BY ORDER OF THE AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 10-1301
SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE 5 JANUARY 1994

Operations

AEROSPACE DOCTRINE

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This instruction implements AFPD 10-13, Aerospace Doctrine. It provides guidance and procedures for developing aerospace doctrine for both the Air Force and the joint and combined military communities. To ensure a full understanding of the processes and terms used, users of this instruction should familiarize themselves with the referenced Air Force and joint publications.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

This issuance aligns the instruction with AFPD 10-13 and recognizes the creation of the Air Force Doctrine Center.

1. General Information. This instruction describes the processes to be used in developing doctrine, a specific format for commenting on doctrine publications, general information on both joint and combined doctrines, and annual report requirements. Attachment 1 provides a brief list of terminology used in doctrine development.

2. Processes. The process used to develop doctrine depends on the type of doctrine involved (Air Force or joint or combined) and on who has been assigned Lead Agent responsibilities for the project. Accordingly, there are three general processes to follow in developing doctrine. These three processes are discussed under the following headings: Air Force Doctrine, Joint Doctrine (Air Force Lead Agent), and Joint Doctrine (Air Force Not Lead Agent).

2.1. Air Force Doctrine Development Process. Air Force doctrine projects will be developed using the following process:

2.1.1. Proposal. Major commands (MAJCOM), field operating agencies (FOA), and Air Force Deputy Chiefs of Staff may propose doctrine requirements to the Director of Plans.

2.1.2. Approval. The Director of Plans approves Air Force doctrine proposals.

2.1.3. Primary Review Authority (PRA)/Scope. Air Staff Doctrine Division, after coordinating with Air Force Doctrine Center, recommends PRA designation and scope of the doctrine to the Director of Plans. The Director of Plans designates the PRA, normally the Air Force Doctrine Center, and details the scope of the proposed doctrine.

2.1.4. Research and Outline. The Air Force Doctrine Center conducts preliminary research on the doctrine topic and proposes an outline to the Air Staff Doctrine Division for Director of Plans approval. The Air Force Doctrine Center requests outside research assistance and identifies long-lead research and related needs that exceed the internal capabilities possessed by the Air Force Doctrine Center, requesting approval for direct coordination or support when required.

2.1.5. Initial Draft. Upon approval of the outline, the Air Force Doctrine Center drafts the doctrine and distributes the initial draft to MAJCOMs, FOAs, and the Air Staff, requesting commenters reply directly to the Air Force Doctrine Center with information copies to the Air Staff Doctrine Division.

2.1.6. Collation and Revision. The Air Force Doctrine Center collates replies and revises the doctrine accordingly.

2.1.7. Final Draft. Air Force Doctrine Center distributes the final draft to MAJCOMs and Air Staff agencies, requesting commenters reply directly to the Air Force Doctrine Center with information copies to the Air Staff Doctrine Division.

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Supersedes AFR 1-2, 10 September 1990. Certified by: HQ USAF/XO (Lt Gen Buster C. Glosson)
OPR: HQ USAF/XOXD (Lt Col James A. McClure) Pages: 7/Distribution: F
2.1.8. Comment Incorporation and Resolution. The Air Force Doctrine Center revises the final draft based on the comments it receives; the Air Force Doctrine Center incorporates appropriate comments, resolves issues in direct coordination with the originator of the comments, or identifies these comments as unresolved.

2.1.9. Comments Not Incorporated or Resolved With Originator. The Air Force Doctrine Center prepares the proposed final doctrine publication and identifies any such outstanding issues to the Air Staff Doctrine Division for resolution.

2.1.10. Resolving Outstanding Issues. Air Staff Doctrine Division conducts staff actions to resolve outstanding issues at the lowest level possible.

2.1.11. Final Approval. Air Staff Doctrine Division prepares staff actions for DCS/Plans and Operations
approval. The Director of Plans then coordinates manuals with other Deputy Chiefs of Staff prior to submission for Chief of Staff approval.

2.1.12. Publication. This process is handled by the Air Staff Doctrine Division according to AFI 37-160, The Air Force Publications and Forms Management Programs--Developing and Processing Publications (formerly AFRs 5-1 and 5-8).

2.1.13. Non-AFDC PRA. When an organization other than the Air Force Doctrine Center is designated PRA, that organization will follow standard Air Force Doctrine Center procedures described above and provide information copies to the Air Force Doctrine Center. See figure 1 for a graphic representation of this process.

Figure 1. Air Force Doctrine Development.
2.2. Joint Doctrine Development Process (Air Force Lead Agent). Joint doctrine projects for which the Air Force has been assigned as Lead Agent will be developed by the following process:
2.2.1. Proposal. Service chiefs, combatant command commanders and directors of Joint Staff directorates may propose doctrine projects either by message to CJCS or by submission to the Director, J-7, for Joint Doctrine Working Party (JDWP) consideration. Air Force proposals for joint doctrine projects will be staffed by the Air Staff Doctrine Division.
2.2.2. Validation. Director, J-7, requests comments from the Services and combatant commands, either by correspondence or in the course of JDWP meetings, and advises the proposing commander of the result. The Director of Plans will normally task the Air Staff Doctrine Division to represent the Air Force at JDWP meetings.

2.2.3. Approval. The JDWP recommends actions to be taken on joint doctrine proposals to the Director, J-7 in JDWP minutes; these are then coordinated by CJCS Memorandum of Procedure 9 (MOP 9). The Air Staff Doctrine Division conducts MOP 9 actions on joint doctrine.

2.2.4. Scope. After a proposal is validated through the JDWP, the Director, J-7 and the proposed Lead Agent prepare the Program Directive for approval through the MOP 9 process. The Program Directive establishes project scope, outline, lead agent, and timing or priority. The Air Staff Doctrine Division coordinates details directly with the J-7 Joint Doctrine Division to support Director of Plans coordination with the Director, J-7. The Director of Plans designates the PRA, normally the Air Force Doctrine Center.

2.2.5. Program Development. After the Program Directive is approved, the Director of Plans tasks the Air Force Doctrine Center to develop the doctrine and requests each Service and combatant command to designate a CRA for the project.

2.2.6. Research and Initial Draft. The Air Force Doctrine Center conducts preliminary research on the doctrine topic using procedures detailed in Joint Pub 1-01, Joint Publication System (chapter III, paragraph 3) and submits the draft to the Director of Plans for approval.

2.2.7. Distribution for Comment. Upon approval by the Director of Plans, the Air Force Doctrine Center distributes the initial draft to the Joint Staff, MAJCOMs, FOAs, appropriate numbered Air Forces, and CRAs for comment and to other joint doctrine points of contact as information.

2.2.8. Collation and Revision. CRAs and Joint Staff directorates reply directly to the Air Force Doctrine Center. The Air Force Doctrine Center collates and revises the doctrine accordingly.

2.2.9. Final Draft. Air Force Doctrine Center sends the final draft to the Director of Plans and, upon approval, distributes the final draft to the Joint Staff, MAJCOMs, Air Staff agencies, appropriate numbered Air Forces, and CRAs.

2.2.10. Comment Incorporation and Resolution. The Air Force Doctrine Center prepares the proposed final publication based on the comments it receives; incorporates appropriate comments; resolves issues by direct coordination with the originator of the comments; and identifies unresolved comments to the Air Force Director of Plans.

2.2.11. Resolving Outstanding Issues. Air Staff Doctrine Division conducts staff actions to resolve outstanding issues at the lowest level possible.

2.2.12. Final Approval. Upon approval by DCS/Plans & Operations, Air Force Planners review and forward proposed final pub to CJCS (via J-7) for approval. Air Force Planners, assisted by the Air Staff Doctrine Division, conduct MOP 9 coordination for final CJCS approval. Air Force Doctrine Center will assist as required.

2.2.13. Test Publications. Air Force Doctrine Center will be the focal point for Air Force participation in evaluating those joint doctrine publications that are formally evaluated.

2.2.14. Non-AFDC PRA. When an organization other than the Air Force Doctrine Center is designated PRA, that organization will follow standard Air Force Doctrine Center procedures described above and provide information copies to the Air Force Doctrine Center. See figure 2 for a graphic representation of this process.

2.3. Joint Doctrine Development Process (Air Force Not Lead Agent). Joint doctrine projects for which the Air Force is not designated as the Lead Agent will be developed using the following process:

2.3.1. Designation of CRA. The Director of Plans will designate the Air Force Doctrine Center as the CRA for joint doctrine publications for which the Air Force is not the Lead Agent.

2.3.2. Distribution for Comments. The Air Force Doctrine Center will, upon receipt of the joint doctrine draft (initial or final) publication, reproduce itand distribute the publication to MAJCOMs and Air Staff agencies for review and comment.

2.3.3. Consolidation of Comments. Air Force Doctrine Center will prepare and incorporate comments received from other Air Force reviewing organizations into a coherent product for both the initial and final drafts. Air Force Doctrine Center will provide this consolidated comment package to the Air Staff Doctrine Division for coordination and action in accordance with Joint Pub 1-01.

2.3.4. Coordination of Final Package. The Air Staff Doctrine Division will coordinate the final package with the Air Force Planners to ensure Lead Agent or PRA incorporation or resolution of comments. The Air Staff Doctrine Division will ensure actions required by Joint Pub 1-01 are completed. Air Force Doctrine Center will assist the Air Staff Doctrine Division in handling of MOP 9 actions as requested. Upon completion of the MOP 9 coordination process, J-7 forwards the final document to CJCS for approval. See figure 3 for a graphic representation of this process.

Figure 2. Joint Doctrine Development--Air Force Lead Agent.

Figure 3. Joint Doctrine Development--Air Force Not Lead Agent.

3. Comments. The Air Force Doctrine Center will request various offices at the Air Staff, MAJCOM, and numbered Air Force levels to comment on selected Air Force, joint or combined doctrine projects. These comments should conform to the following guidance:

3.1. Categories. Comments should be placed into the following distinct categories:

3.1.1. Critical Comments. Critical comments will cause nonconcurrence in the draft if the concern is not satisfactorily resolved.
3.1.2. Major Comments. Major comments are significant concerns that may result in nonconcurrence in the entire document. This category may be used with a general statement of concern with a subject area, thrust of the document, etc., followed by detailed comments on specific entries in documents that, taken together, constitute the concern.

3.1.3. Substantive Comments. Substantive comments are provided because sections in the document appear to be or are potentially incorrect, incomplete, misleading, or confusing.

3.1.4. Administrative Comments. Administrative comments correct inconsistencies between different sections, typographical errors, or grammatical errors.

3.2. Specificity. Specific comments are normally more helpful to the writer and result in quicker resolution.

3.3. Line-In, Line-Out Form. Text to be revised is effectively shown with underlined new text to be added and text to be deleted printed in "strike through" (sample strike through style).

3.4. Format. Comments should be in the following format: [Office symbol] [sequential number of comment] [location of affected section (page, paragraph, line number)] Change to read: [suggested revision in line-in, line-out form]. RATIONALE: [reason change is needed].

3.4.1. Sample Comment:

XOXD-1. Administrative. Page III-5, para 3.d., lines 10-12. Change to read: "...contact 7CG Security Assistance and Technology Transfer Division, DSN 224-7578 5787." RATIONALE: Correct typo-graphical error.

4. Joint Doctrine. The Chairman, JCS, has overall responsibility for developing joint doctrine and joint tactics, techniques, and procedures (JTTP) for the joint employment of the armed forces. Director of JCS, J-7 is responsible to the Chairman for the management of the joint doctrine and JTTP program. The Joint Chiefs of Staff will approve joint doctrine and JTTP publications. Joint Pub 1-01 contains the approved joint doctrine publications or projects and development procedures.

4.1. Multi-Service Doctrine. Only doctrine approved by the Chairman, JCS, may be referred to as joint doctrine. Publications involving two or more Services but not approved by the Chairman, JCS, will be referred to as "multi-Service" and must identify the participating Services.
4.2. Precedence. If conflicts arise between procedures found in joint publications and those found in other US publications, joint publications will govern the operations of joint US forces.

4.3. Joint Doctrine Working Party (JDWP). The JDWP normally meets twice each year to discuss proposals for new doctrine projects and the status of existing joint doctrine and JTTP publications. The Air Staff Doctrine Division will represent the Air Force at these JDWP meetings.

5. Combined Doctrine. A complete list of Air Force agreements with allied nations can be found in the Air Standardization Coordinating Committee (ASCC) Reference Catalog and NATO Allied Administrative Publication 4 (AAP-4). The Air Force Director of Plans is the point of contact for the Air Force for matters related to combined doctrine.

5.1. US Position. Joint doctrine provides the national position for combined doctrine development. Development of combined doctrine is detailed in JCS Memorandum of Policy 147. During combined operations, US forces are obligated to use the following, agreed combined doctrine:

5.2. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Air Force employment in NATO operations is governed by NATO Standardization Agreements (STANAG) and Allied Publications (AP). Within the NATO Military Committee, the Military Agency for Standardization (MAS) is responsible for fostering NATO military standardization. The MAS is divided into three service boards: naval, army, and air. Board members are assigned from NATO nations and obtain the respective national positions or commitments from their national services. The Air Staff International Standardization Office (HQ USAF/XOXX (ISO)) will send out for staffing all NATO STANAGs which can affect air forces.

5.3. Tactical Air Working Party (TAWP). The TAWP is a NATO working party that meets once each year to discuss, coordinate, and agree upon proposals for new doctrine projects and the status of existing combined doctrine agreements within NATO. The Commander, Air Force Doctrine Center, normally serves as the US principal delegate to the TAWP.

5.4. Air Standardization Coordinating Committee (ASCC). The ASCC is made up of five English speaking nations: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States. The ASCC is a forum for discussion and coordination of standardization policy for the air forces of its member nations in order to achieve a capability for combined operations. ASCC publishes
agreed doctrine as Air Standards and Advisory Publications. HQ USAF/XOXX (ISO) sends proposed ASCC documents to appropriate Air Force agencies for staffing.

5.5. American, British, Canadian, and Australian Armies (ABCA Armies). This organization is similar to the ASCC and coordinates standardization agreements related to its members' armies. ABCA agreements are called Quadripartite Standardization Agreements (QSTAG). QSTAGs which can affect air forces are sent by HQ USAF/XOXX (ISO) to appropriate Air Force agencies for staffing.

5.6. American, British, Canadian, Australian Navies (ABCA Navies). Naval counterpart to ABCA Armies. HQ USAF/XOXX (ISO) sends proposed ABCA Navies agreements that can affect air forces to Air Force agencies for staffing.
6. Reports. By the end of each fiscal year, each MAJCOM will provide AFDC an Annual Report of Doctrine Activity, RCS: HAF-XOX(A)9349, describing the doctrine activity of agencies subordinate to the MAJCOM but comprised of more than one Service. These agencies include but are not limited to Air Land Sea Agency and Airlift Concepts and Requirements Agency. Additionally, the Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict will also provide a report to AFDC by the end of the fiscal year. Such reports should indicate the number of projects performing the desired functions (AFPD 10-13) and the number of deviations from the doctrine development processes highlight any problem areas, and propose solutions to doctrinal problems. The measurements described in AFPD 10-13, attachment 2, will be taken by quarters and reported annually. These reports should be forwarded to the Air Force Doctrine Center, which will send a consolidated report within thrity days to the Air Force Director of Plans through the Air Staff Doctrine Division. Discontinue reporting during emergency conditions.

BUSTER C. GLOSSON, Lt General, USAF
DCS/Plans and Operations

1 Attachment
Terms Explained

TERMS EXPLAINED

Basic Doctrine. Broad, enduring guidance for sound employment of aerospace forces in war. Unifying in effect, it describes principles, concepts, and considerations for using aerospace forces to solve military problems of all types.

Combined Doctrine. Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by participating nations. (JP 1-02)

Coordinating Review Authority. (DoD) An agency appointed by a Service or combatant command to coordinate with and assist the primary review authority in doctrine development, evaluation, and maintenance efforts. Each Service or combatant command must assign a coordinating review authority. If so authorized by the appointing Service or combatant command, coordinating review authority comments provided to designated primary review authorities should represent the position of the appointing Service or combatant command with regard to the publication under development. (JP 1-02)

Each Service and combatant command designates a Coordinating Review Authority (CRA) for each joint doctrine publication. The CRA is the single point of contact for, and presents the official positions of, the appointing Service or command to the Primary Review Authority. CRAs also develop Service distribution requirements.

Joint Doctrine. Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more Services in coordinated action toward a common objective. It will be promulgated by the Chairman of theJoint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (JP 1-02)

Joint Tactics, Techniques, And Procedures. The actions and methods which implement joint doctrine and describe how forces will be employed in joint operations. They will be promulgated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other Joint Chiefs of Staff. (JP 1-02)

Lead Agent. (DoD) Individual Services, combatant commands, or Joint Staff directorates may be assigned as lead agents for developing and maintaining joint doctrine, joint tactics, techniques, and procedures (JTTP) publications, or joint administrative publications. The lead agent is responsible for developing, coordinating, reviewing, and maintaining an assigned doctrine, JTTP, or joint administrative publication. (JP 1-02)

Lead Agents are responsible for developing, coordinating, reviewing, and maintaining doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) publications. Services, combatant commands, and Joint Staff directorates may be designated Lead Agent for joint doctrine and TTPs. The Director of Plans performs the duties of the Lead Agent for the Air Force.

Multi-Service Doctrine. Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more Services in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by two or more Services, and is promulgated in multi-Service publications that identify the participating Services, e.g., Army-Navy doctrine. (JP 1-02)

Operational Level Doctrine. Principles and ideas that guide the employment of aerospace forces in campaigns and major operations. More specifically than basic doctrine, it proposes ways aerospace forces can best be employed to solve specific military problems, attain specific types of objectives, achieve specific types of advantages, and attain national goals. Operational level doctrine anticipates technical and strategic needs. Operational level doctrine covers mission areas, operating environments, enabling functions, combat support operations, and other topics crucial to prepare aerospace forces and conduct sustained operations.

Primary Review Authority. (DoD) The organization assigned by the lead agent to perform the actions and coordination necessary to develop and maintain the assigned joint publication under cognizance of the lead agent. (JP 1-02)

Lead Agents appoint PRAs to perform the actions and coordination necessary to develop and maintain doctrine publications, under the cognizance of the Lead Agent.

Tactical Level Doctrine. Detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures to guide optimum employment of aerospace forces performing specific military tasks. Tactical doctrine presents alternatives, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and factors that determine or alter the effectiveness of specific options. MAJCOMs publish tactical doctrine for their forces.

Technical Review Authority (TRA). The organization tasked to provide specialized technical or administrative expertise to the primary review authority or coordinating review authority for joint [or Air Force] publications. (JP 1-02, modified) TRAs provide specialized expertise to the PRA or CRA. The Lead Agent obtains assistance from non-Air Force TRAs through the J-7, Joint Staff.