HQ NORTH AMERICAN AEROSPACE DEFENSE COMMAND NORAD REGULATION 55-7
Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado 80914-5002 6 July 1990

Operations

AIRBORNE SURVEILLANCE OF HIJACKED AIRCRAFT

This regulation defines how North American Aerospace Defense (NORAD) forces
carry out airborne surveillance of hijacked aircraft and aircraft used without
authorization within the NORAD system. It applies to HQ NORAD, regions,
sectors and the commanders of all other units under the operational control of
the Commander in Chief NORAD (CINCNORAD). Other commands and agencies having
air defense responsibilities to CINCNORAD use this regulation for guidance.

NORAD region commanders are authorized to supplement this regulation to
establish specific responsibilities and operating procedures for their area of
responsibility. Submit supplements in draft to HQ NORAD, Deputy Director for
Air Defense Operations, Ground Environment Division (J30G), for review and
approval prior to publication.

1. General:

a. For the purpose of clarity and conciseness in this regulation, the
term "hijack" will cover situations in which aircraft control is seized in
order to go somewhere other than the scheduled destination and when an
aircraft is stolen or used without permission of the owner and or Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) or Transport Canada (TC) authorities. The term
"escort aircraft" applies to any military aircraft assigned to the escort
mission.

b. Escort missions are requested by the FAA or TC. The Joint Chiefs of
Staff (JCS) or Canadian Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) may task NORAD to escort
aircraft in the event of a hijacking. Escort missions are coordinated between
NORAD units and other military and civilian agencies to prevent interference
with military operations, avoid possible international incident and provide
safety of flight.

2. Responsibilities:

a. HQ NORAD, Air Defense Operations Division (J30):

(1) Develops requirements and standards for jointly agreed upon
control procedures for escort missions with the FAA.

(2) Develops requirements and standards for jointly agreed upon
control procedures for escort missions with IC.

_______________
Supersedes NR 55-7, 5 February 1987. (For summary of changes see page 6.)
No. of Printed Pages: 6
OPR: NJ30G (Capt John H. Mayersky)
Approved by: Col Peter W. Tkacs
Editor: Susan E. Gillespie
Distribution: F;X (See page 6.)

2 NR 55-7 6 July 1990

(3) Develops reporting procedures for the Forward Tell of hijacked
aircraft, escort aircraft and, if required, tanker aircraft tracks to the
NORAD Air Defense Operations Center (ADOC) and the NORAD Command Center (NCC).

b. NORAD Command Center (NCC):

(1) Directs appropriate NORAD region operations control centers
(ROCC) and their associated sector operations control centers (SOCC) and
interceptor forces to undertake escort missions when directed by the National
Military Command Center (NMCC) and or the National Defence Operations Centre
(NDOC).

(2) Monitors the escort mission and keeps the NMCC and NDOC advised.

(3) Ensures the hijacked aircraft track is Forward Told to the NMCC/
Alternate NMCC when in or approaching US airspace.

(4) Ensures hijacked aircraft track is Forward Told to the NDOC when
in or approaching Canadian airspace.

(5) Notifies designated NORAD staff personnel of hijack activity.

c. Canadian, Continental United States (CONUS), and Alaskan NORAD Region
Commanders. Are authorized to coordinate with unit commanders in their areas
of responsibility to establish procedures for assigned units which might be
directed by the NMCC or NDOC to perform an escort mission.

d. Canadian NORAD Region (CANR). The commander is assigned as executive
agent for Commander in Chief, NORAD (CINCNORAD), for the development of
jointly coordinated procedures with TC.

a. Commander, CONUS NORAD Region (CONR):

(1) Is assigned as executive agent for CINCNORAD for the development
of jointly coordinated procedures with the FAA.

(2) Is assigned as executive agent for CINCNORAD for the development
of jointly agreed upon procedures for escort missions with the Caribbean
Regional Operations Center (CARIBROC) (in his or her capacity as agent for US
Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command (USCINCLANT)).

(3) Determines the termination point for escort missions en route to
Cuba by coordination with CARIBROC according to procedures established by
CINCNORAD and USCINCLANT.

(4) Is assigned as executive agent for CINCNORAD for development of
jointly agreed procedures with USCINCPAC for escort missions.

(5) Is assigned as executive agent for CINCNORAD for development of
jointly agreed upon procedures with HQ Strategic Air Command (SAC) for the use
of tanker aircraft in the event the escort mission profile requires air-to-air
refueling of escort aircraft.

NR 55-7 6 July 1990 3

f. Commander, Alaskan NORAD Region (ANR):

(1) Is assigned as executive agent for CINCNORAD for development of
jointly coordinated procedures with appropriate FAA agencies in Alaska.

(2) Is assigned as executive agent for CINCNORAD for development of
jointly agreed procedures with the Pacific Command (PACOM) and Alaskan Command
(ALCOM) for escort missions.

3. Procedures:

a. Notification:

(1) The NMCC or the NDOC requests escort missions through the NORAD
Command Center (NCC).

(2) The NCC tasks the proper NORAD region(s) to conduct the escort
mission(s). Escort missions are not conducted or continued if:

(a) They interfere with the conduct of an active air defense
mission(s); or

(b) Flight safety conditions do not allow airborne surveillance.

(3) Once the NCC has approved an escort mission request, direct
liaison for detailed mission execution between affected ROCCs or SOCCs and Air
Traffic Control (ATC) agencies is authorized. All affected agencies will keep
their higher headquarters advised of the progress and or significant changes
in the mission.

b. Departure Phase:

(1) Airborne and scramble orders for escort aircraft are according to
appropriate ATC directives and applicable agreements.

(2) When the situation requires an expedited departure, escort
aircraft are given priority over other departing aircraft. The FAA
Authorization for Interceptor Operations (AFIO) is not used for intercept and
airborne surveillance of hijacked aircraft within the CONUS.

c. Escort Mission Command and Control:

(1) CONR/ANR:

(a) When the hijacked aircraft is not within FAA radar coverage,
but is within CONR or ANR radar coverage, escort aircraft are under the
command and control of the appropriate region.

(b) When the hijacked aircraft is within FAA radar coverage,
escort aircraft is controlled by the appropriate FAA facility. Command of the
escort aircraft remains within the appropriate region. In this case, the FAA
advises the region (or sector) of the hijacked aircraft's location, direction

4 NR 55-7 6 July 1990

of flight, altitude, type of aircraft, and recommended flight plan to
intercept the hijacked aircraft.

(2) CANR:

(a) When the hijacked aircraft is within CANR radar coverage,
escort aircraft are under command and control of the CANR. All escort
operations in Canada are done under the Agreement for Scramble and Intercept
and Recovery (SIR) procedures (see also paragraph 3d(5) below).

(b) When the hijacked aircraft is not within CANR radar coverage
but is within TC coverage, the escort mission by NORAD fighters is terminated.
IC does not control NORAD fighters except for scramble and recovery at
TC-controlled airports.

d. Approach/Escort Phase. When controlling the escort aircraft, the
NORAD regions and or sectors must ensure in a timely manner that:

(1) Escort aircraft aircrews are informed of the reason for the
mission and complete an armament safety check;

(2) During the approach phase, escort aircraft aircrews are vectored
so as to approach the hijacked aircraft from the rear to avoid the possibility
of being observed;

(3) Escort aircraft aircrews are kept advised of the hijacked
aircraft's heading, altitude, speed and bearing, and range from the escort
aircraft;

(4) The intercept is planned so as to position the escort aircraft at
the same altitude, speed and heading of the hijacked aircraft at a point no
closer than minimum separation to the target. The fighters will roll out 5
nautical miles in the US or 10 nautical miles in Canada directly behind the
hijacked aircraft. (Note: Separation may be reduced to 5 nautical miles in
Canada with the approval of the Region Deputy Director for Operations);

(5) When the escort aircraft are 30 nautical miles from the hijacked
aircraft, positioning instructions are confirmed (for example, "ECHO GOLF 12,
WHEN CONTACT IS ESTABLISHED, APPROACH NO CLOSER THAN 5 NAUTICAL MILES DIRECTLY
BEHIND THE TARGET AND MAINTAIN SURVEILLANCE. REMAIN OUT OF SIGHT FROM THE
COCKPIT OR CABIN AND REPORT ALL ACTIONS OBSERVED."); and

(6) Aircrews advise the control facility when the hijacked aircraft
is detected on airborne radar and when visual contact is made.

a. Transfer of Control Between the US and Canada. Control of escort
aircraft is transferred according to current FAA and TC instructions. Escort
aircraft entering Canadian airspace for the US are transferred to the CANR
prior to entering Canadian airspace. Escort aircraft entering US airspace
from Canada are transferred according to established procedures. The NMCC and
the NDOC coordinate with the FAA and IC for escort aircraft prior to crossing
the international border, if possible.
NR 55-7 6 July 1990 5

f. Radar and Radio Contact. Normally, radar contact with the hijacked
aircraft and the escort aircraft plus radio contact with the escort aircraft
is required by the control facility. However, if the hijacked aircraft is
operating in the CONUS and the escort aircraft pilot has visual contact, the
mission may continue without radar contact. If radio contact with the control
facility is lost, the escort aircraft may continue surveillance and attempt to
regain radio contact with the control facility. Aircrews will continue
attempts to regain radio contact until, in their judgment, the mission should
be terminated for reasons of flight safety, bingo fuel, etceteras. Aircrews
must ensure minimum safe separation is maintained while attempting to regain
radio contact with the control facility.

g. Escort Aircraft Replacement. Replacement of escort aircraft which
must be recovered prior to mission termination will be coordinated between
affected ROCCs or SOCCs and FAA/TC agencies involved. If NORAD fighters are
being controlled by an FAA facility, fuel states will be obtained from the
escort aircraft and relayed as requested by the affected ROCC/SOCC.

h. Weather and Flying Safety. Escort aircrews will keep the control
facility advised of adverse weather conditions. If weather conditions or
other flight safety factors make airborne surveillance impractical, the escort
aircraft will be broken off and the mission canceled.

i. Mission Termination. The NMCC, NDOC, NCC, FAA or IC may issue mission
termination orders. Escort aircraft terminate airborne surveillance or
mission activities when directed by the controlling facility. Additionally,
the pilot may terminate the mission if any unsafe condition arises.

j. Track Reports. Hijacked aircraft are classified "Special" according
to NR 55-14, Identification of Air Traffic. The affected region sends these
track reports by Forward Tell to the NCC via the NORAD Air Defense Operations
Center (ADOC) (Special Track Report, RCS: NORAD-J30G(AR)7403; Emergency Status
Code: Cl; MINIMIZE: Yes, applies). If the hijacked aircraft is not within
CONR or ANR radar coverage but is within FAA coverage, the FAA Air Route
Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) should forward position reports to the
appropriate SOCC space director (SD) periodically, but not to exceed 10
minutes.

4. Restrictions. In addition to the escort phase requirements shown in
paragraph 3, escort aircraft are restricted from proceeding inside the claimed
territorial sea of a foreign country or 12 miles (whichever is less) or the
Mexican border common with the United States without overflight clearance.

OFFICIAL DONALD J. KUTYNA
General, USAF
Commander in Chief

WAYNE R. HEINKE
Colonel, USAF
Director of Information Management
6 NR 55-7 6 July 1990

SUMMARY OF CHANGES
Updates publication in its entirety.

DISTRIBUTION: X

Joint Staff/J36/Strat Def/NMCC-2, Washington DC 20318-3000................6
OJCS/J36/CCD, Washington DC 20330-5054....................................6
HQ USAF/XOOS, Washington DC 20330-5000....................................4
Chief of Staff, United States Army, Washington DC 20310-2000..............2
Chief of Naval Operations (Op-095-1), Washington DC 20350-2000............4
Commandant of the Marine Corps (G3) (MAG-1, MCAS-1),
Washington DC 20380-0001................................................2
USCINCLANT, Norfolk VA 23511-6000.........................................4
USCINCPAC/J332, Camp H. M. Smith HI 96861-5025............................4
USCINCSO/SJS, APO Miami 34003.............................................1
HQ TAC (IG-1 DO-1), Langley AFB VA 23665-5001.............................2
HQ SAC/OA, Offutt AFB NE 68113-5000.......................................1
ANMCC/OJCS, Ft Richie MD 21719-5010.......................................2
OJCS/NEACP, Offutt AFB NE 68113-5000......................................2
NEACP, Andrews AFB, Washington DC 20331-5000..............................2
Canadian National Distribution Authority, Building 151, CFB Ottawa,
Canada KlA OK8 for distribution to Chief of Defense Staff-NDHQ,
CFB Ottawa, Canada KlA OK8..............................................8
FAA HQ (ATO-100, ATO-200, ATO-300), 800 Independence Ave SW,
Washington DC 20591.....................................................3
FAA Alaska Region, Box 14 701-C Street, Anchorage AK 99513................15
FAA Central Region, 601 East 12th Street, Kansas City MO 64106............15
FAA Eastern Region, JFK Intl Aprt, Jamaica NY 11430.......................15
FAA Southern Region, PO Box 20636, Atlanta GA 30320.......................15
FAA Southwest Region, Forth Worth TX 76193-0000...........................15
FAA Western Pacific Region, PO Box 92007, Worldway Postal
Center, Los Angeles CA 90009............................................15
FAA New England Region, 12 New England Executive Park,
Burlington MA 01803.....................................................15
FAA Great Lakes Region, O'Hara Lake Officer Center, 2300 East
Devon AVE, Des Plains IL 60018..........................................15
FAA Northwest Mountain Region, 17900 Pacific Hwy South,
C-68966, Seattle WA 98168...............................................15

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