Defense Department Space Policy



SORT: 5100.01 DOCI: DODD 5100.1 DATE: 19870925 TITL: DODD 5100.1 Functions of the Department of Defense and its Major Components, September 25, 1987, ASD(C) Ref: (a) DoD Directive 5100.1, subject as above, April 3, 1987 (hereby canceled) (b) DoD Directive 5158.1, "Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Relationships with the Office of the Secretary of Defense," May 1, 1985 (c) Public Law 95-452, "Inspector General Act of 1978," as amended (d) DoD Directive 5106.1, "Inspector General of the Department of Defense," March 14, 1983 (e) Title 14, United States Code (f) Title 10, United States Code A. REISSUANCE AND PURPOSE This Directive: 1. Cancels reference (a). 2. Promulgates the following statement of the functions of the Department of Defense and its major components. B. ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 1. All functions in the Department of Defense and its component agencies are performed under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense. 2. The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments and the Military Services within those Departments, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff, the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, and such other offices, agencies, activities and commands as may be established or designated by law, or by the President or the Secretary of Defense. The functions of the heads of these offices shall be as assigned by the Secretary of Defense in accordance with existing law. a. In providing immediate staff assistance and advice to the Secretary of Defense, the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, though separately identified and organized, function in full coordination and cooperation in accordance with reference (b). (1) The Office of the Secretary of Defense includes the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Under Secretaries of Defense, Comptroller of the Department of Defense, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Assistant Secretaries of Defense, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, General Counsel of the Department of Defense, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, and such other offices and officials as may be established by law or by the Secretary of Defense. (2) The Chairman and the Joint Chiefs of Staff are directly responsible to the Secretary of Defense for the functions assigned to them. To the extent it does not impair his independence in the performance of his duties as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, each member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, except the Chairman, shall inform the Secretary of his Military Department regarding military advice rendered by members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters affecting his Military Department. (3) The Inspector General, Department of Defense, provides staff assistance and advice to the Secretary of Defense in accordance with the responsibilities specified in Public Law 95-452 (reference (c)) and DoD Directive 5106.1 (reference (d)). b. Each Military Department (the Department of the Navy to include the United States Marine Corps, and the United States Coast Guard when transferred in accordance with sections 2, 3, and 145 of 14 U.S.C. (reference (e))) shall be separately organized under its own Secretary and shall function under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense. Orders to the Military Departments shall be issued through the Secretaries of these Departments, or their designees, by the Secretary of Defense or under authority specifically delegated in writing by the Secretary of Defense or as provided by law. (1) The Secretary of each Military Department, and the civilian employees and members of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Military Department Secretary, shall cooperate fully with the Office of the Secretary of Defense to achieve efficient administration of the Department of Defense and to carry out effectively the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense. (2) The Secretary of Defense shall keep the Secretaries of the Military Departments informed with respect to military operations and activities of the Department of Defense that directly affect their respective responsibilities. c. The Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands are responsible to the President and the Secretary of Defense for accomplishing the military missions assigned to them and shall exercise command authority over forces assigned to them as directed by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 10 U.S.C. 164 reference (f)). The operational chain of command runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense to the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. The Chairman, JCS, functions within the chain of command by transmitting to the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands the orders of the President or the Secretary of Defense. (1) Orders to such commanders shall be issued by the President or the Secretary of Defense or by the Chairman, JCS, with the authority and direction of the President or the Secretary of Defense. (2) Communications from the President or the Secretary of Defense to the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands shall be transmitted through the Chairman, JCS. Communications from the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands to the President and/or the Secretary of Defense shall be transmitted through the Chairman, JCS. (3) Communications in matters of joint interest, addressed to the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands by other authority, shall, unless urgent circumstances do not permit, be coordinated with the Chairman, JCS. Information copies of all communications in matters of joint interest between Washington-level offices, agencies, activities and commands and the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands shall be provided to the Chairman, JCS. (4) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman acts as the spokesman for Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, especially on the operational requirements of their commands and shall be responsible for overseeing the activities of the combatant commands. The President and the Secretary of Defense may assign other duties to the Chairman to assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in performing their command functions. C. FUNCTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE As prescribed by higher authority, the Department of Defense shall maintain and employ Armed Forces to: 1. Support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic. 2. Ensure, by timely and effective military action, the security of the United States, its possessions, and areas vital to its interest. 3. Uphold and advance the national policies and interests of the United States. D. FUNCTIONS OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF The Joint Chiefs of Staff, consisting of the Chairman; the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army; the Chief of Naval Operations; the Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force; and the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and supported by the Joint Staff, constitute the immediate military staff of the Secretary of Defense. 1. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense. Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President and the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman shall be responsible for the following principal functions: a. Advise and assist the Secretary of Defense on the preparation of annual policy guidance for the heads of Department of Defense components for the preparation and review of program recommendations and budget proposals. b. Advise the Secretary of Defense on the preparation of policy guidance for the preparation and review of contingency plans. c. Assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in providing for the strategic direction of the Armed Forces, including the direction of operations conducted by the Commanders of Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. d. Prepare strategic plans, including plans which conform with resource levels projected by the Secretary of Defense to be available for the period of time for which the plans are to be effective. e. Prepare joint logistic and mobility plans to support those strategic plans and recommend the assignment of logistics and mobility responsibilities to the Armed Forces in accordance with those logistic and mobility plans. f. Prepare military strategy and assessments of the associated risks. These will include the following: (1) A military strategy to support national objectives within policy and resource-level guidance provided by the Secretary of Defense. Such strategy shall include broad military options prepared by the Chairman with the advice of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. (2) Net assessments to determine the capabilities of the Armed Forces of the United States and its allies as compared to those of possible adversaries. g. Provide for the preparation and review of contingency plans that conform to policy guidance from the President and the Secretary of Defense. h. Prepare joint logistics and mobility plans to support those contingency plans and recommend the assignment of logistic and mobility responsibilities to the Armed Forces in accordance with those logistic and mobility plans. i. Advise the Secretary of Defense on critical deficiencies and strengths in force capabilities (including manpower, logistic, and mobility support) identified during the preparation and review of contingency plans, and assess the effect of such deficiencies and strengths on meeting national security objectives and policy and on strategic plans. j. After consultation with the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, establish and maintain a uniform system for evaluating the preparedness of each Unified and Specified Combatant Command to carry out missions assigned to the command. k. Advise the Secretary of Defense on the priorities of the requirements, especially operational requirements, identified by the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. l. Advise the Secretary of Defense on the extent to which the program recommendations and budget proposals of the Military Departments and other components of the Department of Defense conform with the priorities established in strategic plans and with the priorities established for requirements of the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. m. If deemed necessary, submit to the Secretary of Defense alternative program recommendations and budget proposals within projected resource levels and guidance provided by the Secretary of Defense, to achieve greater conformance with the priorities established in strategic plans and with the priorities for the requirements of the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. n. In accordance with guidance of the Secretary of Defense, recommend budget proposals for activities of each Unified and Specified Combatant Command, as appropriate. Activities for which funding may be requested include: (I) Joint Exercises (2) Force Training (3) Contingencies (4) Selected Operations o. Advise the Secretary of Defense on the extent to which the major programs and policies of the Armed Forces in the area of manpower conform with strategic plans. p. Assess military requirements for defense acquisition programs. q. Develop and establish doctrine for all aspects of the joint employment of the Armed Forces. r. Formulate policies for coordinating the military education and training of members of the Armed Forces. s. Provide for representation of the United States on the Military Staff Committee of the United Nations in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. t. Submit to the Secretary of Defense, not less than once every 3 years, a report containing such recommendations for changes in the assignment of functions (roles and missions) to the Armed Forces as the Chairman considers necessary to achieve maximum effectiveness of the Armed Forces. u. Prescribe the duties and functions of the Vice Chairman, JCS, subject to approval of the Secretary of Defense. v. Exercise exclusive direction of the Joint Staff. w. Subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council. x. Advise and assist the President and the Secretary of Defense on establishing Unified and Specified Combatant Commands to perform military missions and on prescribing the force structure of those commands. y. Periodically, not less than every 2 years, review the missions, responsibilities (including geographic boundaries), and force structure of each Unified and Specified Combatant Command; and recommend to the President through the Secretary of Defense, any changes to missions, responsibilities, and force structure, as may be necessary. z. Transmit communications between the President or the Secretary of Defense and the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, as directed by the President. aa. Perform duties, as assigned by the President or the Secretary of Defense, to assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in performing their command function. bb. Oversee the activities of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. cc. Advise the Secretary of Defense on whether a Commander of a Unified or Specified Combatant Command has sufficient authority, direction, and control over the commands and forces assigned to the command to exercise effective command of those commands and forces. dd. Advise and assist the Secretary of Defense on measures to provide for the administration and support of forces assigned to each Unified and Specified Combatant Command. ee. Advise the Secretary of Defense on whether aspects of the administration and support necessary for the accomplishment of missions should be assigned to the Commander of a Unified or Specified Combatant Command. ff. Serve as the spokesman for Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, especially on the operational requirements of their commands. gg. Provide overall supervision of those Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities for which the Chairman, JCS, has been designated by the Secretary of Defense to oversee. Perform such other functions with respect to the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities as may be assigned by the Secretary of Defense. hh. Periodically, not less than every 2 years, report to the Secretary of Defense on the responsiveness and readiness of designated combat-support agencies. ii. Provide for the participation of combat-support agencies in joint training exercises, assess their performance, and take steps to provide for changes to improve their performance. jj. Develop, in consultation with the director of each combat-support agency, and maintain a uniform readiness reporting system for combat- support agencies. kk. Advise and assist the Secretary of Defense on the periodic review and revision of the curriculum of each professional military education school to enhance the education and training of officers in joint matters. Il. Review the reports of selection boards that consider for promotion officers serving, or having served, in joint duty assignments in accordance with guidelines furnished by the Secretary of Defense and return the reports with determinations and comments to the Secretary of the appropriate Military Department. mm. Advise the Secretary of Defense on the establishment of career guidelines for officers with the joint specialty. nn. Submit to the Secretary of Defense an evaluation of the joint duty performance of officers recommended for an initial appointment to the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral, or initial appointment as general or admiral. oo. Promulgate Joint Chiefs of Staff publications (JCS Pubs) to provide military guidance for joint activities of the Armed Forces. pp. Review the plans and programs of the Commanders of Unified and Specified Combatant Commands to determine their adequacy and feasibility for the performance of assigned missions. qq. Provide military guidance for use by the Military Departments, the Military Services, and the Defense Agencies in the preparation of their respective detailed plans. rr. Participate, as directed, in the preparation of combined plans for military action in conjunction with the Armed Forces of other nations. ss. Determine the headquarters support, such as facilities, personnel, and communications, required by Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, and recommend the assignment to the Military Departments of the responsibilities for providing such support. tt. Prepare and submit to the Secretary of Defense, for information and consideration, general strategic guidance for the development of industrial and manpower mobilization programs. uu. Prepare and submit to the Secretary of Defense military guidance for use in the development of military aid programs and other actions relating to foreign military forces. vv. Formulate policies for the joint training of the Armed Forces. ww. Assess joint military requirements for command, control, and communications; recommend improvements; and provide guidance on aspects that relate to the conduct of joint operations. xx. Prepare and submit to the Secretary of Defense, for information and consideration in connection with the preparation of budgets, statements of military requirements based upon U.S. strategic war plans. These statements of requirements shall include tasks, priority of tasks, force requirements, and general strategic guidance for developing military installations and bases, and for equipping and maintaining military forces. yy. In carrying out his functions, duties, and responsibilities, the Chairman, JCS, shall, as he considers appropriate, consult with and seek the advice of the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. zz. Perform such other duties as the President or the Secretary of Defense may prescribe. 2. The other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are military advisers to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense as specified below: a. A member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may submit to the Chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or in addition to, the advice or opinion presented by the Chairman. If a member submits such advice or opinion, the Chairman shall present that advice or opinion to the President, Secretary of Defense, or National Security Council at the same time that he presents his own advice. The Chairman shall also, as he considers appropriate, inform the President, the National Security Council, or the Secretary of Defense of the range of military advice and opinion with respect to any matter. b. The members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the President, the National Security Council, or the Secretary of Defense on a particular matter when the President, the National Security Council, or the Secretary of Defense requests such advice. 3. The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the Chairman with the approval of the Secretary of Defense. When there is a vacancy in the Office of the Chairman or in the absence or disability of the Chairman, the Vice Chairman acts as Chairman and performs the duties of the Chairman until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases. E. FUNCTIONS OF THE UNIFIED AND SPECIFIED COMBATANT COMMANDERS 1. Unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense, the authority, direction, and control of the Commander of a Unified or Specified Combatant Command with respect to the commands and forces assigned to that command include the command functions of: a. Giving authoritative direction to subordinate commands and forces necessary to carry our missions assigned to the command, including authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics; b. Prescribing the chain of command to the commands and forces within the command; c. Organizing commands and forces within that command as he considers necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command; d. Employing forces within that command as he considers necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command; e. Assigning command functions to subordinate commanders; f. Coordinating and approving those aspects of administration, support (including control of resources and equipment, internal organization, and training), and discipline necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command; and g. Exercising the authority with respect to selecting subordinate commanders, selecting combatant command staff, suspending subordinates, and convening courts-martial, as provided in 10 U.S.C. (reference (f)). 2. If a commander of a combatant command at any time considers his authority, direction, or control with respect to any of the commands or forces assigned to the command to be insufficient to command effectively, the commander shall promptly inform the Secretary of Defense. 3. Unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of the Defense, Commanders of Unified and Specified Combatant Commands exercise authority over subordinate commanders as follows: a. Commanders of commands and forces assigned to a Unified or Specified Combatant Command are under the authority, direction, and control of, and are responsible to, the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command on all matters for which the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command has been assigned authority under subsection E.1. above; b. The commander of a command or force referred to in paragraph E.3.a., above, shall communicate with other elements of the Department of Defense on any matter for which the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command has been assigned authority under subsection E.1. in accordance with procedures, if any, established by the Commander of the Unified or Specifics Combatant Command; c. Other elements of the Department of Defense shall communicate, with the commander of a command or force referred to in E.3.a. on any matter for which the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command has been assigned authority under subsection E.1., above, in accordance with procedures, if any, established by the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command; and d. If directed by the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command, the commander of a command or force referred to in paragraph E.3.a. shall advise the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command of all communications to and from other elements of the Department of Defense on any matter for which the Commander of the Unified or Specified Combatant Command has not been assigned authority under subsection E.1. F. FUNCTIONS OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENTS 1. The chain of command for purposes other than the operational direction of Unified and Specified Combatant Commands runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense to the Secretaries of the Military Departments to the commanders of Military Service forces. 2. Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the Military Departments are responsible for, and have the authority necessary to conduct, all affairs of their respective Departments, including the following: a. Recruiting b. Organizing c. Supplying d. Equipping (including research and development) e. Training f. Servicing g. Mobilizing h. Demobilizing i. Administering (including the morale and welfare of personnel) j. Maintaining k. The construction, outfitting, and repairs of military equipment l. The construction, maintenance, and repair of buildings, structures, and utilities; the acquisition, management and disposal; and the management of real property of natural resources. 3. Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the Military Departments are responsible to the Secretary of Defense for the following activities of their respective Departments. a. The functioning and efficiency of their Departments; b. The formulation of policies and programs that are fully consistent with national security objectives and policies established by the President and the Secretary of Defense; c. The effective and timely implementation of policy, program, and budget decisions and instructions of the President or Secretary of Defense relating to the functions of each Military Department; d. Carrying out the functions of the Military Departments so as to fulfill (to the maximum extent practicable) the current and future operational requirements of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands; e. Effective cooperation and coordination between the Military Departments and agencies of the Department of Defense to provide for more effective, efficient, and economical administration and to eliminate duplication; f. The presentation and justification of the positions of their respective departments on the plans, programs, and policies of the Department of Defense; g. The effective supervision and control of Military Department intelligence activities; and h. Such other activities as may be prescribed by law or by the President or Secretary of Defense. 4. Common Functions of the Military Departments. The functions of the Military Departments, under their respective Secretaries, are as follows: a. To prepare forces and establish reserves of manpower, equipment, and supplies for the effective prosecution of war and military operations short of war and plan for the expansion of peacetime components to meet the needs of war. b. To maintain in readiness mobile reserve forces, properly organized, trained, and equipped for employment in emergency. c. To provide adequate, timely, and reliable intelligence and counter- intelligence for the Military Department and other agencies as directed by competent authority. d. To recruit, organize, train, and equip interoperable forces for assignment to Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. e. To prepare and submit budgets for their respective departments; justify before the Congress budget requests as approved by the President; and administer the funds made available for maintaining, equipping, and training the forces of their respective departments, including those assigned to Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. The budget submissions to the Secretary of Defense by the Military Departments shall be prepared on the basis, among other things, of the recommendations of CINCs and of Service component commanders of forces assigned to Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. f. To conduct research; develop tactics, techniques, and organization; and develop and procure weapons, equipment, and supplies essential to the fulfillment of the functions assigned in this Directive. g. To develop, garrison, supply, equip, and maintain bases and other installations, including lines of communication, and to provide administrative and logistics support for all forces and bases, unless otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense. h. To provide, as directed, such forces, military missions, and detachments for service in foreign countries as may be required to support the national interests of the United States. i. To assist in training and equipping the military forces of foreign nations. j. To provide, as directed, administrative and logistic support to the headquarters of Unified and Specified Combatant Commands, to include direct support of the development and acquisition of the command and control systems of such headquarters. k. To assist each other in the accomplishment of their respective functions, including the provisions of personnel, intelligence, training, facilities, equipment, supplies, and services. l. To prepare and submit, in coordination with other Military Departments, mobilization information to the JCS. 5. Common Service Functions. The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, under their respective Secretaries, are responsible for the following functions: a. Determining Service force requirements and making recommendations concerning force requirements to support national security objectives and strategy and to meet the operational requirements of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands. b. Planning for the use of the intrinsic capabilities of resources of the other Services that may be made available. c. Recommending to the JCS the assignment and deployment of forces to Unified and Specified Combatant Commands established by the President through the Secretary of Defense. d. Administering Service forces. e. Providing logistic support for Service forces, including procurement, distribution, supply, equipment, and maintenance, unless otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense. f. Developing doctrines, procedures, tactics, and techniques employed by Service forces. g. Conducting operational testing and evaluation. h. Providing for training for joint operations and joint exercises in support of Unified and Specified Combatant Command operational requirements, including the following: (1) Development of Service training, doctrines, procedures, tactics, techniques, and methods of organization in accordance with policies and procedures established in Service publications. (2) Development and preparation of Service publications to support the conduct of joint training. (3) Determination of Service requirements to enhance the effectiveness of joint training. (4) Support of that joint training directed by the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands and conduct of such additional joint training as is mutually agreed upon by the Services concerned. i. Operating organic land vehicles, aircraft, and ships or craft. j. Consulting and coordinating with the other Services on all matters of joint concern. k. Participating with the other Services in the development of the doctrines, procedures, tactics, techniques, training, publications, and equipment for such joint operations as are the primary responsibility of one of the Services. 6. The forces developed and trained to perform the primary functions set forth hereafter shall be employed to support and supplement the other Military Service forces in carrying out their primary functions, where and whenever such participation shall result in increased effectiveness and shall contribute to the accomplishment of the overall military objectives. As for collateral functions, while the assignment of such functions may establish further justification for stated force requirements, such assignment shall not be used as the sole basis for establishing additional force requirements. a. Functions of the Department of the Army (1) The Army, within the Department of the Army, includes land combat and service forces and any organic aviation and water transport assigned. The Army is responsible for the preparation of land forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war and military operations short of war, except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Army to meet the needs of war. (2) The primary functions of the Army are: (a) To organize, train, and equip forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations on land--specifically, forces to defeat enemy land forces and to seize, occupy, and defend land areas. (b) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for appropriate air and missile defense and space control operations, including the provision of forces as required for the strategic defense of the United States, in accordance with joint doctrines. (c) To organize, equip, and provide Army forces, in coordination with the other Military Services, for joint amphibious, airborne, and space operations and to provide for the training of such forces, in accordance with joint doctrines. Specifically, the Army shall: 1 Develop, in coordination with the other Military Services, doctrines, tactics, techniques, and equipment of interest to the Army for amphibious operations and not provided for elsewhere. 2 Develop, in coordination with the other Military Services, the doctrines, procedures, and equipment employed by Army and Marine Corps forces in airborne operations. The Army shall have primary responsibility for developing those airborne doctrines, procedures, and equipment that are of common interest to the Army and the Marine Corps. 3 Develop, in coordination with the other Military Services, doctrines, procedures, and equipment employed by Army forces in the conduct of space operations. (d) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for the support and conduct of special operations. (e) To provide equipment, forces, procedures, and doctrine necessary for the effective prosecution of electronic warfare operations and, as directed, support of other forces. (f) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for the support and conduct of psychological operations. (g) To provide forces for the occupation of territories abroad, including initial establishment of military government pending transfer of this responsibility to other authority. (h) To develop doctrines and procedures, in coordination with the other Military Services, for organizing, equipping, training, and employing forces operating on land, except that the development of doctrines and procedures for organizing, equipping, training, and employing Marine Corps units for amphibious operations shall be a function of the Marine Corps coordinating, as required, with the other Military Services. (i) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces, as directed, to operate land lines of communication. (J.) To conduct the following activities: 1 Functions relating to the management and operation of the Panama Canal, as assigned by the Secretary or Deputy Secretary of Defense. 2 The authorized civil works program, including projects for improvement of navigation, flood control, beach erosion control, and other water resource developments in the United States, its territories, and its possessions. 3 Certain other civil activities prescribed by law. (3) A collateral function of the Army is to train forces to interdict enemy sea and air power and communications through operations on or from land. (4) Army responsibilities in support of space operations include the following: (a) Organizing, training, equipping, and providing Army forces to support space operations. (b) Developing, in coordination with the other Military Services, tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by Army forces for use in space operations. (c) Conducting individual and unit training of Army space operations forces. (d) Participating with other Services in joint space operations, training, and exercises as mutually agreed to by the Services concerned, or as directed by competent authority. (e) Providing forces for space support operations for the Department of Defense when directed. (5) Other responsibilities of the Army. With respect to close air support of ground forces, the Army has specific responsibility for the following: (a) Providing, in accordance with inter-Service agreements, communications, personnel, and equipment employed by Army forces. (b) Conducting individual and unit training of Army forces. (c) Developing equipment, tactics, and techniques employed by Army forces. b. Functions of the Department of the Navy (1) The Navy, within the Department of the Navy, includes, in general, naval combat and service forces and such aviation as may be organic therein. The Marine Corps, within the Department of Navy, includes not less than three combat divisions and three air wings and such other land combat, aviation, and other services as may be organic therein. The Coast Guard, when operating as a Service within the Department of the Navy, includes naval combat and service forces and such aviation as may be organic therein. (a) The Navy and Marine Corps, under the Secretary of the Navy, are responsible for the preparation of Navy and Marine Corps forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war and military operations short of war, except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with the integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Navy and Marine Corps to meet the needs of war. (b) During peacetime, the Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining the United States Coast Guard in a state of readiness so that it may function as a specialized Service in the Navy in time of war or when the President directs. The Coast Guard may also perform its military functions in times of limited war or defense contingency, in support of Naval Component Commanders, without transfer to the Department of the Navy. (2) The primary functions of the Navy and/or Marine Corps are: (a) To organize, train, equip and provide Navy and Marine Corps forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat incident to operations at sea, including operations of sea-based aircraft and land-based naval air components--specifically, forces to seek out and destroy enemy naval forces and to suppress enemy sea commerce, to gain and maintain general naval supremacy, to control vital sea areas and to protect vital sea lines of communication, to establish and maintain local superiority (including air) in an area of naval operations, to seize and defend advanced naval bases, and to conduct such land, air, and space operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign. (b) To maintain the Marine Corps, which shall be organized, trained, and equipped to provide Fleet Marine Forces of combined arms, together with supporting air components, for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign. In addition, the Marine Corps shall provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy, provide security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval stations and bases, and perform such other duties as the President or the Secretary of Defense may direct. However, these additional duties must not detract from, or interfere with, the operations for which the Marine Corps is primarily organized. These functions do not contemplate the creation of a second land army. (c) Further, the Marine Corps shall: 1 Develop, in coordination with the other Military Services, the doctrines, tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by landing forces in amphibious operations. The Marine Corps shall have primary responsibility for the development of those landing force doctrines, tactics, techniques, and equipment which are of common interest to the Army and the Marine Corps. 2 Train and equip, as required, forces for airborne operations, in coordination with the other Military Services, and in accordance with joint doctrines. 3 Develop, in coordination with the other Military Services, doctrines, procedures, and equipment of interest to the Marine Corps for airborne operations and not provided for by the Army, which has primary responsibility for the development of airborne doctrines, procedures, and techniques, which are of common interest to the Army and Marine Corps. (d) To organize and equip, in coordination with the other Military Services, and to provide naval forces, including naval close air support and space forces, for the conduct of joint amphibious operations, and to be responsible for the amphibious training of all forces assigned to joint amphibious operations in accordance with joint doctrines. (e) To develop, in coordination with the other Services, the doctrines, procedures, and equipment of naval forces for amphibious operations and the doctrines and procedures for joint amphibious operations. (f) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for strategic nuclear warfare to support strategic deterrence. (g) To furnish adequate, timely, reliable intelligence for the Coast Guard. (h) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for reconnaissance, antisubmarine warfare, protection of shipping, aerial refueling and minelaying, including the air and space aspects thereof, and controlled minefield operations. (i) To provide the afloat forces for strategic sealift. (j) To provide air support essential for naval operations. (k) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for appropriate air and missile defense and space control operations, including the provision of forces as required for the strategic defense of the United States, in accordance with joint doctrines. (l) To provide equipment, forces, procedures, and doctrine necessary for the effective prosecution of electronic warfare operations and, as directed, support of other forces. (m) To furnish aerial photography, as necessary, for Navy and Marine Corps operations. (n) To develop, in coordination with the other Services, doctrines, procedures, and equipment employed by Navy and Marine Corps forces in the conduct of space operations. (o) To provide sea-based launch and space support for the Department of Defense when directed. (p) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces, as directed, to operate sea lines of communication. (q) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for the support and conduct of special operations. (r) To organize, train, equip, and provide Navy and Marine Corps forces for the support and conduct of psychological operations. (s) To coordinate with the Department of Transportation for the peacetime maintenance of the Coast Guard. During war, the Coast Guard will function as a Military Service. The specific wartime functions of the Coast Guard are as follows: 1 To provide an integrated port security and coastal defense force, in coordination with the other Military Services, for the United States. 2 To provide specialized Coast Guard units, including designated ships and aircraft, for overseas deployment required by naval component commanders. 3 To organize and equip, in coordination with the other Military Services, and provide forces for maritime search and rescue, icebreaking, and servicing of maritime aids to navigation. (3) The collateral functions of the Navy and Marine Corps include the following: (a) To interdict enemy land power, air power, and communications through operations at sea. (b) To conduct close air and naval support for land operations. (c) To furnish aerial imagery for cartographic purposes. (d) To be prepared to participate in the overall air and space effort, as directed. (e) To establish military government, as directed, pending transfer of this responsibility to other authority. (4) Navy and Marine Corps responsibilities in support of space operations include: (a) Organizing, training, equipping, and providing Navy and Marine Corps forces to support space operations. (b) Developing, in coordination with the other Military Services, tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by Navy and Marine Corps forces for use in space operations. (c) Conducting individual and unit training of Navy and Marine Corps space operations forces. (d) Participating with the other Services in joint space operations, training, and exercises, as mutually agreed to by the Services concerned or as directed by competent authority. (5) Other responsibilities of the Navy and Marine Corps include: (a) Providing, when directed, logistic support of Coast Guard forces, including procurement, distribution, supply, equipment, and maintenance. (b) Providing air and land transport essential for naval operations and not otherwise provided for. (c) Providing and operating sea transport for the Armed Forces other than that which is organic to the individual Services. (d) Developing, in coordination with the other Services, doctrine and procedures for close air support for naval forces and for joint forces in amphibious operations. c. Functions of the Department of the Air Force (1) The Air Force, within the Department of the Air Force, includes aviation forces, both combat and service, not otherwise assigned. The Air Force is responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war and military operations short of war, except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. (2) The primary functions of the Air Force include: (a) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations in the air--specifically, forces to defend the United States against air attack in accordance with doctrines established by the JCS, gain and maintain general air supremacy, defeat enemy air forces, conduct space operations, control vital air areas, and establish local air superiority except as otherwise assigned herein. (b) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for appropriate air and missile defense and space control operations, including the provision of forces as required for the strategic defense of the United States, in accordance with joint doctrines. (c) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for strategic air and missile warfare. (d) To organize, equip, and provide forces for joint amphibious, space, and airborne operations, in coordination with the other Military Services, and to provide for their training in accordance with joint doctrines. (e) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for close air support and air logistic support to the Army and other forces, as directed, including airlift, air support, resupply of airborne operations, aerial photography, tactical air reconnaissance, and air interdiction of enemy land forces and communications. (f) To organize, train, equip and provide forces for air transport for the Armed Forces, except as otherwise assigned. (g) To develop, in coordination with the other Services, doctrines, procedures, and equipment for air defense from land areas, including the United States. (h) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces to furnish aerial imagery for use by the Army and other agencies as directed, including aerial imagery for cartographic purposes. (i) To develop, in coordination with the other Services, tactics, techniques, and equipment of interest to the Air Force for amphibious operations and not provided for elsewhere. (j) To develop, in coordination with the other Services, doctrines, procedures, and equipment employed by Air Force forces in airborne operations. (k) To provide launch and space support for the Department of Defense, except as otherwise assigned. (l) To develop, in coordination with the other Services, doctrines, procedures, and equipment employed by Air Force forces in the conduct of space operations. (m) To organize, train, equip, and provide land-based tanker forces for the in-flight refueling support of strategic operations and deployments of aircraft of the Armed Forces and Air Force tactical operations, except as otherwise assigned. (n) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces, as directed to operate air lines of communications. (o) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for the support and conduct of special operations. (p) To organize, train, equip, and provide forces for the support and conduct of psychological operations. (q) To provide equipment, forces, procedures, and doctrine necessary for the effective prosecution of electronic warfare operations and, as directed, support of other forces. (3) Collateral functions of the Air Force include the following: (a) Surface sea surveillance and antisurface ship warfare through air operations. (b) Antisubmarine warfare and antiair warfare operations to protect sea lines of communications. (c) Aerial minelaying operations. (d) Air-to-air refueling in support of naval campaigns. (4) Air Force responsibilities in support of space operations include: (a) Organizing, training, equipping, and providing forces to support space operations. (b) Developing, in coordination with the other Military Services, tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by Air Force forces for use in space operations. (c) Conducting individual and unit training of Air Force space operations forces. (d) Participating with the other Services in joint space operations, training, and exercises as mutually agreed to by the Services concerned, or as directed by competent authority. (5) Other responsibilities of the Air Force include: (a) With respect to amphibious operations, the Air Force shall develop, in coordination with the other Services, tactics, techniques, and equipment of interest to the Air Force and not provided for by the Navy and Marine Corps. (b) With respect to airborne operations, the Air Force has specific responsibility to: 1 Provide Air Force forces for the air movement of troops, supplies, and equipment in joint airborne operations, including parachuted and aircraft landings. 2 Develop tactics and techniques employed by Air Force forces in the air movement of troops, supplies, and equipment. (c) With respect to close air support of ground forces, the Air Force has specific responsibility for developing, in coordination with the other Services, doctrines and procedures, except as provided for in Navy responsibilities for amphibious operations and in responsibilities for the Marine Corps. G. FUNCTIONS OF DoD AGENCIES 1. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). See DoD Directive 5105.41, September 30, 1986. 2. Defense Communications Agency (DCA). See DoD Directive 5105.19, August 10, 1978. 3. Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA). See DoD Directive 5105.36, June 8, 1978. 4. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). See DoD Directive 5105.21, May 19, 1977. 5. Defense Investigative Service (DIS). See DoD Directive 5105.42, June 14, 1985. 6. Defense Legal Services Agency (DLSA). See DoD Directive 5145.4, August 12, 1981. 7. Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). See DoD Directive 5105.22, August 15, 1986. 8. Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). See DoD Directive 5105.40, April 23, 1986. 9. Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA). See DoD Directive 5105.31, March 18, 1987. 10. Defense Security Assistance Agency (DSAA). See DoD Directive 5105.38, August 10, 1978. 11. The National Security Agency and the Central Security Service (NSA/CSS). See DoD Directive S-5100.20, December 23, 1971. 12. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). See DoD Directive 5141.5, June 4, 1987. H. EFFECTIVE DATE This Directive is effective immediately. William H. Taft, IV Deputy Secretary of Defense ---------------------------------