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Glossary

ACES. Autocalibrating Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometers developed by Phillips Laboratory

ADSID. Air-Delivered Seismic Detection

AF. Air Force

AFDIS. AFGWC Dial-In System for weather product support

AFGWC. Air Force Global Weather Center, Offutt AFB NE

AFMC. Air Force Materiel Command

AFSPC. New acronym for Air Force Space Command

Amor asteroid. Asteroid having perihelion distance between 1.017 and 1.3 astronomical units (AU).

aperture. The diameter of the primary lens or mirror of a telescope; hence, the best single measure of the light-gathering power of a telescope.

aphelion. The point in elliptical orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet that is farthest from the Sun.

Apollo asteroid. Asteroid having orbital parameters similar to the Earth's.

ARPA. Advanced Research Projects Agency

Artificial intelligence. A generic term commonly used to indicate the inclusion in software of some type of automated application of rules, the results of which give the appearance of "intelligence" on the part of the computer. An example would be a computer which uses language rules to carry on a conversation with the human using the computer.

ASAT. Anti-Satellite

ASCM. Advanced Spaceborne Computer Module

asteroid. An object orbiting the Sun that is smaller than a major planet (tens of meters to about 1,000 km diameter), but shows no evidence of an atmosphere or other types of activity associated with comets. Most asteroids are located in a belt between Mars and Jupiter from 2.2 to 3.3 AU from the Sun.

astronomical unit (AU). Average distance between the Earth and Sun, equal to about 150 million kilometers.

Aten asteroid. Asteroid having semimajor axis less than 1.0 AU and aphelion distance greater than 0.983 AU.

ATLAS. Aerospace Traffic Location and Sensing

ATN. NOAA's Advanced TIROS-N satellite

ATSSB. Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus

Automated assistants. Any of several software tools which can be programmed to automatically find and/or process information according to rules or guidelines given by a specific user of the resultant information. For example, tell an automated assistant to check all the news service articles for the last two months, and report tomorrow at 0800 with all articles which mentioned both Bosnia and any type of US military forces.

AWACS. Airborne Warning and Control System

AWDS. Automated Weather Distribution System; Air Force weather communications and data processing/analysis system used in base weather support

AWN. Automated Weather Network; Air Force high-speed weather data communications network

BDA. Battle Damage Assessment

BMDO. Ballistic Missile Defense Office

bolide. An asteroid or meteor which explodes in the Earth's atmosphere.

Bulletin board. Used in this paper to indicate the on-line (electronic) bulletin boards, where users of the board post notices using modems or network connections such as Internet. Users also read notices and carry out other bulletin board business, such as multiparty on-line conversations where each party types in comments in an ongoing discussion.

C3BM. Command, Control, and Communications and Battle Management

C4I. Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence

C6I. Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Beyond

CAD. Computer Aided Design

CAT. Computerized Axial Tomography

CC&D. Concealment, Camouflage and Deception

CCD. Charge-Coupled Device. A solid-state detector used for low-light imaging.

chromosphere. Middle solar atmosphere layer defined to begin at the temperature minimum in the solar atmosphere of 4300 degrees Kelvin, extends approximately 3000 km; region where solar flares are observed.

CICBM. Conventional Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

CINC. Commander in Chief

CINCSAT. Commander in Chief Satellite

comet. A volatile-rich body that develops a transient atmosphere as it orbits the Sun. The orbit is usually highly elliptical or even parabolic (average perihelion distance less than 1 AU; average aphelion distance, roughly 104 AU). When a comet comes near the Sun, some of its material vaporizes, forming a large head of tenuous gas, and often a tail formed by the solar wind.

COMSEC. Communications Security

CONUS. Continental United States

Corona. Very hot, tenuous, outer layer of the solar atmosphere, fully ionized, affected by the solar magnetic field, region from which solar wind is emitted

Counterforce operations. those space or trans-atmospheric activities aimed at opposing or defending against threatening force anywhere on the planet or in the region of space. Although counterforce activities are defensive in intent, they do not preclude defense by offensive action. Counterforce activities include the use of information and weather as weapons. They also include defense against non-human threats to the vitality and security of the United States and the people on the planet.

CRAF. Civil Reserve Air Fleet

CSLBM. Conventional Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile

CSOC. Consolidated Space Operations Center

CSTC. Consolidated Space Test Center

D. Fractal Dimension

DEW. Directed Energy Weapons

DFCB. Data Fusion Control Bank

DMSP. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DNA. Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DOS. Disk Operating System

DSCS. Defense Satellite Communications System

DSP. Defense Support Program

ECA. Earth-Crossing-Asteroid. An asteroid whose orbit crosses the Earth's orbit or will at some time cross the Earth's orbit as it evolves under the influence of perturbations from Jupiter and the other planets.

eccentricity. The measure of the degree to which an ellipse is not circular; ratio of the distance between the foci to the major axis.

ECM. Electronic Countermeasures

Electronic performance support system. A general grouping of software tools to aid productivity. A typical group might include an electronic phone book/rolodex, electronic scheduler/calendar, electronic calculator, project management tool, tutorial(s) on one or more aspects of the job or software, and a database of key information. The objective is to provide the individual with access to the information and tools needed to do the job.

ELINT. Electronic Intelligence

EMI. Electromagnetic Interference

EMP. Electromagnetic Pulse

EO. Electro-optical

EOS. NASA's future Earth Observing System

EUV. Extreme ultraviolet radiation

Expert system. Typically a set of rules or a decision tree which aids an individual to make good decisions in an area where that individual is not an expert. Usually, subject matter experts are interviewed by the software developers to determine the steps the expert would use to make a particular decision. Sometimes experts are followed by note-taking observers as the experts go about formulating decisions. This often reveals that the expert was not aware of all the steps and questions used.

FALCON. Fission Activated Laser Concepts

FLOPS. Floating Point Operations per Second

FNOC. Navy's Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center, Monterey CA

FPS. Force Protection Satellites

Galactic cosmic radiation. Energetic particles from distant stars and galaxies.

GEO. Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

GEODSSS. Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System

GOES. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GPRC. Global Precision Response Capability

GPS. Global Positioning System

GSRT. Global Surveillance Reconnaissance Targeting

GSV. Ground Superiority Vehicles

HF. High Frequency

HUMINT. Human Intelligence

HVA. High Value Asset

HZ. Hertz

IBM. International Business Machines Corporation

ICAO. International Civil Aviation Organization

ICSW. Intercontinental Strike Weapons

IFF. Identification Friend or Foe

inclination. Angle or "tilt" of the object's orbit relative to the ecliptic plane, or Earth's orbit plane.

Information Super Highway. One of the currently popular expressions used to describe the projected network of computer/electronic connections which are to tie education, industry, government, and personal computers together so that information and questions can freely flow between all those connected on any part of the overall network. It has been popularized by and is being pushed by the current vice-president of the US.

INS. Inertial Navigation System

INSAT. India's geostationary weather satellite

interactive. Implying that the user of the software can exert some control over the software, and not just be a passive page-turner recipient. It also usually implies that part of the software design is aimed at adjusting to the needs of each individual user.

Internet. A worldwide computer network that grew out of an originally small network designed by the Department of Defense to allow rapid communication between universities, research laboratories, and military project offices.

IR. Infrared

IRCS. Infrared Cross Section

JEM. Jet Engine Modulation

JSTARS. Joint Surveillance, Targeting and Reconnaissance System

KEP. Kinetic Energy Penetrators

KEW. Kinetic Energy Weapons

kiloton or Kton. Energy equivalent to 1,000 tons of TNT (4.3 and 1012 Joules).

KKV. Kinetic Kill Vehicle

Lagrangian points. Points in a two body gravity system of large objects (such as the Sun and Earth) where small objects can orbit the primary body and remain almost stationary relative to the secondary body.

LANDSAT. Earth-sensing satellite managed by NASA

LCS. Laser Cross Section

LEO. Low Earth Orbit

Libration point. Point in between two planetary masses where gravitational forces of the two masses are essentially balanced

LIDAR. Laser Imaging and Ranging Device

LightSat. Light-weight satellite that can be quickly launched.

Logistics activities. Broadly encompassing all the activities aimed at providing and sustaining access to space. These include building and maintaining a space operations infrastructure and training the human resources that sustain space logistics, monitoring and reporting from space, and counterforce operations. In the SPACECAST 2020 report logistics activities include space research and development, space system design and procurement, space launch operations, on-orbit maintenance and resupply, tracking, telemetry and spacecraft systems commanding (TT&C), de-orbit-operations, and education and training for military space operations.

long-period comets. Comet with a orbital period around the Sun greater than 20 years. Sometimes this class is divided into intermediate period comets (those with orbital periods between 20 and 200 years) and long-period comets.

LPI. Low Probability of Intercept

LWIR. Long Wave Infrared

magnitude. A number, measured on a logarithmic scale, used to indicate the brightness of an object. Two stars differing by 5 magnitudes differ in brightness by a factor of 100. The brighter the star, the lower the numerical value of the magnitude; very bright objects have negative magnitudes. The star Vega (alpha Lyrae) is defined to be magnitude zero.

main-belt asteroids. Asteroids occupying the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, sometimes limited specifically to the most populous parts of the belt, from 2.2 to 3.3 AU from the Sun.

MARV. Maneuverable Reentry Vehicle

megaton or Mton. Energy equivalent of one million tons of TNT (4.3 x 1016 Joules).

MEO- Medium Earth Orbit

meteor. The light phenomenon produced by an object experiencing frictional heating when entering a planetary atmosphere; also used for the glowing meteor itself. If particularly large, it is described as a fireball.

meteorite. A natural object of extraterrestrial origin that survives passage through the atmosphere.

METEOSAT. Geostationary weather satellite managed by the European Space Agency

MIT. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Monitoring and reporting Activities. Those directed toward observation and orientation to reduce uncertainties, and to provide communications for the purpose of exercising command of military forces. Although omni-spectral surveillance of the planet and of space are important elements of this area of activity, others include using space and the vertical dimension for the command of forces operating in all media, communications, navigation, and for the information collection and fusion that, assisted by computational power, results in intelligence. In the area of monitoring and reporting there are many commonalties between national security needs and systems and the systems serving the needs of business and commerce.

MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MSI. Multispectral Imaging

MSX. Midcourse Space Experiment

multimedia. A term which is commonly used to describe almost any software product which includes multiple types of media, such as color pictures, sound, and video. Multimedia applications are also typically interactive, in that the user can respond to the program and it will in turn adapt to user inputs.

NASA. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASP. National Aerospace Plane

NEO. Near-Earth-Object. Objects whose orbits bring them near the Earth. Specifically, Apollo, Amor, and Aten asteroids, and certain comets.

NIH. National Institutes of Health

NMR. Non-Magnetic Resonance

NOAA. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NODDS. Navy's Naval Oceanographic Data Distribution System

NORAD. North American Aerospace Defense Command

Nowcasting. Forecasting weather, for the next few minutes to a couple of hours using all immediately available weather data

NRL. Naval Research Laboratory

OBC. On-Board Computer

Omni-sensorial. Any of several optical, acoustical, or radio-frequency instruments that using interference phenomena between a reference wave and an experimental wave, or between two parts of an experimental wave to determine wavelengths, wave velocities, distances, and directions.

on-line. Generic term to describe communications or information which is transmitted or available through the use of computer modems or networks. If something resides on-line, such as an electronic bulletin board, it may have no existence other than the virtual existence in the computer.

opposition. An angle of 180 degrees between a planetary object, the Earth, and the Sun. More simply, these bodies lie on a straight line with Earth in the middle.

OPSEC. Operations Security

OSO. NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatories in the 1960's and early 1970's.

OTHB. Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar

perihelion. The place in the orbit of an object revolving around the Sun where it is closest to the Sun.

perturbation. For a body orbiting the Sun or a planet, the gravitational effect of a third body (e.g.,another planet) on its orbit, usually resulting in small changes or periodic fluctuations. [For comets, outgassing near the sun may also act on its orbit.]

PGM. Precision Guided Munition

Photosphere. Lowest part of Sun's atmosphere where sunspots are seen.

PME. Professional Military Education, to include any education or training courses.

POES. Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite, managed by NOAA.

RBE. Relative Biological Effectiveness

RCS. Radar Cross Section

reconnaissance. A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy.

reengineering. Currently popular corporate term used to describe the act of rethinking and restructuring the processes of a company before overhauling the computer systems within that company. The lesson it seeks to teach is that if you don't go through this rethinking process, the result of the computer overhaul may just be the same mistakes and problems as before, but generated one hundred times faster.

REM. A unit of ionizing radiation in human tissue, equivalent to one roentgen of x-rays.

RF. Radio Frequency

ROE. Rules of engagement

ROSS. Reusable Operating System Software

RULLI. Remote Ultra Low Light Imaging

RV. Reentry Vehicle

S4. Structural Sensory Signature System

SAIC. Science Applications International Corporation

SAR. Search and Rescue

SAS. Situation Assessment Summary

SATKA. Surveillance, Acquisition, Targeting and Attack Assessment

SBV. Space Based Visible Experiment

semimajor axis. Half the major axis of an ellipse. For a planetary orbit, it represents the body's average distance from the Sun.

short-period comet. Comet with an orbital period around the Sun less than 20 years.

SIGINT. Signals Intelligence

SOF. Special Operations Forces

SOI. Space Object Identification

solar wind plasma. Ionized gas consisting of protons, electrons, and other heavy, energetic particles ejected from Sun's corona.

space weather. Variability of the near-Earth and interplanetary space environment.

SPATRACS. Space Traffic Control System

specific impulse. Measure of fuel efficiency.

SSN. Space Surveillance Network

SSTAR. Space Surveillance, Tracking and Autonomous Repositioning

SSTI. Space Surveillance, Tracking and Identification

STEP. Space Test Experiments Platform

surveillance. The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things by visual, electronic, photographic or other means.

SWCL. Short Wave Chemical Laser

SWERVE. Sandia Winged Energetic Reentry Vehicle Experiment

TAOS. Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability

telecommunications. Includes any of the component technologies used for electronic communications over a distance typically greater than that covered by a human shout. In the context of this paper it implies two-way communications.

telepresence. Using technology to give the appearance of an individual being present at a location other than the actual location of that individual. An example would be a pilot in a sophisticated simulator which was actually controlling a real airplane 500 miles away, and providing to the pilot visual and other sensory feedback as if the pilot were actually in the cockpit looking out the windscreen and feeling the turbulence. As PME 2020 includes extensive mixing of real and artificial locations and people, many of the references to virtual reality or virtual residency will in context include traditional telepresence as an integral part.

TRIM. Tactical Reentry Impacting Munition

TT&C. Telemetry, Tracking, and Control

UAV. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

US. United States

USAF. United States Air Force

USSPACECOM. United States Space Command

UV. Ultra Violet

VBL. Vertical Block Line

VESA. Video Electronics Standards Association

VGPO. Velocity Gate Pull Off

VHSIC. Very High Speed Integrated Circuits

virtual environment. An environment which is partially or totally based on computer generated sensory inputs.

virtual learning. The delivery of educational lessons using any of the technologies included in the expanded virtual reality which is the basis for PME 2020's virtual residency.

virtual reality. Immersion of one or more individuals in a virtual environment, with the aim of achieving the illusion that they are in a place, time, or situation different from their actual real-world location and/or time.

virtual residency. In the context of PME 2020, this term means the use of virtual reality, telepresence, and other telecommunication and computer technologies to enable the PME 2020 system to deliver education and training lessons to multiple individuals (usually in geographically-separated locations) simultaneously in a manner giving the appearance and feeling of the individuals being collocated in a traditional seminar. This virtual environment will also allow within it the use of virtual audio-visual tools such as overhead projectors, chalkboards, tape recorders, slide projectors, and multimedia computer programs.

VLWIR. Very Long Wave Infrared

WWII. World War II

WDP. Weapons Delivery Platforms

WMO. World Meteorological Organization, managed by the United Nations