BY ORDER OF THE AIR FORCE MANUAL 15-162

SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE 1 JULY 1995

Weather

SPACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS

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This manual specifies Air Force codes used for reporting astrogeophysical data that describe various features or phenomena on the Sun, and the upper atmospheric and space environmental conditions at, or near, Earth. Although the codes are designed for computer processing, most can be readily used in a manual operation. For further information regarding message transmission criteria, frequency, etc. or for recommending changes to this manual, contact the Space Forecast Center, 50th Weather Squadron (50 WS/DOO, 715 Kepler Ave, Suite 60, Falcon AFB, CO 80912-7160; DSN560-7130, commercial (719) 550-7130).

SUMMARY OF REVISIONS

This is the first issuance of this AFMAN. It replaces and supersedes AFSFCP 105-5 in all chapters except Chapter 4, Geomagnetic Codes.

Paragraph

Chapter 1--Solar Optical Codes
Solar Flare Code (FLARE) 1.1
Solar Disk and Limb Activity Summary Code (DALAS) 1.2
Sunspot Code (SPOTS) 1.3
Histogram History Code (HSTRY) 1.4
Videometer Box Dimension Outline (BXOUT) 1.5

Chapter 2--Solar Radio Codes
Discrete Solar Radio Burst Code (BURST) 2.1
Spectral Solar Radio Burst Code (SWEEP) 2.2
Integrated Solar Radio Flux Code (IFLUX) 2.3

Chapter 3--Ionospheric Codes
Ionospheric Code (IONSS) . 3.1
Total Electron Content Code (TELCO) 3.2
Automated Ionospheric Data Code (IONOS) 3.3
Ionospheric Height Code (IONHT) 3.4
Total Electron Content and Scintillation Code (TELSI) 3.5

Chapter 4--Special Codes
Event Code (EVENT) 4.1
Event Acknowledgment Code (AKNOW) 4.2
Plain Language Code (PLAIN) 4.3
Patrol Status Code (STATS) 4.4

Page

Attachments
1. Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms 32
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Supersedes AFSFCP 105-5, 22 July 1992 Certified by HQ USAF/XOW (Brig Gen Thomas J. Lennon)
OPR: 50WS/DOO (Maj George F. Howard III) Pages: 33 /Distribution:F

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CHAPTER 1

SOLAR OPTICAL CODES

1.1. Solar Flare Code (FLARE). Use this code to make event-level or routine reports of solar flares as observed with an optical telescope viewing at a wavelength of 6563A (Hydrogen-alpha).

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 FLARE
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 11111 qSJJJ GGggL QXXYY TIBcc GGggL 7AAAA GGggL 9NNNN FBBbb
Line 4a 22222 IBGgg 7AAAA ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 FLARE Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to flare start time; see Note 1)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of data lines in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 1)
qSJJJ q -Quality of the observation coded according to:
1-Very poor
2-Poor
3-Fair
4-Good
5-Excellent
S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
JJJ -Local flare serial number assigned independently by each observatory
(normally assigned sequentially by GMT day)
GGggL GGgg -Start time (or time flare was initially observed). Record hour and minute,
GMT.
L -Time label coded according to:
1-Exact start time
2-Flare in progress at GGgg (Begin time not observed; flare began before
GGgg)
QXXYY Q -Quadrant location of the flare coded according to:
1-Northeast
2-Southeast
3-Southwest
4-Northwest
XX -Central Meridian Distance of the flare (whole degrees)
YY -Latitude of the flare (whole degrees)
TIBcc T -Method or type of observation coded according to:
1-Visual
2-Photographic
3-Projection
4-Electronic
I -Flare Importance determined by International Astronomical Union standards
and coded according to:
0-Subflare
1-Importance One
2-Importance Two
3-Importance Three
4-Importance Four
B -Flare brightness coded according to:
7-Faint
8-Normal
9-Brilliant
c -First flare characteristic coded according to:
0-Visible in white light
1-Greater than or equal to 20 percent umbral coverage
2-Parallel ribbon
3-Associated Loop Prominence (LPS)
4-Y-shaped ribbon
5-Several eruptive centers
6-One or more brilliant points
7-Associated high speed Dark or Bright Surge on Disk (DSD or BSD)
8-Flare followed the Disappearance of a Solar Filament (DSF) in the same
region
9-H-alpha emission greater in the blue wing than in the red wing
/-Filler or not applicable
c -Second flare characteristic coded according to the preceding table. (Note: The
table lists flare characteristics in descending order of importance.)
GGggL GGgg -Time of the maximum brightness of the flare (hour and minutes, GMT)
L -Time label coded according to:
1-Exact time of maximum brightness
2-Time of area measurement (since the time of maximum brightness was not
observed)
7AAAA 7 -Numerical filler (7th group)
AAAA -Corrected flare area in millionths of the solar hemisphere at time of maximum
brightness. Use zero(s) as fill.
GGggL GGgg -End time (or time flare was last observed). Record hour and minute, GMT.
Note: If coded message is transmitted before the flare has ended (preliminary
report), encode ///// for GGggL.
L -Time label coded according to:
1-Exact end time
2-Flare in progress at GGgg (end time not observed; flare ended after GGgg)
9NNNN 9 -Numerical filler (9th group)
NNNN -SESC region number; use //// filler when number not known
FBBbb F -Flare threshold expressed as a bin value, i.e., the minimum brightness bin
value which must have a corrected area of at least 10 millionths of the solar
hemisphere to declare sampled activity a flare. Report only the ones unit
(e.g., a value of "6" indicates flare threshold = 16). Report "/" if data not
available.
BB -Flare brightness level, expressed as a bin value, used to categorize the flare as
faint, normal, or brilliant. (Note: The corrected area in this brightness bin,
added to the area in all bins of greater brightness, must be at least 10
millionths of the solar hemisphere.) Report "//" if data not available.
bb -Maximum flare brightness, expressed as a bin value, detected in the sampled
activity without regard to the amount of flare area in that bin. Report "//" if
data not available.
Line 4a 22222 Data continuation line indicator (see Note 2)
IBGgg I -Secondary flare importance coded according to:
0-Subflare
1-Importance One
2-Importance Two
3-Importance Three
4-Importance Four
B -Secondary flare brightness coded according to:
7-Faint
8-Normal
9-Brilliant
Ggg -Time of the secondary maximum brightness of the flare (last digit of hour and
minutes, GMT)
7AAAA 7 -Numerical filler
AAAA -Secondary corrected flare area in millionths of the solar hemisphere
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. Repeat lines 4 and 4a as often as necessary. Include data for only one flare on a single data line 4 or 4a.

2. Use line 4a to report other flare maxima (if applicable); use the IBGgg and 7AAAA groups as often as necessary, however, use no more than four secondary maxima on a single line 4a. Use the data encoded in groups TIBcc GGggL 7AAAA in line 4 to identify the largest, most energetic maximum. Use the cc, Flare Characteristics, in the TIBcc group in line 4 to describe the most significant maximum. Report secondary maxima in line 4a in chronological sequence irrespective of the time of the largest, most energetic maximum.

1.2. Solar Disk and Limb Activity Summary Code (DALAS). Use this code to make event-level and routine reports of activity on the solar disk and/or limb with an optical telescope viewing at a wavelength of 6563Å (Hydrogen-alpha).

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 DALAS
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 11111 qSJJJ EEIRR GGggs GGgge TBRAA 9NNNN QXXYY QXXYY QXXYY
Line 4a 22222 WWW/D 3qFFF 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 DALAS Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to activity start time; see Note 1)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of data lines in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 1)
qSJJJ q -Quality of observation coded according to:
1-Very poor
2-Poor
3-Fair
4-Good
5-Excellent
S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
JJJ -Local activity serial number assigned independently by each observatory
(normally assigned sequentially by GMT day)
EEIRR EE -Type of activity coded according to:
01-ASR Active Surge Region (less than 0.15 solar radius)
02-APR Active Prominence Region
03-MDP Mound Prominence
04-BSL Bright Surge on Limb (0.15 solar radius or greater)
05-EPL Eruptive Prominence on Limb
06-LPS Loop Prominence System (limb or disk)
07-SPY Spray
08-AFS Arch Filament System
09-ADF Active Dark Filament
10-DSF Disappearing Solar Filament (see Note 2)
11-DSD Dark Surge on Disk
12-BSD Bright Surge on Disk
13-SSB Solar Sector Boundary (see Note 3)
14-CRN Coronal Rain
15-CAP Cap Prominence (Tandberg-Hanssen classification)
I -Index of activity. A subjective estimate of the level of activity for APR, EPL,
ADF, or DSF activity, coded according to:
1-Active. Prominence fluctuates in brightness or changes shape. Filament
varies in darkness, changes shape, or moves.
2-Non-Eruptive. Prominence or filament disappears, but does not erupt.
Represents dissipation in place.
3-Eruptive. Prominence or filament erupts; filament shows strong Doppler
shift.
/-Not applicable. Use for other types of disk and limb activity.
RR -For limb activity: radial extent above the limb expressed in hundredths of the
solar radius. For disk activity: encode heliographic extent (i.e., length) in
whole degrees. For combined limb and disk activity: encode radial extent
from the feature's point of origin to the outermost extent of the
feature, expressed in hundredths of the solar radius. If the location is
unclear, use plain language remarks to specify limb or disk activity.
GGggs GGgg -Start time (or time activity was initially observed). Record hour and minute,
GMT.
s -Time qualifier coded according to:
1-Exact start time
2-In progress; activity started before GGgg
3-Activity started after GGgg (for features which disappear, but start time
was not observed, report time last observed and this time qualifier).
GGgge GGgg -End time (or time activity was last observed). Record hour and minute,
GMT. Note: If coded message is transmitted before the activity ended (preliminary report), encode ///// for GGgge.
e -Time qualifier coded according to:
1-Exact end time
2-Activity ended before GGgg (for features which disappear, but exact end
time not observed, report time absence was first noticed and this time
qualifier).
3-Activity ended after GGgg (end time not observed, activity was still in
progress at GGgg)
TBRAA T Method or type of observation coded according to:
1-Visual
2-Photographic
3-Projection
4-Electronic
B -Observed amount of Doppler shift in blue wing in tenths of Angstroms
R -Observed amount of Doppler shift in red wing in tenths of Angstroms.
NOTE: / indicates not measured or not applicable
0 indicates no shift
9 indicates shifts equal to or greater than 0.9 Angstroms
AA -Associated remarks. Use // as a filler or use any combination of the following:
1-Flare associated
2-Brilliant intensity emission for at least one-third of the time
3-Normal intensity emission for at least one-third of the time
0-No other effects
9NNNN 9 -Numerical filler
NNNN -SESC region number. Use //// if not applicable.
QXXYY Q -Quadrant location of activity coded according to: (See Note 4)
1-Northeast
2-Southeast
3-Southwest
4-Northwest
XX -Central Meridian Distance in whole degrees
YY -Latitude of the activity in whole degrees
Line 4a 22222 Data continuation line indicator (permitted only for AFS, ADF, and DSF; mandatory for
DSF)
WWW/D WWW -The mean width of the filament in tenths of a degree (WW.W). Generally
reported to the nearest half degree.
/ -Filler
D -Density. A subjective estimate of the filament's density coded according to:
1-Faint
2-Normal
3-Dark
3qFFF 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
q -Quality. The observability of the filament's fine structure coded according to:
0-Fine structure unobservable
1-Fine structure barely visible
2-Fine structure apparent
3-Fine structure distinctive
FFF -Fine structure angle. Report whole degrees measured clockwise from the
filament's orientation. Encode as /// if the quality is unobservable (q = 0).
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. Repeat lines 4 and 4a as often as necessary. Include data for only one phenomenon on a single data line 4 or 4a.

2. For filaments which disappear overnight: Report the last time the filament was observed as the DSF start time, with a time qualifier of s = 3, "Activity started after GGgg"; and the time the filament was first observed to be absent as the DSF end time, with a time qualifier of e = 2, "Activity ended before GGgg". Coordination with other observatories to narrow this time period is permitted. Report the location of the DSF as its position at the time the filament was last visible. As with all other DALAS messages, the date of the message (DD) must correspond to the activity start time. If the period between activity start and end exceeds 24 hours, the DALAS code can't be used to report the overnight DSF. Instead, report all relevant information about the DSF in a scheduled or unscheduled PLAIN language message.

3. For reporting Solar Sector Boundaries, use solidi (/) for I, RR, s, GGgge, TBRAA, and NNNN. The group LLLXX (reported in place of the QXXYY group) indicates the Carrington longitude and Central Meridian Distance of the neutral line/solar equator intersection. Use the first GGgg for the time of the analysis. Normally, report only sector boundaries in the western hemisphere. Should a boundary in the eastern hemisphere be deemed significant enough to report, use // for XX in the LLLXX group. Only three boundaries may be reported in a single data line (Line 4). Use another 11111 data line, with all intermediate data reported, to report more than three sector boundaries.

4. DALAS features equal to or less than 5 degrees in length may be reported with only one QXXYY group located by the centroid. As needed, up to three QXXYY groups may be used to indicate the two end points and one intermediate point. If more than three QXXYY groups are required to adequately describe a filament, either report the additional groups in an appended plain language message or divide the filament into sections and report them in separate DALAS messages.

1.3. Sunspot Code (SPOTS). Use this code to make routine reports of sunspots as observed with an optical telescope viewing in integrated (white) light. (See Note 1)

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 SPOTS
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3GGgg 4Tqnn
Line 4 11111 2SJJJ QXXYY LLAAA //NNN 6ZPCM 9NNNN 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 SPOTS Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to the GGgg time group)
3GGgg 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
GGgg -Time of the observation midpoint (hour and minutes, GMT)
4Tqnn 4 -Numerical filler (4th group)
T -Method or type of observation coded according to:
1-Visual
2-Photographic
3-Projection
4-Electronic
q -Quality of the observation coded according to:
1-Very poor
2-Poor
3-Fair
4-Good
5-Excellent
6-No observation, weather causes
7-No observation, equipment problem
8-No observation, other causes
nn -Number of data lines contained in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 2)
2SJJJ 2 -Numerical filler (2nd group)
S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
JJJ -Local sunspot group number assigned independently by each observatory (not
necessarily reported in sequential order within a SPOTS message)
QXXYY Q -Quadrant location of the sunspot group coded according to:
1-Northeast
2-Southeast
3-Southwest
4-Northwest
XX -Central Meridian Distance of the sunspot group (whole degrees)
YY -Latitude of the sunspot group (whole degrees)
LLAAA LL -Heliographic extent (i.e., length) of the sunspot group (in whole heliographic
degrees). The heliographic extent is defined as the distance between the most
extreme edges of the two most widely separated spots, measured along the
group's major axis, which may not necessarily be parallel to the latitude
lines. (Previously referred to as longitudinal extent.)
AAA -Corrected total area of the sunspot group in tens of millionths of the solar
hemisphere.(Example: For 20 millionths, encode 002.)
//NNN // -Fillers
NNN -Number of distinct umbra in the sunspot group. Use zero(s) as fill.
(Example: Two distinct sunspots are observed. One spot has a single umbra,
while the other has three umbra within the same penumbra. Encode 004.)
6ZPCM 6 -Numerical filler (6th group)
Z -Sunspot Class (based on modified Zurich evolutionary sequence) according to:
1-A Unipolar; no penumbra; length (normally) less than 3 heliographic
degrees
2-B Bipolar; no penumbra; length (normally) 3 degrees or greater
3-C Bipolar; penumbra on only one pole
4-D Bipolar; penumbra on both poles; length less than or equal to 10
degrees
5-E Bipolar; penumbra on both poles; length greater than 10, but less than
or equal to 15 degrees
6-F Bipolar; penumbra on both poles; length greater than 15 degrees
7-H Unipolar; with penumbra
P -Penumbral Class (based on largest penumbra) according to:
0-x No penumbra
1-r Rudimentary penumbra
2-s Small symmetric penumbra
3-a Small asymmetric penumbra
4-h Large symmetric penumbra
5-k Large asymmetric penumbra
C -Sunspot Distribution within the group according to:
/- x Single spot or unipolar spot group
7-o Open distribution
8-i Intermediate distribution
9-c Compact distribution
M -Magnetic classification coded according to:
1-Alpha
2 -Beta
3-Beta-gamma
4-Gamma
5-Beta-delta
6-Beta-gamma-delta
7-Gamma-delta
9NNNN 9 -Numerical filler
NNNN -SESC region number. Use //// if not applicable.
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. When observations reveal no sunspots on the solar disk, transmit a truncated SPOTS report to indicate that observations were possible but no sunspots were visible. This truncated report includes all data through line 3 of the SPOTS code. A typical example of this message is:

HOAU3 APLM DDGGgg
SPOTS
IIiii YMMDD 3GGgg 4Tqnn 99999
NNNN

For a "fair" quality observation by projection technique with no visible sunspots, the 4Tqnn group would be encoded 43300.

2. Repeat line 4 as often as necessary. Include data for only one sunspot group on a single data line.

1.4. Histogram History Code (HSTRY). This code is used to make routine, automated reports of videometer box data for selected solar regions of interest. Messages contain brightness and uncorrected area data for each minute of the previous hour.
Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 HSTRY
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 RRRR/ HHMM/ PPABC PPABC ..... .....
Line 4a PPABC PPABC ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 HSTRY Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to the HHMM time group)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of data lines
Line 4 RRRR/ SESC region number
HHMM/ Hour and minute of first data group (GMT)
PPABC PP -Peak brightness (tens of percent of the quiet sun)
ABC -Plage area (A.B x 10c millionths of the solar hemisphere)
Line 4a PPABC -As defined in line 4. Repeat group as necessary to code all data.
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last date line).

NOTE: There are 60 PPABC groups in a routine message, one for each minute of the hour. If data are not available for that minute, ///// is encoded. If data are not available for the region, no message is transmitted. Repeat line 4 for multiple region messages.

1.5. Videometer Box Dimension Outline (BXOUT). This code is used by observatories equipped with the AN/FMQ-7 solar optical telescope to report videometer box size and position information.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 BXOUT
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 BOX CENTER REGION CENTER
Line 5 RGN HIGH WIDE P-ANGL RV LAT LON P-ANGL RV LAT LON SEQ
Line 5a RRRR HHHH WWWW SP.PPP R.RRR TTT NNN DDD.D R.RRR YYY XXX VV/N
Line 6 TIME: SSSSSSSSS.SS (DDD HHMM:SS) 99999
Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 BXOUT Data Identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to the time in line 6)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of data lines
Line 4 BOX CENTER Column header for box center information
REGION CENTER Column header for region center information
Line 5 RGN Column header for Region ID
HIGH Column header for height dimension of videometer box
WIDE Column header for width dimension of videometer box
P-ANGL Column header for position-angle of center of videometer box
RV Column header for radius vector to center of the videometer box
LAT Column header for heliographic latitude at center of videometer box
LON Column header for heliographic longitude at center of videometer box
P-ANGL Column header for geocentric position angle to center of region
RV Column header for radius vector to region center
LAT Column header for heliographic latitude at region center
LON Column header for heliographic longitude at region center
SEQ Column header for identifying region observing sequence position
Line 5a RRRR SESC (or locally defined) region number (see Note)
HHHH Height of videometer box (arc seconds)
WWWW Width of videometer box (arc seconds)
SP.PPP S -Sign of the position angle (M=negative, blank=positive)
P.PPP -Value of the position angle (radians) to box center
R.RRR Value of the radius vector to box center
TTT Heliographic latitude at box center (e.g., N32)
NNN Heliographic longitude at box center (e.g., W60)
DDD.D Geocentric position angle to center of region (degrees)
R.RRR Value for the radius vector to region center
YY Heliographic latitude at region center
XX Heliographic longitude at region center
VV/N VV -Observing subsequence identifier (transmit "//" if not used)
/ -Filler
N -Position in the subsequence (transmit "/" if not used)
Line 6 TIME: Header for time of the data
SSSSSSSSS.SS Time of data in seconds since start of the year (GMT)
DDD Day of the data (Julian Date)
HHMM:SS Hour, minute, and second of the data (GMT)
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTE: Repeat line 5a as often as necessary to include all videometer boxes. (Height refers to television screen used to display image of the sun, not to height above a point on the sun.)

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CHAPTER 2

SOLAR RADIO CODES

2.1. Discrete Solar Radio Burst Code (BURST). Use this code to make event-level or routine reports of impulsive, solar radio bursts as measured on a discrete (fixed) frequency radiometer.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 BURST
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3ppnn
Line 4 11111 qSLJJ FFabp TUabp GGbbt GGmmt 7abpp GGeet 9abpp 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 BURST Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
-World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to burst start time; see Note 1)
3ppnn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
pp -Highest power of p in the following FFabp peak flux groups (see Note 2)
nn -Number of data lines in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 1)
qSLJJ q -Quality of the data coded according to:
0 -Origin of burst uncertain, possible Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
1-Uncertain data due to interference from a solar noise storm or RFI
2-Uncertain data due to equipment problem, weather, or antenna shadowing
3-Good data, manual reduction
4-Good data, automatic reduction
S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
L -Time qualifier coded according to (see Note 3):
0-Times correct as reported
1-Start uncertain
2-Peak uncertain
3-Start and peak uncertain
4-End uncertain
5-End and peak uncertain
JJ -Local burst serial number assigned independently by each observatory
(normally assigned sequentially by GMT day) (see Notes 4 and 5)
FFabp FF -Frequency indicator coded according to:
00-Less than 150 MHz
11- 150 to 299 MHz
22- 300 to 499 MHz
33- 500 to 999 MHz
44- 1000 to 1999 MHz
55- 2000 to 3999 MHz
66- 4000 to 7999 MHz
77- 8000 to 11999 MHz
88- 12000 to 19999 MHz
99- 20000 MHz or greater
ab -First two significant figures of the peak flux value observed at a frequency
within the range indicated by FF (see Note 6)
p -Power of 10 applied to "a.b" to give the peak flux value in standard solar flux
units(sfu)(see Note 6)
TUabp T -Spectral class according to:
0-Not classified
9-Castelli-U (see Note 7)
U -Type of burst according to:
1-NOISE STORM or FLUCTUATIONS
2-GRADUAL RISE AND FALL (non-impulsive)
3-IMPULSIVE (less than 500 sfu) (see Note 8)
4-COMPLEX (less than 500 sfu) (see Note 8)
5-GREAT BURST (500 sfu or greater)
6-COMPLEX GREAT (500 sfu or greater)
ab -First two significant figures of mean flux value (see Note 6)
p -Power of 10 applied to "ab" to give the mean flux value in standard sfu units
(see Note 6)
GGbbt -Start time (or time burst was initially observed). Record hour, minute, and
tenth of minute, GMT; if the start time is unknown or uncertain, use "/" for
tenth of minute.
GGmmt -Time of the burst maximum. Record hour, minute, and tenth of minute, GMT;
if the maximum time is unknown or uncertain, use "/" for tenth of minute. In
preliminary reports, this peak is only a provisional value.
7abpp 7 -Numerical filler (7th group)
ab -First two significant figures of the integrated flux value from start of burst to
time of burst maximum (see Note 9)
pp -Power of 10 applied to "a.b" to give integrated flux value in standard sfu-sec
units (see Note 9)
GGeet -End time (or time burst was last observed). Record hour, minute, and tenth of
minute, GMT; if the end time is unknown or uncertain, use "/" for tenth of
minute. Note: If coded message is transmitted before the burst has ended
(preliminary report), encode ///// for GGeet.
9abpp 9 -Numerical filler (9th group)
ab -First two significant figures of the integrated flux value from start of burst to
end of burst (see Note 9)
pp -Power of 10 applied to "a.b" to give integrated flux value in standard sfu-sec
units (see Note 9)
99999 -End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. Repeat line 4 as often as necessary. Include data for only one frequency on a single data line.

2. The pp indicator in line 3 is a safeguard should any of the p values be garbled in lines 4. Repeat the highest p value assigned to any of the peak fluxes of the FFabp groups as pp in line 3. For example, if highest p value equals 2, then pp is encoded as 22.

3. This only applies to uncertainty in hours and full minutes. It does not apply to uncertainty in tenth of minutes.

4. JJ is the same number for each frequency reported that, in the analyst's judgment, gives burst information associated with the same event. Noise storms on different frequencies will have separate serial numbers assigned, to facilitate ending the noise storms independently.

5. If a distinctly separate burst is superimposed on a non-impulsive burst, a noise storm, or on the decaying stage of a large burst, treat it as a separate burst and assign a different burst serial number.
6. If, for example, the first two significant figures of a flux reading are 52, then a = 5 and b = 2. If the actual reading is 52 solar flux units (sfu) (1 sfu = 10-22 watt/m2/Hz), then p = 1 and abp = 521 (for 5.2 x 101). Similarly, if the actual reading is 5200 sfu, then p = 3, and abp = 523 (for 5.2 x 103). Do not report mean flux for noise storms or fluctuations, instead encode "000". Mean flux estimates for other types of bursts are required, even during manual operations.

7. When a Castelli-U event occurs, continue to report the maximum peaks for each frequency, rather than the peaks used in defining the Castelli-U.

8. Bursts of less than 50 sfu will not normally be reported unless they are significant and/or contribute to the understanding of what is occurring. Examples: Gradual Rise And Fall bursts, or bursts that are part of a spectral group, should be reported even when their peaks are less than 50 sfu.

9. The standard unit of integrated flux is the solar flux unit-second, where 1 sfu-sec equals 10-22 watt-sec/m2/Hz or 10-22 joule/m2/Hz. Encode an integrated flux of 564,000 sfu-sec as 75605 (or 95605), which equals 5.6 x 10-17 watt-sec/m2/Hz. Do not report integrated fluxes for noise storms or fluctuations; reporting these fluxes are optional for other types of bursts during manual operations, since they can be computed later from the time and mean flux data in the message. If an integrated flux value is not reported, replace the abpp with ////.

2.2. Spectral Solar Radio Burst Code (SWEEP). Use this code to make event-level or routine reports of the solar radio spectrum, as measured on a Swept Frequency Interferometric Radiometer (SFIR).

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 SWEEP
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 11111 cqSJJ GGggt TIfff FFFF/ GGggt 7vvvv PPPRR 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 SWEEP Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to burst start time; see Note 1)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of data lines in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 1)
cqSJJ c -Certainty of sweep type identification according to:
1-Certain
2-Uncertain
q -Quality of sweep frequency data coded according to:
1-Certain frequency range
2-Uncertain frequency range
S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
JJ -Local sweep serial number assigned independently by each observatory
(normally assigned sequentially by GMT day). (See Note 2)
GGggt -Start time (or time sweep was initially observed). Record hour, minute,
and tenth of minute, GMT; if start time is unknown or uncertain, use "/" for
tenth of minute.
TIfff T -Type of the sweep coded according to:
1-(Not Used)
2-Type II (slow drift) burst
3-Type III (fast drift) burst; one or more bursts over a period of less than 10
minutes 4-Type IV (smooth broadband continuum) burst
5-Type V (continuum tail on a Type III) burst; one or more bursts over a
period of less than 10 minutes (may include some pure Type III bursts)
6-Series of Type III bursts over a period of 10 minutes or more, with no period
longer than 30 minutes without activity
7-Series of Type III and Type V bursts over a period of 10 minutes or more,
with no period longer than 30 minutes without activity
8-Continuum (broadband continuum, possibly with Type III and/or Type V
bursts superimposed)
9-Unclassified activity
-Importance of the sweep coded according to:
1-Minor
2-Significant
3-Major
/-Data not available
fff -Low frequency end of sweep (MHz). Use zero(s) as fill.
FFFF/ FFFF -High frequency end of sweep (MHz). Use zero(s) as fill.
/ -Filler
GGggt -End time (or time sweep was last observed). Record hour, minute, and tenth
of minute, GMT; if the end time is unknown or uncertain, use "/" for tenth of
minute. Note: If coded message is transmitted before the sweep has ended
(preliminary report), encode ///// for GGggt.
7vvvv 7 -Numerical filler (7th group)
vvvv -Estimated shock velocity for Type II bursts (km/sec). Encode //// if data are
not available. Use zero(s) as fill.
PPPRR PPP -Position angle of source of activity measured eastward from apparent
heliographic north.
Encode /// if data are not available.
RR -Radial distance from the center of the sun to the source of activity in units of
tenths of the apparent solar optical radius. Encode "//" if data are not
available.
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. Repeat line 4 as often as necessary. Include data for only one spectral burst (sweep) on a single data line.

2. JJ will be a unique identification number for each spectral burst reported, even if two or more sweep types are superimposed in time. Report a superimposed sweep separately from other sweep types when it is one or two importance categories higher, or is associated with a discrete frequency burst. Assign the sweep serial numbers separately from the discrete frequency burst serial numbers.

2.3. Integrated Solar Radio Flux Code (IFLUX). Use this code to report the background component of the solar radio flux as measured on discrete (fixed) frequency radiometers at local noon daily.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IFLUX
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3GGgg 4S/nn
Line 4 11111 FFFFF qffff FFFFF qffff FFFFF qffff FFFFF qffff
Line 4a 11111 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IFLUX Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to the GGgg time group)
3GGgg 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
GGgg -Begin time of the flux measurements (hours and minutes, GMT)
4S/nn 4 -Numerical filler (4th group)
S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
/ -Filler
nn -Number of frequencies (i.e., data pairs "FFFFF qffff") reported in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 1)
FFFFF -Frequency (MHz) at which the following flux measurement was made. Use
zero(s) as fill. (See Note 2)
qffff q -Quality of observation coded according to:
1-Good quality
2-Uncertain quality due to weather
3-Uncertain quality due to interference
4-Uncertain quality due to unknown causes
5-Uncertain quality due to burst in progress
ffff -Flux (1 solar flux unit (sfu) = 10-22W/m2/Hz). Use zero(s) as fill.
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. A full data line 4 includes 11111 followed by data for four frequencies. The final data line 4a of the message will include 11111 and data for one to four frequencies followed by 99999. Include data for only one "GGgg" time on a single data line 4 or 4a.

2. Transmit a "FFFFF qffff" data group for each operational fixed frequency. If no data are available for a particular frequency, omit the corresponding "FFFFF qffff" data group. If flux values are acquired from each antenna sequentially, vice simultaneously, send separate messages using the applicable "GGgg" times.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 3

IONOSPHERIC CODES

3.1. Ionospheric Code (IONSS). Use this code to make routine reports of the F2 region critical frequency (foF2), M(3000) factor, Sporadic E critical frequency (foEs), and minimum observed frequency (fmin) as determined by a vertical incidence ionospheric sounder.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IONSS
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 11111 SGGgg fffpp eemmq SGGgg fffpp eemmq
Line 4a 11111 ..... ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IONSS Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (see Note 1)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of observations in report
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 2)
SGGgg S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
GGgg -Time of observation (hour and minutes, GMT)
fffpp fff -F2 region critical frequency (foF2, tenths of MHz) (see Notes 3 and 4)
pp -M(3000) factor (tenths) (see Notes 3 and 4)
eemmq ee -Sporadic E critical frequency (foEs, whole MHz) (see Note 4)
mm -Minimum observed frequency (fmin, tenths of MHz) (see Note 4)
q -Qualifying symbol used to describe the most significant condition present in
the ionogram according to:
1-Blanketing Sporadic E
2-Non-Deviative Absorption (fmin elevated)
3-Equipment outage
4-foF2 greater than upper limit of equipment
5-foF2 less than lower limit of equipment
6-Spread F
7-foF2 less than foF1
8-Interference
9-Deviative Absorption in the vicinity of foF2
0-No qualifying symbol applies
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message.

2. Repeat line 4 as often as necessary. A full data line 4 includes 11111 followed by data for two observing times. The final data line 4a of the message includes 11111 and data for one or two observing times followed by 99999.

3. If foF2 or M(3000) is impossible to read, estimate a meaningful value by interpolating or extrapolating. In this case, before encoding, add 50 MHz to the foF2 value and/or 5.0 to the M(3000) factor, as appropriate, to indicate estimated values.

4. If any of the foF2, M(3000), foEs, or fmin is impossible to report, encode appropriate number of solidi (/).

3.2. Total Electron Content Code (TELCO). Use this code to make routine reports of the equivalent vertical total electron content (TEC) above a station, based on relative polarization angle changes of VHF signals transmitted from a geostationary satellite and recorded on a polarimeter.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 TELCO
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD SVVVV 4//nn
Line 4 11111 GGggq TecPP ..... ..... ..... .....
Line 4a 11111 ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 TELCO Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (see Note 1)
SVVVV S -Status of report according to:
1-Preliminary estimate
2- Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
VVVV -Vehicle identifier (see Note 2)
4//nn 4 -Numerical filler (4th group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of data pairs (GGggq TecPP) reported in this message
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator (see Note 3)
GGggq GGgg -Time of observation (hours and minutes, GMT)
q -Data qualifier according to:
/-Good TEC data, no scintillation data available
1-Doubtful TEC data
2-Computer malfunction
3-Equipment failure
4-No satellite signal received
5-Good TEC data, light scintillation observed
6-Good TEC data, heavy scintillation observed
7-Good TEC data, no scintillation observed
TecPP Tec -Equivalent vertical TEC in tenths (electrons/m2) (see Note 4)
PP -Power of 10 needed to express TEC to the nearest tenth (e.g., 10.1 x 1016 is
coded 10116, see Note 4)
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message.

2. Satellite vehicle identifiers are limited to four digits. Examples:

GOS3 = Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite 3
ETS1 = Environmental Technical Satellite 1

3. Repeat line 4 as often as necessary. A full data line 4 will include 11111 followed by data for four observations. The final data line 4a of the message includes 11111 and data for up to four observations followed by 99999.

4. Any TEC value below 0.1 x 1016 electrons/m2 is coded as 00116. Missing TEC data, as associated with the q = 2, 3, or 4 data qualifiers, is coded /////. Examples of coding TecPP:

TEC Units (1016 electrons/m2) Equivalent Decimal Coded
0.134 0.134 x 1016 00116
1.34 1.34 x 1016 01316
13.4 13.4 x 1016 13416
134.2 13.4 x 1017 13417

3.3. Automated Ionospheric Data Code (IONOS). This code is used to make routine reports of standard parameter data observed by an automated vertical incidence ionosonde.
Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IONOS
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3//nn
Line 4 GGgg0 F2F2F2H2H2 F1F1F1H1H1 EEEHEHE EsEsEsMM FmFmYeYeQ
Line 5 ZELpN SELpN AELpN BELpN CELpN DELpN EELpN FELpN GELpN HELpN
Line 6 ZF1pN SF1pN AF1pN BF1pN CF1pN DF1pN EF1pN FF1pN GF1pN HF1pN
Line 7 ZF2pN SF2pN AF2pN BF2pN CF2pN DF2pN EF2pN FF2pN GF2pN HF2pN
Line 8 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IONOS Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of year
MM -Number of month
DD -Day of month (corresponding to the GGgg time group)
3//nn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
// -Fillers
nn -Number of observations (see Note 1)
Line 4 GGgg0 GGgg -Time of observation to nearest minute (GMT)
0 -Filler
F2F2F2H2H2 F2F2F2 -Value of foF2 to nearest tenth MHz
H2H2 -True height of F2 layer maximum in tens of kilometers
F1F1F1H1H1 F1F1F1 -Value of foF1 to nearest tenth MHz
H1H1 -True Height of F1 layer maximum in tens of kilometers
EEEHEHE EEE -Value of foEs to nearest tenth MHz
HEHE -True Height of E layer maximum in tens of kilometers
EsEsEsMM EsEsEs -Value of foEs to nearest tenth MHz
MM -M(3000) factor to nearest tenth
FmFmYeYeQ FmFm -Minimum detected frequency to nearest tenth MHz. An fmin value greater
than 9.9 MHz will be replaced by 9.9 MHz.
YeYe -Half thickness of E-layer (parabolic fit) in kilometers
Q -Qualifier: If any of the above data are missing, the reason is indicated
according to the following table. Only a reason for the first missing element
will be coded.
1-Blanketing Sporadic E
2-Non-Deviative Absorption (fmin elevated)
3-Equipment outage
4-foF2 greater than equipment upper limit
5-foF2 less than equipment lower limit
6-Spread F
7-foF2 less than foF1
8-Interference
9-Deviative Absorption in vicinity of foF2
0-No qualifier applies
Line 5 Up to 10 five-character groups which define the E-region electron density profile as determined by the ionosonde's automated data reduction routine (see Notes 2 and 3).
XXXpN - Each five-character group (XXXpN) provides a quantity required to calculate the
electron density profile, using a representation by Chebychev polynomials. All five-
character groups have the same structure:
XXX - Three most significant digits of the respective quantity expressed in
scientific notation. Those three digits are represented as "X.XX".
p -Sign indicator of XXX and N according to:
7-XXX and N negative
8-XXX negative, N positive
9-XXX positive, N negative
0-XXX and N positive
N -Power of 10 to which XXX is raised
ZELpN - Height of E-layer maximum (A0 in Chebychev polynomials for E-layer); in kilometers,
after conversion using above rules
SELpN -Start frequency of E-layer; in MHz, after conversion using above rules
AELpN -A1, first of up to eight coefficients which define the E-layer segment of the true height
profile; in kilometers, after conversion using above rules
BELpN ... -Are the same format as AELpN; they are the coefficients A2, A3, ..., A8 in Chebychev
polynomials, for E-layer
Line 6 Same as Line 5, but for F1 layer
Line 7 Same as Line 5, but for F2 layer
Line 8 99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Under current polling procedures and software design, there will be data for only one ionogram per message (the last hourly or half hourly ionogram run prior to polling). Therefore, 3//nn will always be coded as 3//01.

2. The number of coefficients is variable, depending on the complexity of the true height profile. If less than eight coefficients are used for a given layer, the remaining five-character positions are filled with solidi (/).

3. If E, F1, or F2-layer electron density profile data are absent, the whole corresponding line (all ten five-character groups) will be filled with solidi (/). In the case where data for all three layers are absent, Lines 5, 6, and 7 will all be filled with solidi.

3.4. Ionospheric Height Code (IONHT). This code is used to make routine reports of the virtual height (see Note 1) of the main ionospheric echo (the ordinary, or "O", trace) as a function of frequency, as observed by an automated vertical incidence ionosondes.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IONHT
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3/nnn
Line 4 GGgg0 FFFHH FFFHH FFFHH ..... ..... FFFHH
Line 4a FFFHH FFFHH ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 IONHT Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of year
MM -Number of month
DD -Day of month (corresponding to the GGgg time group)
3/nnn 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
/ -Filler
nnn -Number of FFFHH data groups in this report
Line 4 GGgg0 GGgg -Time of observation to nearest minute (GMT) (see Note 2)
0 -Filler
FFFHH FFF -Frequency of observed O-trace reflection to nearest tenth MHz
HH -Virtual height of O-trace reflection in tens of kilometers
Line 4a FFFHH -Repeat FFFHH until all groups are sent. Use ten groups per line. Never exceed 66
characters and spaces per line. (Line 4, due to the GGgg0 group, has a maximum of
nine FFFHH groups.) (See Note 3)
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Virtual height is the apparent height of a reflecting layer. It is determined by multiplying the round trip travel time of the sounder pulse by one-half the speed of light in a vacuum.

2. Under current polling procedures and software design, there will be data for only one ionogram per message (the last hourly or half hourly ionogram run prior to polling).

3. Repeat line 4a as often as is necessary. Send as many frequency-height groups as necessary to define the virtual height profile (normally less than 300). The total number of groups sent must match the number in line 3.

3.5. Total Electron Content and Scintillation Code (TELSI). This code is used to make routine or special reports of the equivalent total electron content (TEC) and ionospheric scintillation (variability) along paths between GPS/NAVSTAR satellites and an automated Ionospheric Measuring System (IMS) instrument.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 TELSI
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD 3GGgg 4SRnn 5S1S2S3S4
Line 4 Nnnggddq tttdddeq LLLLLoLoLoLo txtxtxtytytyeq1q2 lllllolololo
Line 4a 1sssvvv 2sssvvv 3S1S1S1S2S2S2 lllllolololo tstststststs
Line 4b JJJJTTTS JxJxJxJxTxTxTxS lllllolololo JnJnJnJnTnTnTnS lllllolololo 8PPPPPxPxPxPnPnPn
Line 5 (Same as Line 4, but used for second satellite in field of view of ground station)
Line 5a (Same as Line 4a, but used for second satellite in field of view of ground station)
Line 5b (Same as Line 4b, but used for second satellite in field of view of ground station)
Line 6, 6a, 6b (Used for a third satellite in view of ground station)
Line 7, 7a, 7b (Used for a fourth satellite in view of ground station) 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 TELSI Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YMMDD Y -Last digit of the year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to the GGgg time group)
3GGgg 3 -Numerical filler (3rd Group)
GGgg -Ending time of observation period, in hours and minutes, GMT
4SRnn 4 -Numerical filler (4th group)
S -Data quality indicator coded according to:
0 to 9 (TBD when critical system components are identified.)
R -Period of transmission of message coded according to: (See Note 1)
1-Message transmitted every 15 minutes
2-Message transmitted every 30 minutes
3-Message transmitted every 45 minutes
4-Message transmitted every 60 minutes
nn -Number of coded lines in message to follow
5S1S2S3S4 5 -Numerical filler (5th group)
S1 -Number of satellites reported during first 15-minute interval (coded as "0" if
no satellites are present, or as "/" if the interval is not reported)
S2 -Number of satellites reported during second 15-minute interval (coded as "0" if
no satellites are present, or as "/" if the interval is not reported)
S3 -Number of satellites reported during third 15-minute interval (coded as "0" if
no satellites are present, or as "/" if the interval is not reported)
S4 -Number of satellites reported during fourth 15-minute interval (coded as "0" if
no satellites are present, or as "/" if the interval is not reported)
Lines 4,5,6,7
Nnnggddq N -Line number, coded as 4 corresponding to data set for first satellite, 5 for
second satellite, 6 for third satellite, and 7 for fourth satellite (see Note 2)
nn -Identification number assigned to each GPS/NAVSTAR satellite
gg -Ending time of the observation interval in minutes for the data set
corresponding to this line. For example, if three 15-minute intervals were
reported in a message with an end time of observation equal to 1700, gg would
be 30 for the first line (corresponding to 1630), 45 for the second line (1645),
and 60 for the third line (1700). (See Note 3)
dd -Interval period of the data set in minutes
q -Data quality indicator (0 to 9). TBD.
tttdddeq ttt -Mean equivalent vertical TEC for the interval period at the centroid
Ionospheric Penetration Point (IPP) of the ray path between the satellite and
the receiver measured in three significant digits to the nearest tenth (see Note
4)
ddd -Standard deviation from the mean equivalent vertical TEC measured in three
significant digits to the nearest tenth
e -Power of ten (exponent) of the mean equivalent vertical TEC and standard
deviation coded according to: (See Note 6)
5 = x 1015 electrons
6 = x 1016 electrons
7 = x 1017 electrons
8 = x 1018 electrons
9 = x 1019 electrons
q -Accuracy indicator (0 to 9). TBD for mean TEC over interval.
LLLLLoLoLoLo
LLLL -Latitude of the satellite subtrack at the midpoint of the observation period
(interval) measured in degrees to the nearest tenth (see Note 5)
LoLo -Longitude of the satellite subtrack at the midpoint of the observation period
(interval) measured in degrees to the nearest tenth (see Note 5)
txtxtxtytytyeq1q2
txtxtx -Maximum equivalent vertical TEC within the interval period measured at the
IPP between the satellite and receiver in three significant digits to the nearest
tenth (see Note 4)
tytyty -Minimum equivalent vertical TEC within the interval period measured at the
IPP between the satellite and receiver in three significant digits to the nearest
tenth (see Note 4)
e -Power of then (exponent) of the maximum and minimum equivalent vertical
TEC code according to: (See Note 7)
5 = x 1015 electrons
6= x 1016 electrons
7 = x 1017 electrons
8 = x 1018 electrons
9 = x 1019 electrons
q1q2 -Accuracy indicators (0 to 9). TBD for max and min TEC during observation
interval.
lllllolololo llll -Latitude of IPP location coincident with TEC maximum measured in degrees
to the nearest tenth (see Note 5)
lolololo -Longitude of IPP location coincident with TEC maximum measured in degrees to the nearest tenth (see Note 5)
Lines 4a,5a,6a,7a
1sssvvv 1 -Numerical filler (1st group) which identifies data associated with 1.2 Ghz
satellite signals
sss -Mean Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) at 1.2 GHz averaged over the
observation interval measured as a ratio of the standard deviation of received
signal power to the mean received power measured to nearest hundredth of a
unit (s.ss) (see Note 8)
vvv -Standard deviation of the mean Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) at 1.2
GHz, measured to the nearest hundredth of a unit (v.vv)
2sssvvv 2 -Numerical filler (2nd group) which identifies data associated with 1.6 GHz
satellite signals
sss -Mean Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) at 1.6 GHz averaged over the
observation interval measured as a ratio of the standard deviation of received
signal power to the mean received power measured to the nearest hundredth of a unit (s.ss) (see Note 8)
vvv -Standard deviation of the mean Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) at 1.6
GHz, measured to the nearest hundredth of a unit (v.vv)
3S1S1S1S2S2S2 3 -Numerical filler (3rd group)
S1S1S1 -Maximum Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) at 1.2 GHz measured to nearest
hundredth of a unit (S1.S1S1)
S2S2S2 -Maximum Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) at 1.6 GHz measured to
nearest
hundredth of a unit (S2.S2S2)
lllllolololo llll -Latitude of IPP location coincident with S4 maximum measured at 1.2 GHz
in degrees to nearest tenth (see Notes 5 and 9)
lolololo -Longitude of IPP location coincident with S4 maximum measured at 1.2 GHz
in degrees to nearest tenth (see Notes 5 and 9)
tstststststs -Time at which maximum S4 was observed during the observation period
(HHMMSS, GMT)
Lines 4b,5b,6b,7b
JJJJTTTS JJJJ -Mean Phase Scintillation Index (sigma-sub-delta-phi) defined as the standard
deviation of the measured differential phase in hundredth of radians (JJ.JJ)
over the observation interval (see Note 8)
TTT -Mean spectral strength obtained from measuring differential carrier phase
advances between 1.6 GHz and 1.2 GHz frequencies in tenths of decibels
(dB) (TT.T)
S -Sign of spectral strength (0=positive, 1=negative)
JxJxJxJxTxTxTxS
JxJxJxJx -Phase Scintillation Index measured in hundredths of radians (JxJx.JxJx) at
the maximum spectral strength (TxTxTx) (see Note 10)
TxTxTx -Maximum spectral strength in tenths of decibels (dB) (TxTx.Tx) (see Note
10)
S -Sign of spectral strength (0=positive, 1=negative)
lllllolololo llll -Latitude of IPP location coincident with the worst case identified by
maximum spectral strength parameter (TxTxTx) measured in degrees to
nearest tenth (see Note 5)
lolololo -Longitude of IPP location coincident with the worst case identified by
maximum spectral strength parameter (TxTxTx) measured in degrees to
nearest tenth (see Note 5)
JnJnJnJnTnTnTnS JnJnJnJn -Phase Scintillation Index measured in hundredths of radians (JnJn.JnJn) at
the minimum slope parameter (PnPnPn)
TnTnTn -Spectral strength in tenths of decibels (TnTn.Tn) for minimum slope
parameter (PnPnPn)
S -Sign of spectral strength (0=positive, 1=negative)
lllllolololo llll -Latitude of IPP coincident with the worst case identified by minimum slope
parameter (PnPnPn) measured in degrees to the nearest tenth (see Note 5)
lolololo -Longitude of IPP coincident with the worst case identified by minimum slope
parameter (PnPnPn) measured in degrees to the nearest tenth (see Note 5)
8PPPPxPxPxPnPnPn
8 -Numerical filler
PPP -Slope parameter associated with the mean Phase Scintillation Index
measured in units to nearest hundredth (P.PP)
PxPxPx -Slope parameter associated with the worst case due to maximum spectral
strength (TxTxTx) measured in units to nearest hundredth (Px.PxPx)
PnPnPn -Minimum slope parameter associated with the worst measured in units to
nearest hundredth (see Note 10)
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. For messages sent at 15-minute periods of transmission, only one 15-minute data set would be reported. For messages transmitted every 30 minutes, only two 15-minute data sets (observation intervals) would be reported. Messages transmitted once per hour would contain four 15-minute data sets.

2. Lines 5 through 7 are only used when needed to report data from a constellation of 2, 3, or 4 satellites within the field of view of the IMS during the reporting period of the messages.

3. Lines 4 through 7 are repeated for each data set corresponding to a time interval within the message. For example, a message transmitted once per hour containing four 15-minute data sets and 4 satellites within the field of view for the entire period would have 3 lines for each 15-minute period for satellite 1 (Lines 4, 4a, 4b), 3 lines for each 15-minute period for satellite 2 (Lines 5, 5a, 5b), etc. Thus, 3 lines per satellite per period, for 4 satellites, for 4 periods, would equate to 48 lines.

4. The Ionospheric Penetration Point (IPP) is defined to be where the ray path between the GPS/NAVSTAR satellite and the IMS intersects 350 km altitude (typically in the F-region).

5. Latitudes and longitudes are expressed to the nearest tenth of a degree. Longitudes run from 0 to 359.9 degrees west of Greenwich. Latitudes run from -90.0 to +90.0, the sign being distinguished by the first coded character (0=positive, 1=negative). Examples: 0675 is 67.5N; while 1675 is 67.5S.

6. If the standard deviation (ddd) is lower by a factor of 10 from the TEC, encode ddd as 0dd (which is two significant digits to nearest tenth) in order to raise the exponent by one. For example, if TEC equals 25.2 x 1016 and the standard deviation is 31.1 x 1015, then tttddde is 2520316. If ddd is out of range (too low or high), encode as //9 or //0 respectively.

7. If the minimum (tytyty) TEC is lower by a factor of 10 from the maximum TEC, encode tytyty as 0tyty (which is two significant digits to nearest tenth) in order to raise the exponent by one. For example, if TEC (maximum) equals 35.2 x 1016 and TEC (minimum) is 98.1 x 1015, encode txtxtxtytytye as 3520986. If TEC (minimum) is two orders of magnitude lower, encode as 00ty to raise exponent by two; i.e., 98.1 x 1014 is reported as 009. If TEC minimum is out of range, encode as //9.

8. Locations of the mean Amplitude Scintillation Index (S4) and mean Phase Scintillation Index (sigma-sub-delta-phi) are assumed to be at the same location (IPP) as the mean TEC (tttddde) group in Line 4.

9. The maximum S4 measured at 1.6 GHz should be in approximately the same location as the maximum S4 at 1.2 GHz.

10. The maximum spectral strength (TxTxTx) and the minimum slope parameter (PnPnPn) derived from the differential carrier phase advances between the two satellite frequencies (1.6 GHz and 1.2 GHz) are considered the worst cases for the occurrence of phase scintillation.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 4

SPECIAL CODES

4.1. Event Code (EVENT). Use this code for rapid reporting of real-time solar and geophysical events. The activity being reported has a unique identifier depending on the type of data.

Line 1 MANOP heading 555555 (5 BELLS)
Line 2 EVENT
Line 3 IIiii 21/01
Line 4 11111 EEEEE ..... 99999 5 BELLS

Line 1 MANOP heading
555555 Dummy date/time group (GMT)
5 BELLS Bells will audibly alert receivers of the message that an "event" is being reported.
Senders will ensure the format used will activate bells on all receiving equipment (see
Note 1)
Line 2 EVENT Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
21/01 2 -Numerical filler (2nd group)
1 -Status of report (1=preliminary estimate)
/ -Filler
01 -Number of data lines that follow (always one)
Line 4 11111 Data line indicator
EEEEE Event type indicator coded according to: (See Note 2)
RAD(II) RAD -Radio burst information at any fixed frequency (see Note 3)
(II) -Status of burst as follows:
NO - No observation possible
NS - No burst occurring, or activity doesn't meet event criteria (see Note 4)
// - Burst equal to or greater than 1,500 solar flux units (sfu), but less than
5,000 sfu
05 - Burst equal to or greater than 5,000 sfu, but less than 10,000 sfu reported
regardless of whether RAD// has already been reported)
11 - Burst equal to or greater than 10,000 sfu (reported regardless of whether
RAD// or RAD05 has already been reported)
IP - Event-level burst is still in progress (see Note 5)
00 - Burst equals or exceeds 100 percent above background on 2695 MHz
(tenflare)
CU - Castelli "U" shaped burst spectral characteristics
IF - Radio burst with integrated flux of 100,000 sfu-seconds or more
(reported only in automated mode)
SWP(II) SWP -Radio burst information at sweep frequencies
(II) -Status of burst as follows:
NO - No observation possible
NA - Data not yet observable (see Note 6)
NS - Activity does not meet event criteria
22 - Type II burst observed
44 - Type IV burst observed
IP - Event-level sweep is still in progress (see Note 5)
FLA(II) FLA -Solar flare indicator (see Note 7)
(II) -Status of flare as follows:
NO - No observation possible
NE - No flare occurring
NS - Flare activity does not meet event criteria
// - Zero brilliance (0B) flare or greater observed
IP - Event-level flare is still in progress (see Note 5)
LOOP(I) LOOP -Solar loop prominence event observed (see Note 8)
(I) -Status of event as follows:
D - Loops seen primarily against solar disk
E - Loops seen primarily against east solar limb
W - Loops seen primarily against west solar limb
LIMB(I) LIMB -Solar energetic limb event (0.15 solar radius or greater from point of origin)
observed (see Note 8)
(I) -Status of event as follows:
E - Located on east solar limb
W - Located on west solar limb
XR(FFI) XR -Solar X-ray event indicator (see Note 9)
-Status of event as follows:
NO/ - No observation in real-time
NS/ - No event criteria enhancement
(FFI) If an event was detected, then:
FF = Lower and upper limit of X-ray channel to the nearest Angstrom.
(Example: FF = 8 refers to the GOES 1 to 8 Angstrom channel.)
I = X-ray flux trend according to:
I - Flux increasing and above event threshold
S - Flux steady at or near maximum
E - Flux ended, values below event threshold
FALSE False Alarm. Used only by the forecast center to indicate that an XR(FFI) event is a
false alarm.
REQST Request. Used only by the forecast center if indications of a possible event in progress
are received from outside sources, or to exercise the rapid response capability of the
observatory network. Observing sites will respond with appropriate messages.
SITEC Sudden Increase in Total Electron Content in the ionosphere, when correlated with solar
and/or X-ray activity (see Note 10).
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).
5 BELLS Bells will audibly alert receivers of the message.

NOTES:

1. Include bells with HE ( ) ( ) MANOP messages which report event data transmitted within 15 minutes after meeting event criteria or event maximum.

2. RAD(II), SWP(II), FLA(II), LOOP(I), LIMB(I), and SITEC may be encoded in any order within a single EVENT code message. These event type indicator groups may be repeated in a message to report multiple phenomena (e.g., RAD05 RADCU RADIF). No more than eight groups may be included in a single message.

3. Do not report a combination of RAD//, RAD05, or RAD11 in the same message. Report RAD00, RADCU, and RADIF regardless of whether RAD//, RAD05, or RAD11 have already been reported. Report RAD00, RADCU, and RADIF only once per burst.

4. Unlike the FLA(II) group, the RAD(II) group does not have a "NE (no burst occurring)" option. As a result, when responding to a RAD//, RAD05, or RAD11 report from another observatory and your site observed no corresponding burst at all (i.e., the other site's burst may be due to radio frequency interference): (1) respond with a RADNS, (2) append a plain language (PLAIN) message stating your site observed no activity at all, and (3) initiate an intersite data discrepancy review.

5. RADIP, SWPIP, and FLAIP: Use these groups when a previously reported event is still in progress and a new all-sensor EVENT code message must be transmitted for any reason. RADIP applies only to RAD//, RAD05, and RAD11, since RAD00, RADCU, and RADIF are reported only once per burst. Do not use SWPIP to follow up a SWPNA response; SWPNA must be reissued for all responses if the SFIR plot is not yet available for analysis. Use SWPIP when a Type II has been previously reported in the event code and a Type IV is subsequently observed (e.g., SWPIP SWP44). An event-level sweep is "IP" from the moment it starts to the moment it ends. An event-level burst is "IP" from the moment any frequency reaches 1,500 sfu until all eight frequencies are below 1,500 sfu and there is no indication any of them is likely to rise again above 1,500 sfu (e.g., a complex burst). An event-level flare is "IP" from the moment it reaches "brilliant" intensity, or an area importance of "1" or greater, until the flare clearly declines below both the intensity and area event thresholds.

6. SWP(II) data are not immediately available. Transmit reports as soon as an accurate determination of sweep type is made. Transmit SWPNA if total power data suggests a sweep may have occurred, but it is not yet visible on the SFIR plotter.

7. To initially report a flare event, an optical-only observatory in automatic mode (computer is able to analyze data and generate messages) will transmit a preliminary FLARE code message in place of the EVENT code "FLA//" message. Combined optical-radio observatories are not required to (but may) include a "FLA//" in an all-sensor EVENT code message under these circumstances. Since there is only one flare event threshold (i.e., exceeding 0N), do not transmit another "FLA//" message when a flare increases classification (for example, when it goes from a 1N to a 1B or a 2B). However, an extra FLARE code preliminary message, before the mandatory post maximum preliminary, would be appropriate.

8. Omit the LOOP(I) and/or LIMB(I) group(s) if they do not apply. Report LOOP(I) and LIMB(I) only once per event. There is no "in progress (IP)" option for these groups. So, if a loop prominence event or an energetic limb event is still in progress when a new all-sensor EVENT code message must be transmitted for any reason, the solar analyst may (depending on the exact circumstances) find it appropriate to append a PLAIN stating that loops or limb event activity is still in progress.

9. X-ray event messages do not require a response from the observatories.

10. Report the maximum deviation of the SITEC, extrapolated above the "normal" curve, in the next scheduled or unscheduled (HI, HR, or HO MANOP header) PLAIN message transmitted after the SITEC has ended. Report the maximum deviation data as it would be coded in the TELCO code. Example: A deviation of 1.34 x 1016 obtained from a manual TEC Conversion table would be reported as 01316 in the TELCO code. At 50th Weather Squadron solar sites, a computer program named TELCO is available. This program's output is already in reportable TEC units (for the example above, the output would be 013).

4.2. Event Acknowledgment Code (AKNOW). This message is generated by the forecast center to acknowledge receipt of event, HE ( ) ( ) MANOP, messages and to provide a quality and system acceptance assessment of the messages.

Line 1 MANOP heading 555555 (5 BELLS)
Line 2 TTTTT
Line 3 11111 AKNOW XXXXX 99999 5 BELLS

Line 1 MANOP heading -HEUS(X) KSFC, where (X) corresponds to the origin of the acknowledged
message:
3-San Vito Solar Observatory
4-Sagamore Hill Solar Observatory
5-Ramey Solar Observatory
6-Holloman Solar Observatory
7-Palehua Solar Observatory
9-Learmonth Solar Observatory
555555 -Dummy date/time group (GMT)
5 BELLS -Bells will audibly alert receivers of the message that the message has arrived

Line 2 TTTTT -Message type being acknowledged: "FLARE", "DALAS", "BURST",
"SWEEP" or "EVENT".
Line 3 11111 -Data line indicator
AKNOW XXXXX -Acknowledgment remark. If the message was received error-free and accepted
by forecast center computer system, the remark will read AKNOW GOOD. If
the message was received, but rejected due to a data error and/or other cause,
the remark will read AKNOW BAD LINE (YY) where (YY) is coded as:
00-Message appears good, but system problems at the forecast center prevented
acceptance; retransmit message.
03 to 99-Approximate line number on which an error was detected; check
message, correct, and retransmit.
99999 -End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).
5 BELLS -Bells will audibly alert receivers of the message.

4.3. Plain Language Code (PLAIN). Use this code to report astrogeophysical data and/or operational information not reportable by another code, or to expand or explain data reported in another code. PLAIN messages may be transmitted separately or appended to other coded messages.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 PLAIN
Line 3 (Plain language text)
Line 3a (Plain language text)
Line 4 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 PLAIN Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 (text) Non-decoded alphabetic character word descriptions; not more than 69 characters per line
Line 3a (text) Continuation of line 3, repeat as often as necessary
Line 4 99999 End of data indicator (must be on a separate line).

4.4. Patrol Status Code (STATS). Use this code to report patrol start or stop times for an observatory's optical, radio, and/or geophysical observing equipment. Transmit messages as soon as feasible after both opening and closing the observatory, and as needed to report changing operating conditions throughout the day.

Line 1 MANOP heading
Line 2 STATS
Line 3 IIiii YMMDD STTnn
Line 4 11111 GGggM jEEOI jEEOI jEEOI jEEOI ..... .....
Line 4a 22222 jEEOI jEEOI ..... ..... ..... 99999
Line 5 33333 GGggM jFFOI jFFOI jFFOI jFFOI ..... .....
Line 5a 44444 jFFOI jFFOI ..... ..... ..... 99999
Line 6 55555 GGggM jHHOI jHHOI jHHOI jHHOI ..... .....
Line 6a 66666 jHHOI jHHOI ..... ..... ..... 99999

Line 1 MANOP heading (see Note 1)
Line 2 STATS Data identifier, alphabetic character
Line 3 IIiii II -World Meteorological Organization block number
iii -World Meteorological Organization station number
YYMMDD Y -Last digit of year
MM -Number of the month
DD -Day of the month (corresponding to the GGgg time group)
STTnn S -Status of the report coded according to:
1-(Not Used)
2-Final report
3-Correction
4-Deletion
TT -Type of sensor system coded according to: (See Note 1)
01-Optical (SOON-Solar Observing Optical Network)
02-Radio (RSTN-Radio Solar Telescope Network)
03-Geophysical (or other non-SOON or RSTN) instrument
nn -Number of data lines in this message
Line 4 11111 Optical (SOON) data line indicator (see Note 2)
GGggM GG -Hour of valid time (GMT)
gg -Minutes of valid time (GMT)
M -Method of observation coded according to: (See Note 3)
1-Automatic
2-Semiautomatic
jEEOI j -Status of equipment coded according to:
0-On at sunrise
1-Inoperative at sunrise
2-On at interim time between sunrise and sunset
3-Off at interim time between sunrise and sunset
4-Off at sunset
EE -System/equipment indicator coded according to: (See Notes 4 and 5)
01-Computer
02-Automated Weather Network (AWN)
03-Defense Switching Network (DSN)
04-Commercial phones
05-FMQ-7 (all SOON subsystems)
06-Hydrogen-alpha system
07-Spectrograph system
08-Digital Image Processing System (DIPS)
09-White light system
// -All systems/equipment
O -Expected outage time coded according to:
1-Less than 30 minutes
2-30 minutes to less than 60 minutes
3-One hour to less than 4 hours
4-Four hours to less than 8 hours
5-Eight hours or more
9-Unknown
/ -Not applicable
I -Reason the system/equipment is inoperative coded according to:
1-Weather
2-Equipment problems
3-Routine maintenance
4-Power failure
5-Calibrations
6-Local obstructions
9-Unknown
/ -Not applicable
99999 End of data indicator (put only at end of last data line)
Line 4a 22222 Continuation line indicator for optical (SOON) data; the jEEOI groups in line 4a must
pertain to the same GGggM given in line 4
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).
Line 5 33333 Radio (RSTN) data line indicator (see Note 6)
GGggM GG -Hour of valid time (GMT)
gg -Minutes of valid time (GMT)
M -Method of observation coded according to:
1-Automatic
3-Manual
jFFOI j -status of equipment coded according to:
0-On at sunrise
1-Inoperative at sunrise
2-On at interim time between sunrise and sunset
3-Off at interim time between sunrise and sunset
4-Off at sunset
FF -Frequency/equipment indicator coded according to: (See Notes 4 and 5)
01-Computer
02-Automated Weather Network (AWN)
03-Defense Switching Network (DSN)
04-Commercial phones
10-FRR-95 (all discrete frequency radiometers and SFIR)
11-Radiometer at 150 to 299 MHz
22-Radiometer at 300 to 499 MHz
33-Radiometer at 500 to 999 MHz
44-Radiometer at 1000 to 1999 MHz
55-Radiometer at 2000 to 3999 MHz
66-Radiometer at 4000 to 7999 MHz
77-Radiometer at 8000 to 11999 MHz
88-Radiometer at 12000 to 19999 MHz
19-Swept Frequency Interferometric Radiometer (SFIR)
// -All systems/equipment
O -Expected outage time coded according to:
1-Less than 30 minute
2-30 minutes to less than 60 minutes
3-One hour to less than 4 hours
4-Four hours to less than 8 hours
5-Eight hours or more
9-Unknown
/ -Not applicable
I -Reason the system/equipment is inoperative coded according to:
1-Weather
2-Equipment problems
3-Routine maintenance
4-Power failure
5-Calibrations
6-Local obstructions
7-Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
9-Unknown
/ -Not applicable
99999 End of data indicator (put only at end of last data line)
Line 5a 44444 Continuation line indicator for radio (RSTN) data; the jFFOI groups in line 5a must
pertain to the same GGggM given in line 5
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).
Line 6 55555 Geophysical (or other non-SOON or RSTN) instrument data line indicator (see Note 7)
GGggM GG -Hour of valid time (GMT)
gg -Minutes of valid time (GMT)
M -Method of observation coded according to:
1-Automatic
3-Manual
jHHOI j -Status of equipment coded according to:
5-On at time of GGggM group
6-Off at time of GGggM group
HH -System/equipment indicator coded according to:
91-Ionosonde (DISS or manual ionosonde)
92-Magnetometer
93-Neutron Monitor
94-Riometer
95-Polarimeter or IMS
O -Expected outage time coded according to:
1-Less than 30 minutes
2-30 minutes to less than 60 minutes
3-One hour to less than 4 hours
4-Four hours to less than 8 hours
5-Eight hours or more
9-Unknown
/ -Not applicable
I -Reason the system/equipment is inoperative coded according to:
1-Weather
2-Equipment problems
3-Routine maintenance
4-Power failure
5-Calibrations
6-Local obstructions
7-Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
9-Unknown
/ -Not applicable
99999 End of data indicator (put only at end of last data line)
Line 6a 66666 Continuation line indicator for geophysical (or other non-SOON or RSTN) instruments;
the jHHOI groups in line 6a must pertain to the same GGggM given in line 6
99999 End of data indicator (include at end of last data line).

NOTES:

1. Do not combine optical, radio, and geophysical instruments in a single STATS message. Send each system status in separate messages, using the MANOP headers appropriate to the data type: HO for optical, HR for radio, and either HM or HI for geomagnetic and/or ionospheric. If old STATS messages are transmitted (e.g., to update the 50th Weather Squadron, the current status must be retransmitted after sending the old messages is completed, since it is the last received message that updates the AFSFC status displays.

2. Repeat lines 4 and 4a as often as necessary, but do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. Data line 4 contains the 11111 and GGggM groups, and a maximum of seven jEEOI groups. Data line 4a contains the 22222 group and a maximum of eight jEEOI groups.

3. At a SOON site the method of observation ("M") may change (from semiautomatic to automatic, or vice versa) without any system/equipment item changing status. This may occur when light levels improve in the morning, making automatic operations possible, and again later in the evening when declining light levels may make automatic operations impossible. In such situations, the analyst must send a STATS message with a single jEEOI group of 206//. (The 206// group is required for decode purposes at the forecast center, not because the status of the Hydrogen-alpha system (EE = 06) has changed.) For example, a SOON site opened in semiautomatic mode; when light levels improve sufficiently to support automatic operations, the analyst would transmit the following message, even though no systems/equipment changed status:

STATS
IIiii 20226 20101
11111 17401 206// 99999

4. Report the status of all installed systems/equipment, in numerical order (i.e., // or 01, 02, 03, ...), in the first STATS message of the observing day. For SOON, analysts may report 05 (FMQ-7, all SOON subsystems) in place of 06 to 09 if these items have the same status, expected outage time, and reason for outage. For RSTN, analysts may report 10 (FRR-95, all discrete frequency radiometers and SFIR) in place of 11 to 88 and 19 if these items have the same status, expected outage time, and reason for outage. For example, a SOON site opens with the computer, commercial phones, and spectrograph inoperative; site has no Defense Switching Network (DSN) capability installed:

STATS
IIiii 20226 20102
11111 17252 10192 002// 10442
22222 006// 10752 008// 009// 99999

Outages can be reported "by exception"; to do so, first indicate all items are operational, then (in the same message) indicate the non-operational item(s) using the same time. The above example could be coded:

STATS
IIiii 20226 20101
11111 17252 0//// 10192 10442 10752 99999

5. After the first STATS message of the observing day, it is only necessary to report the systems/equipment which change status during the day. For example, continuing from above example, computer repaired, but no other changes:

STATS
IIiii 20226 20101
11111 18301 201// 99999

A STATS reportable AWN, DSN, or commercial phone outage is intended to reflect a site-wide outage in send, receive, or both. The fact that a single phone instrument/line or teletype printer is out of service is not reportable by STATS. For example, at a dual SOON/RSTN site, if SOON has no AWN capability, but RSTN does, the outage is not reportable by STATS. At a dual site, the SOON and RSTN analysts should not both report a site-wide AWN, DSN, or commercial phone outage. In fact, for a dual site, only a SOON STATS message (i.e., a 11111 or 22222 line entry) can be used to update these three items. The same isn't true for computers. It's possible for one side to have a computer outage and the other side to be in automatic mode, so the SOON and RSTN computers are treated separately. For this reason, a computer outage that affects both SOON and RSTN must be reported in both a SOON and a RSTN STATS message.

6. Repeat lines 5 and 5a as often as necessary, but do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. Data line 5 contains the 33333 and GGggM groups, and a maximum of seven jFFOI groups. Data line 5a contains the 44444 group and a maximum of eight jFFOI groups.

7. Repeat lines 6 and 6a as often as necessary, but do not include data for more than one GMT day in a single message. For example, status of an ionosonde and a polarimeter can be reported in the same STATS message using two lines 6. Data line 6 contains the 55555 and GGggM groups, and a maximum of seven jHHOI groups. Data line 6a contains the 66666 group and a maximum of eight jHHOI groups.

JOSEPH W. RALSTON, Lt Gen, USAF
DCS/Plans and Operations

GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Abbreviations
and Acronyms Definitions

ADF Active Dark Filament
AFS Arch Filament System
AKNOW Event Acknowlegment Code
ASR Active Surge Region
APR Active Prominence Region
AWN Automated Weather Network
BSD Bright Surge on Disk
BSL Bright Surge on Limb
BURST Discrete Solar Radio Burst Code
BXOUT Vidiometer Box Dimension Outline
CAP Cap Prominence
CRN Coronal Rain
DALAS Solar Disk and Limb Activity Summary Dode
dB Decibel
DIPS Digital Image Processing System
DSD Dark Surge on Disk
DSF Dissappearance of a Solar Filament
DSN Defense Switching Network
EPL Eruptive Prominence on Limb
ETS1 Environmental Technical Satellite 1
EVENT Event Code
FALSE False Alarm
FLARE Solar Flare Code
fmin Minimum observed frequency
foEs Sproadic E critical frequency
foF1 F1 region critical frequency
foF2 F2 region critical frequency
GHz Giga Hertz (109 Hz)
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GOS3 Geosynchronous Operational Environmetnal Satellite 3
GPS/NAVSTAR Global Positioning System/Navigation, Surveillance, Tracking, and Reporting
HSTRY Histogram History Code
Hz Hertz
IFLUX Integrated Solar Radio Flux Code
IMS Ionospheric Measuring System
IONHT Ionospheric Height Code
IONOS Automated Ionospheric Data Code
IONSS Ionospheric Code
IPP Ionospheric Penetration Point
LPS Loop Prominence
m Meters
MDP Mound Prominence
MHz Mega Hertz (106 Hz)
PLAIN Plain Language Code
REQUEST Request
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
RSTN Radio Solar Telescope Network
S4 Mean Amplitude Scintillation Index
sec Second
SESC Space Environment Services Center
Abbreviations
and Acronyms Definitions

SFIR Swept Frequency Interferometric Radiometer
sfu Solar flux units
sigma-sub-delta-phi Mean Phase Scintillation Index
SITEC Sudden Increase in Total Electron Content in the Ionosphere
SOON Solar Observing Optical Network
SPOTS Sunspot Code
SPY Spray
SSB Solar Sector Boundary
STATS Patrol Status Code
SWEEP Sectral Solar Radio Burst Code
TBD To Be Determined
TEC Total Electron Content
TELCO Total Electron Content Code
TELSI Total Electron Content and Scintillation Code
VHF Very High Frequency
XR Solar X-ray Event Indicator