders to know the location of their forces. Using data from the satellites, there are systems which can track critical assets throughout deployment by air or sea.
Enhanced Command and Control d. In the mid­ to far­term, command and control is further enhanced by:
  • Increased use of communications, observation and imaging satellites compatible with other service and allied systems.
  • Smaller, transportable ground­based terminals.
  • Integration of space capabilities with terrestrial systems to support deployment and battlefield mobility.
Effective Operations e. Whether in combat or non-combat operations, the force commander must establish conditions conducive to effective operations. This is accomplished by isolating the enemy force or impediments to stability, e.g., nontraditional threats, and seizing and maintaining the initiative. Helping develop economic infrastructures, training and equipping indigenous security forces are representative of non-combat operations that help create conditions to support decisive economic, political and informational programs. In combat situations, friendly forces are positioned to facilitate decisive operations, shape the battlefield and avoid enemy strengths. The timeliness of actions is critical to establish conditions for decisive operations and to protect the force. This requires a current and accurate assessment of the situation in order to support the allocation of resources.
4-6 Space Support to Army Operations
Satellite Enhancements f. Satellites provide sensor data or communications links to ground stations to enhance timely dissemination of information to enable Army forces to detect and monitor critical events as they occur, influence the decision­making process, enhance Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) and support total force positioning. In the near­term, observation, terrain sensing, weather, communication and positioning and navigation satellites systems provide information that enhances the ability to position and track friendly forces and resources, identify, detect and locate enemy forces and accurately display their disposition throughout the depth of the theater. Multispectral imagery (MSI) from space has proven invaluable for mapping, geology, agriculture, earth resources, oceanography and environmental monitoring. This data provides timely and unique information to terrain analysts that can be integrated with other intelligence to support IPB for a more complete picture of the battlefield. In the mid­term, an increased number of mobile/transportable ground processors provide a link from the space segment to Army tactical forces in the area of operation and manipulate data to support specific informational requirements. In the far­term, satellites will provide on­board data processing and disseminate information necessary for the operation of reconnaissance­strike systems.
Timeliness of information g. Timeliness of information is essential to support the operational tempo required to shape the battlefield and attain positional advantage. Near real­time information available from space systems permits Army forces to observe enemy activities, facilitating rapid decision­making, coordination of fires, and maneuver. It enables the force to avoid enemy strengths and exploit enemy weaknesses. Access to data from space­based observation platforms also limits the ability of the enemy to strike unexpectedly. In the near­ to mid­term, space­based sensors provide early warning data that can be integrated directly with Army terrestrial weapon systems and capabilities of other services to attack, separate, isolate and attrit enemy forces, making it difficult for hostile forces to mass and making them vulnerable to decisive maneuver. The capability to detect movement, i.e., aircraft and missile launch, and warn designated ground systems is essential for effective strategic and tactical air and missile defense. Space­based sensors provide information essential to the battle damage assessment (BDA) process. In the far­term, force application using the extended range possible with space systems, enables friendly forces to degrade, nullify or destroy enemy high­value targets throughout the area of operation.
Communication Systems h. Space­based communication systems provide the global connectivity necessary to support the command and control functions of planning, coordinating, directing and controlling. This capability is essential for the real­time direction of operations at each echelon of command. These systems provide responsive, beyond the line of sight (BLOS) communications throughout the battlefield and permit users to access large databases necessary to support strategic, operational and tactical missions. Coupled with space­based intelligence support, tactical forces are afforded improved capabilities to coordinate fires, conduct operational maneuver on both linear and more open, less structured battlefields, assess the effects of previous operations and anticipate enemy actions. Mid­ to far­term capabilities, such as video conferences and graphics containing integrated terrain and weather information, when transmitted with orders, will provide subordinate forces with a clearer understanding of the commander's intent.
4-6 Space Support to Army Operations, cont'd
Synchronize Application of Resources i. Successful operations require a proactive focus to anticipate situations, respond with greater ability and to support an increased operational tempo. Timely and accurate information is necessary to plan and execute operations to promote stability, deter conflict and defeat the warfighting capabilities of potential adversaries. This will require reliable communications for real­time information that will ensure responsive command and control, to protect the force, and to retain the positional or situational advantage attained by shaping the area of operation. These capabilities are required to synchronize the application of resources at the critical places and times, whether operating on a widely dispersed battlefield or in support of a nation assistance mission. In the near­term, satellites provide responsive communication nodes to support long distance, beyond line­of­sight strategic, operational and tactical command and control and for the transmittal of data for further processing and dissemination to Army units. These satellites reduce not only the traditional problems of communications, but also the size of the C3I support structure the commander must move. Technologies emerging in the mid­term will enable the design of mobile and transportable processing terminals that are capable of integrating and fusing data from multiple sources. The result is decreased ground support required to access space capabilities. In the far­term, advances in technology, the integration of space capabilities and space­based processing will remove critical C3 nodes and the amount of ground­based equipment from the battlefield, increasing the flexibility and agility of the force.
Position and Navigation j. Positioning and navigation satellites currently support fast­paced, efficient maneuver and the reduction of fratricide by providing extremely accurate, three dimensional location data for continuous day and night operations. Passive receivers convert signals from the satellites into timing, position and navigation data to support Army forces worldwide. This capability enhances joint and combined operations by providing a universal grid upon which all operations can be based. Positioning and navigation satellites facilitate the rapid and accurate survey necessary for positioning and improving the performance of weapon systems, without the use of traditional survey teams. In the mid­term, space­based positioning and navigation capabilities are integrated with terrestrial systems to provide real­time information on the location of friendly and enemy units, enhancing C2 and facilitating combat operations. Additionally, the integration of these capabilities with weapon systems will facilitate the development of a true roving gun capability. In the far­term, space­based positioning and navigation capabilities, coupled with advanced technologies, can be integrated with terrestrial weapon systems to improve performance and increase the autonomy of the host system.
Capabilities from Space Platforms k. Space­based observation platforms provide information that updates conditions and situations and enable the commander to sense change and influence future actions and activities. The exploitation of national and other space­based capabilities, in the near­term, enables the force to see the battlefield, locate, track, identify and target the enemy. A variety of space platforms link data to ground stations for processing and timely information dissemination to Army forces. Mid­term space observation systems are linked to mobile and transportable terminals capable of fusing data from multiple sources. This capability enhances the Army's ability to:
  • Accurately assess the current situation.
  • Adapt to the demands of the situation, i.e., modify plans.
  • Anticipate enemy actions.
  • Act faster than the enemy.
  • Exploit opportunities and vulnerabilities.
  • Identify targets for fire support systems.
4-6 Space Support to Army Operations, cont'd
Protect the Force l. The use of "tailorable" sensors and space­based processing, that fuses data from multiple sensors, provides information tailored to specific needs and significantly reduces the need for deploying ground­based processors in the far­term. Space capabilities protect the force and facilitate freedom of movement and retention of the initiative. In the near­term, space­based communication systems pass warning and other information to Army forces throughout the depth of the battlefield. This information can be integrated directly with Army terrestrial weapon systems and capabilities of other services to attack the enemy and to support tactical missile defense, thus protecting the force. In the mid­term, space control operations facilitate freedom of action in the area of operations as well as in space. These operations include surveillance of space activities and systems and anti­satellite operations designed to ensure space support to Army forces. In the far­term, space control operations, when directed, suppress and negate enemy space capabilities, permitting land forces tactical, operational and strategic flexibility and preventing an adversary's satellites from monitoring ground operations. The development of a force application capability from space will extend the power projection capability of the force against surface targets. This capability will support deterrence and will permit the attack of high­value targets throughout the area of operations. Additionally, it will assist in protecting land forces from attack by strategic and tactical aircraft and missiles and facilitate maneuver.
Reconstitution m. Reconstitution of the force is reliant on communication and the transfer of information. Responsive and efficient actions to anticipate and respond to such requirements are facilitated by the range and data capability of space­based systems and their ability to collect information on all forces and the environment. Asset visibility and movement tracking is essential for effective reconstitution operations. It enables combat service support (CSS) units to tailor and adjust assets in response to the needs of the force. Using the versatility of modern computers, communication satellites can be linked with space­based position location and navigation systems to provide the requisite asset visibility, decrease the length and size of the logistical pipeline, and ensure real­time C2 of all CSS assets within the area of operation. Space capabilities also support real­time battlefield damage assessment, casualty reporting, asset location, routing and tracking. These capabilities facilitate unity of effort and economy of force.
4-7 Space Across the DTLOMS
Optimum Use of Space n. The Army's space concept is to optimize the use of space capabilities to enhance operations. This concept dictates that the unique advantages offered by space be integrated (i.e., "normalized") into Army operations. This requires the institutionalization of space throughout the Army; incorporation into all actions, activities, and units, and consideration of space support for any operation or exercise. Most of the value added from space systems and capabilities should be transparent to the user and should support the increased accuracy and lethality of future weapon systems and the increased mobility of future forces, regardless of the nature of the battlefield. In times of peace, the same space system capabilities should enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of Army forces training and conducting non-combat operations, supporting stability and deterrence.
Doctrine o. The ideas contained in the Army Space Concept must be integrated into existing and emerging Army doctrine. Space technologies and their doctrinal applications must be reflected in new tactics, techniques and procedures (TT&P) generated in response to Army requirements. The increasing use of space assets is a primary consideration in the Army's ability to support the national security strategy and the precepts of the proposed revisions to existing doctrine. These precepts require the Army to focus operations across the operational continuum and to project its force in support of national interests. The unique capabilities of space systems support current doctrinal implications and will have a significant impact on the execution of future doctrine. The Army's increasing utilization of space systems capabilities and generated products will impact directly on Army mission execution. This use and reliance on space systems to enhance ground force capabilities will increase as the Army evolves to the future. The Army's operational doctrine must reflect this evolution.
Training p. Experience has shown that the Army must train as it will fight in order to gain success on the battlefield. The ideas contained in the Army Space Operations Concept and emerging doctrinal applications of space capabilities must be integrated into all aspects of the Army enlisted, officer and civilian institutional and unit training programs, to include battle simulations. General space awareness training and education must be developed for individuals and units, with system specific training where required. Individual soldiers and units must be trained and intimately familiar with the weapons and other equipment with which they will execute their missions. All segments of a space system must be available and accessible in order to provide a realistic and dynamic training environment. The Army training programs must be reviewed and revised to integrate a level of space training commensurate with mission expectations across the operational continuum. Resources must be allocated to ensure space training is developed and integrated into existing training programs. This includes training in system(s) employment to support joint and combined interoperability.
Leader Development q. Future leaders must be able to integrate the capabilities of four operational domains ­­ land, air, sea and space ­­ into operational plans as well as understand the threats from enemy space systems. Formal leader development programs for space must be developed or expanded within the various training and education programs throughout the Army. Army leaders, at all echelons, must understand the utility of space capabilities in supporting Army missions. An effective space program requires leaders and soldiers who can assess space­related technology, evaluate Army requirements, match space capabilities to Army deficiencies, and effectively influence the design and development of space systems to satisfy validated Army requirements. Leadership development programs must include a pertinent, meaningful, infusion of space capability awareness. In this way leaders of today and tomorrow will develop an understanding and appreciation for many benefits which accrue from existing and emerging space systems, and how the capabilities will support warfighting missions.
Organization r. The Army must establish an organizational structure for the effective and efficient development and use of space capabilities within the Army. An organizational hierarchy, similar to any Army service branch, is needed to delineate responsibilities for proponency, operations, materiel developments, funding and prioritization. This includes establishing an organization structure for space development, and identifying space positions within Tables of Organization and Equipment (TOE) to support Army requirements. The Army must focus on achieving an organization for space best suited to increasing its role in acquisitions and fully exploiting the potential application of space system capabilities into its operations. This structure must have the flexibility and agility to support multiple Army missions and be compatible/interoperable with other service and allied space organizations.
4-7 Space Across the DTLOMS, cont'd
Materiel s. Materiel developments must focus on deployability and versatility to meet the challenges of an uncertain future. The Army must develop and employ space systems that support and enhance terrestrial capabilities. To meet future needs, the Army must actively participate with other services and national agencies in planning, programming developing, operating, and managing space activities. Army requirements not met by national programs and programs assigned to other services or agencies must be satisfied by capabilities developed and fielded by the Army. The Army has operational deficiencies that can be solved, in whole or in part, through the application of space­related capabilities. In many cases, the life cycle costs of space­related solutions can be lower than alternative, ground­based solutions. Advancements in technology will permit economy of scale and order of magnitude increases in flexibility for ground support equipment. An example of this is embedding space technologies into new generations of Army equipment. Integration of a GPS receiver and a tactical radio, so that each time the radio is used it transmits its current location (encrypted for security) in the message, is an example of embedding technology. The building of both ground and space­based components capable of being custom configured, integrated, or interchanged with other systems or to meet specific mission requirements will increase force flexibility by reducing the number of different systems that must accompany a deployment.
Soldiers t. To prepare for it's expanding role in the space arena, the Army requires high quality, dedicated and innovative personnel with wide­ranging levels of space expertise. A combat arms soldier must know how to use the space systems available. A communications specialist requires detailed knowledge of how to use space­based communications systems. Soldiers assigned to operating and controlling satellites require the greatest level of knowledge of space and space systems. A thorough knowledge of space capabilities and operations, and the ability to determine how, when and where these capabilities can be applied in support of Army requirements will be necessary. Specific career development and progression programs must be developed and implemented for officer, enlisted and civilian personnel. These programs will assure attraction and retention of high quality personnel with the requisite level of expertise for command, staff and operational billets that support the Army's effective exploitation of space. Educational opportunities must be pursued to develop the requisite core of Army space expertise. The capabilities of space systems will impact directly on the soldier's' ability to accomplish his mission. Awareness of capabilities and contributions is critical to development of the "complete" soldier, and becomes more important as the Army evolves to its future structure.
Conclusion u. Space capabilities are imperative to the successful execution of future missions. Space is an operational domain that future Army forces will exploit. As the Army moves from the near­ to far­term it will inevitably become more involved in space operations. Space capabilities will significantly alter and enhance the nature of Army operations. The use of space­based systems will provide better warning, command and control, and synchronization of ground force operations. Doctrine, training, organization design, leader development and materiel must address the changes that result from the application of space systems, capabilities and technologies.

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