Category: SSIC 03000 Operations & Readiness
Updated: 06/24/96
Number: MCO 3420.5A
Subj: POLICY FOR COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE (C2W) 94

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
WASHINGTON, DC 20380-0001
MCO 3430.5A
PLN
14 MAR 94


MARINE CORPS ORDER 3430.5A

From: Commandant of the Marine Corps
To: Distribution List

Subj: POLICY FOR COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE (C2W) 94

Ref: (a) CJCS MOP 30 of 8 Mar 93 (NOTAL)
(b) CJCS MOP 6 of 3 Mar 93 (NOTAL)
(c) DoDDir TS-3600.1 of 21 Dec 92 (NOTAL)
(d) MCO 3900.15
(e) FMFM 3

Encl: (1) Command and Control Warfare Responsibilities
(2) Command and Control Warfare References

(3) Command and Control Warfare Terminology

1. Purpose. To promulgate policy, guidance and organizational
relationships for C2W.

2. Cancellation. MCO 3430.5.

3. Background

a. Reference (a) promulgated new policy for Command and
Control Warfare (C2W); previously known as Command, Control and
Communications Countermeasures (C3CM). It redefines the focus of
C3CM toward warfighting; creating C2W. C2W is the integrated use
of Operations Security (OPSEC), Military Deception, Psychological
Operations (PSYOP), Electronic Warfare (EW) and Physical
Destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny
information to, influence, degrade or destroy adversary Command
and Control (C2) capabilities, while protecting friendly C2
capabilities against such actions. C2W applies across the
operational continuum and all levels of conflict. Reference (a)
also clarifies responsibilities for C2W. Chief among these
responsibilities are:

(1) Joint C2W coordination and support;

(2) Integration of C2W by the CinC's into operation
plans, orders and exercises;

(3) Requires the Director of the Defense Intelligence
Agency (DIA) to establish and maintain the Department of Defense
(DoD) wide plan and architecture for integrated intelligence
support to C2W, and to ensure the Military Intelligence
Integrated Data System/Integrated Data Base (MIIDS/IDB) is the
DoD standard data base for C2W intelligence support.



MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 94

b. Reference (b) promulgated new policy for Electronic
Warfare (EW). EW is a major functional component of C2W. EW may
support other C2 requirements to collect information, or may,
itself be regarded as a major action used to directly attack an
enemy's C2 or the enemy's C2 forces in general.

c. Reference (c) established policy and assigned
responsibilities for Information Warfare (IW) on the battlefield
and integrates physical destruction. Discussion of IW herein is
at the unclassified level.

d. Reference (d) established the Combat Development Process
(CDP) employed by the Marine Corps to identify, obtain, and
support necessary combat capabilities.

e. Reference (e) presented the philosophical underpinning of
Marine Corps Command and Control and the fundamental concepts
that govern its application. It is the Marine Corps capstone
doctrinal publication for C2 and provides an overall framework in
which to view C2W in Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF)
combined arms operations.

4. Discussion

a. C2W is the military strategy used by the commander to
realize the operative effects of IW on the battlefield. IW is
the use of information in support of national security strategy
to rapidly seize and maintain a decisive advantage by attacking
an adversary's information infrastructure through exploitation,
denial and influence, while protecting friendly information
systems. IW is implemented in national military strategy by C2W.
IW can be regarded as an element of national military strategy,
while C2W is the operational and tactical execution of IW. The
underlying rationale for this strategy evolves from the
following:

(1) Commanders of military forces are dependent on the
timely flow and processing of information for the effective
generation and application of combat power.

(2) This dependence on C2 and information creates a
vulnerability to counter-C2 for both friendly and adversary
forces. (See Terminology enclosure).

(3) Relative friendly combat power can be significantly
enhanced by effective C2W.

b. The integrated employment of counter-C2 and C2-protection
is the essence of the C2W strategy.

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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 94

(1) Effective counter-C2 can be realized through various
forms of attack. The fundamental approaches to counter-C2 are
destruction, disruption, deception, degradation, and the denial
of information. These approaches generally correlate to the
principle functions within the definition of C2W.

(2) Effective C2-protection can be attained through the
same functions as counter-C2 since both are valid for nullifying
adversary counter-C2.

(3) Maximum effectiveness of the C2W strategy is
accomplished through the integrated employment of C2-protection
and counter-C2 with maneuver, firepower, and sustainment.

c. Intelligence support of C2W must function as an
integrated process. This support includes the consolidation
of compartmented and all-source and multi-source intelligence
data, that is essential to operational planning and execution of
both counter-C2 and C2-protection actions. Intelligence
preparation and continuous coordination will include:

(1) Establishment and maintenance of the required
MIIDS/IDB and other applicable intelligence data bases on enemy
C2W and supporting capabilities.

(2) Collection, production, and dissemination
capabilities and procedures in support of C2W.

(3) Adequate all-source feedback of enemy reactions to
C2W.

(4) The safeguarding of friendly intelligence
organizations to ensure they are not misled or disrupted by
friendly C2W or by adversary reactions to friendly C2W.

(5) Improved integration of compartmented intelligence
capabilities. This includes the release, with proper authority,
of compartmented intelligence information for use at non-
compartmented levels in support of operational planners and
commanders. When commanders require compartmented intelligence
data that cannot be released at non-compartmented levels, action
should be taken by the intelligence organization and the
commander to provide compartmented accesses to persons designated
by the commander.

d. Commanders in Chief (CinC) and Joint Force Commanders
(JFC) are responsible for joint coordination and execution of
C2W. When the Marine Corps is assigned as a Service component of
a joint force, the CinC and the JFC expect Marine Corps forces to
support joint C2W operations and implement C2W actions applicable
to Marine Corps forces.


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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 94

5. Policy

a. The objective of the Marine Corps C2W program is to
provide policy, concept, doctrine, training, equipment
requirements and procurement, to the Fleet Marine Force (FMF)
toward developing a MAGTF that can effectively conduct C2W when
assigned to combatant commands, fleets, or operating
independently. Specifically:

(1) Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC/PP&O) will provide
C2W policy and guidance.

(2) Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC) will
develop C2W concepts, doctrine, requirements, training and
education.

(3) Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) will
develop, field, and provide for training and maintenance of C2W
equipment.

(4) Commanders will conduct training and operations to
ensure C2W tactical and procedural expertise.

b. C2W is a command responsibility. C2W will be integrated
into the combined arms strategy under the staff cognizance of the
G-3/S-3 to-comply with Marine Corps and joint policy. Commanders
will initiate and execute a dynamic C2W program. C2W concepts
will be employed in planning exercises and deployments to test
C2W readiness, planning and training objectives. C2W training
includes specialized training as well as the indoctrination,
planning, and training required by staffs and commanders.

c. C2W training will be provided at formal schools (e.g.,
The Basic School, Communication Officers School, Amphibious
Warfare School, Command and Staff College, School of Advanced
Warfighting, Marine Corps War College, Landing Force Training
Commands, Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center, and
the Armed Forces Staff College's Joint C2W Staff Course). At a
minimum training will include:

(1) Basic C2W terminology.

(2) Examples of topical/potential C2W threats.

(3) Marine Corps C2W capabilities.

(4) Joint Force C2W capabilities.

(5) Employment of C2W and C2W techniques.

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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 94

(6) Integration of the C2W strategy with maneuver,
firepower, and sustainment in combined arms operations within
campaign plans.

d. Training programs will provide an awareness of the impact
that both enemy and friendly C2W operations may have throughout
the battle space, and should exercise specific unit and
individual objectives.

e. Commanders will encourage cross-training with other
Services and allies. Cross-training will create a mutual
understanding of each Service's and nation's C2W capabilities
providing invaluable experience in the conduct of joint/combined
operations.

f. Commanders will identify and report C2W training
deficiencies beyond the capabilities of their command to MCCDC.

g. Commanders will accomplish all C2W training in accordance
with local, Service, joint and/or host nation policies.

h. When assigned as a Service component of a joint force,
commanders will provide a trained, qualified, and properly
equipped C2W Cell to the Joint Commander's Staff. The C2W Cell
should be prepared to assist in the planning and execution of
those aspects of joint C2W and C2W applicable to Marine forces.
The C2W Cell will be comprised of qualified representatives from
each of the warfighting and warfighting support disciplines. The
Joint Electronic Warfare Center can assist in staffing the C2W
Cell on a temporary basis. When assigned as a JFC, Marine
commanders will maintain a C2W Cell under the staff cognizance of
the J-3, and be prepared to host C2W Cell(s) from assigned
forces.

6. Action and Responsibilities. See enclosure (1).

7. References and Terminology. See enclosures (2) and (3)
respectively.





5


MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 94

8. Reserve Applicability. This Order is applicable to the
Marine Corps Reserve.



W. E. BOOMER
Assistant Commandant
of the Marine Corps

DISTRIBUTION: PCN 10203290700

Copy to: 7000110/7000105 (55)
8145005 (2)
1025034/1025038/1025048/2020004/2020006/2020011/
2020013/2061014/2064005/2064018/2116001/2116002/
2117002/2131001/2132002/2132003/2132004/2145019/
7000005/7000006/7000007/7000009/7000012/7000015/
7000028/7000029/7000031/7000032/7000034/7000035/
7000144/7150013/7150015/7150016/7150017/7150018/
7150067/7150071/7230018/7230026/7230040/7230041/
7230042/7230043/7230055/7230057/7230063/7230064/
7230067/7230069/7230071/8145001/8505002 (1)




6

HQMC
14 Mar 1994


ERRATUM

to

MCO 3430.5A

POLICY FOR COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE (C2W)


1. Enclosures (1) through (3) were erroneously dropped during
processing for printing. Add the attached enclosures (1) through
(3) to the basic Order.









DISTRIBUTION: PCN 10203290780

Copy to: 7000110/7000105 (55)
7000093/8145005 (2)
1025034/1025038/1025048/2020004/2020006/2020011/
2020013/2061014/2064005/2064018/2116001/2116002/
2117002/2131001/2132002/2132003/2132004/2145019/
7000005/7000006/7000007/7000009/7000012/7000015/
7000028/7000029/7000031/7000032/7000034/7000035/
7000099/7000114/7150013/7150015/7150016/7150017/
7150018/7150067/7150071/7230018/7230026/7230040/
7230041/7230042/7230043/7230055/7230057/7230063/
7230064/7230067/7230069/7230071/8145001/8505002 (1)




MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE RESPONSIBILITIES

1. Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC)

a. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, Policies and
Operations (DC/S PP&O) is responsible for providing overall C2W
policy and guidance. The DC/S PP&O:

(1) Acts as the Marine Corps representative to the Office
of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff
(JCS)/Joint Staff, the Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC),
the Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC), the other
Services, and other agencies regarding C2W policy matters. Acts
as the primary point of contact for external policy boards and
committees which interface with the Secretary of Defense, the
Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other military Services
to ensure that Marine Corps C2W matters are-considered in joint
and combined actions. Coordinates the assignment of personnel to
serve as members or observers of commissions, boards, advisory
groups, or committees external to the Marine Corps which require
Marine Corps representation on C2W matters. Monitors and
participates in liaison between the military Services, Department
of Defense, other national agencies and private industry
involving the exchange of information pursuant to improving
Marine Corps C2W capabilities.

(2) Exercises principal staff cognizance over matters
relating to Marine Corps C2W policy. Coordinates with Deputy
Chief of Staff for Aviation (DC/S Avn) for aviation systems and
Assistant Chief of Staff for Command, Control, Communications,
Computer and Intelligence (AC/S C4I) for ground and intelligence
systems that support C2W actions. Monitors and reviews Marine
Corps C2W policy, programs, doctrine, missions, and concepts of
employment. Identifies to other appropriate HQMC staff agencies,
the Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command
(CG MCCDC), and the Commander, Marine Corps Systems Command
(COMMARCORSYSCOM) any policy existing that could adversely impact
upon C2W systems currently fielded or under development.

(3) Participates in the formulation, review, and
evaluation of joint/allied C2W actions/plans.

(4) Establishes Marine Corps C2W objectives, policies,
and procedures consistent with DOD Directives, Chairman, Joint
Chiefs of Staff Memorandum of Policy (CJCS MOP) 30, and Joint
Publications.

(5) Evaluates the Marine Corps C2W posture and the
effectiveness of major Marine Corps Commands' C2W programs and
provides C2W guidance as required.

ENCLOSURE (1)
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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

(6) Establishes guidelines for the integration of all
elements of C2W as combined arms with fire and maneuver and
sustainment within campaign plans for C2W.

(7) Provides HQMC staff assistance to CG MCCDC to serve
as the HQMC point of contact regarding the identification,
definition, validation, and promulgation of Marine Corps C2W
requirements, doctrine, training and education, and other related
areas under CG MCCDC's cognizance.

(8) Provides the point of contact and HQMC staff
assistance for oversight to COMMARCORSYSCOM regarding research,
development, and acquisition activities for current and future
Marine Corps C2W systems, to include interoperability with other
Service's and Nation's C2W systems.

(9) Serves as the HQMC focal point concerning C2W
programs under COMMARCORSYSCOM development in support of
planning, programming, and budgeting system (PPBS) requirements.
Coordinates with AC/S C4I in the review of applicable PPBS
documentation on C2W systems, providing comments and
recommendations to CG MCCDC and COMMARCORSYSCOM on the adequacy
of those programs with respect to approved Marine Corps C2W
requirements. Coordinates PPBS documentation review with DC/S
Avn concerning C2W aviation systems under COMMARCORSYSCOM
development and AC/S C4I concerning ground C2W systems under
COMMARCORSYSCOM development.

(10) Reviews, in coordination with DC/S Avn, AC/S C4I, CG
MCCDC, COMMARCORSYSCOM, and other agencies, on documents dealing
with the requirement for development, procurement, training,
deployment, and life cycle support of Marine Corps C2W systems.

(11) Monitors the operational employment of C2W systems.
Coordinates with DC/S Avn, AC/S C4I, and CG MCCDC with respect to
determining operational suitability and changes to tactics for
C2W systems.

(12) Chairs the C2W Process Action Team (C2WPAT).

b. The AC/S C4I is responsible for intelligence, counter-
intelligence, and other related intelligence activities in
support of C2W. The AC/S C4I:

(1) Assists DC/S PP&O, DC/S Avn, and other Narine Corps
staff agencies in the preparation of training and programs
pertinent to intelligence support to C2W.

ENCLOSURE (1)
2


MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

(2) Provides threat evaluation of foreign intelligence
and C2W organizations.

(3) Provides personnel to serve as members or observers
of commissions, boards, advisory groups, or committees external
to the Marine Corps which require representation from C4I on C2W
matters.

(4) Coordinates with COMMARCORSYSCOM for the integration,
maintenance, and dissemination of the MIIDS/IDB for C2W systems.
Ensures the MIIDS/IDB is the Marine Corps standard for C2W
intelligence support data bases. Provides a member to the Marine
Corps MIIDS/IDB Functional Control Board.

(5) Provides personnel to serve as members on the
C2WPAT.

c. The DC/S Avn will exercise the following C2W-related
responsibilities:

(1) Serves as the acquisition sponsor, via the Chief of
Naval Operations (N-88), for Navy C2W systems which satisfy the
C2W requirements of Marine Corps aviation.

(2) Coordinates with DC/S PP&O, AC/S C4I and CG MCCDC for
the initiation of studies concerning Marine Corps aviation C2W
capabilities, requirements, and systems.

(3) Prepares and assists in the review of operational
requirements and required operational capabilities dealing with
Marine Corps aviation C2W systems.

(4) Monitors the operational employment of aviation C2W
systems to determine operational suitability, requirements for
systems upgrades, and changes to tactics. Reviews applicable
PPBS documentation on aviation C2W systems and provides
comments/recommendations to DC/S PP&O, AC/S C4I, CG MCCDC, and
COMMARCORSYSCOM on the adequacy of those programs with respect to
approved Marine Corps aviation C2W requirements.

(5) Coordinates with DC/S PP&O to provide the following:

(a) Aviation personnel to serve as members of
commissions, boards, advisory panels, or committees external to
the Marine Corps which require representation from DC/S Avn on
aviation C2W matters.

(b) A member to all Study Advisory Committees (SAC),
and ad hoc committees which address aviation C2W matters.

ENCLOSURE (1)
3


MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

(6) Reviews aviation C2W training and education standards
for aviation C2W training and, in coordination with DC/S PP&O,
forwards recommendations to CG MCCDC.

(7) Participates with DC/S PP&O and AC/S C4I in the
formulation, review, and evaluation of joint/combined C2W
actions/plans.

(8) Coordinates with Commander, Naval Air Systems Command
(COMNAVAIRSYSCOM) and COMMARCORSYSCOM to ensure that adequate C2W
features are incorporated into aviation systems under development.

(9) Coordinates with other HQMC staff agencies, CG
MCCDC, and COMMARCORSYSCOM in the development of current and future
requirements for training devices/simulators necessary to
accomplish C2W training of aviation personnel who will use
electronic systems.

(10) Provides personnel to serves as members on the
C2WPAT.

d. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Resources (DC/S
P&R) will exercise the following C2W-related responsibilities:

(1) Directs, coordinates, and supervises Marine Corps
programming activities within the framework of the PPBS to
include Marine Corps C2W requirements in the Department of the
Navy (DON) Program Objective Memorandum (POM).

(2) Coordinates Marine Corps C2W requirements to
ascertain harmony with the following:

(a) Troop List and Force Structure.

(b) Budget, programming, and resource realities.

(c) Defense Planning Guidance.

(d) Unified Commanders' Integrated Priorities Lists.

(e) Naval/Other Services/Joint/OSD programs.

(3) Reviews selected studies, wargames, exercises, and
analyses that pertain to C2W structure, weapon system mixes, and
cost effectiveness.



ENCLOSURE (1)

4


MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

(4) Ensures HQMC staff application of appropriate
analytical disciplines in C2W and documentation, program
development, and program review.

(5) Represents (from a programming perspective) the
Marine Corps C2W program before external agencies: Department of
the Navy, OSD, and the Congress. DC/S P&R will be assisted in
this effort as necessary by the HQMC staff, CG MCCDC, and
COMMARCORSYSCOM.

e. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Manpower and Reserve
Affairs (DC/S M&RA) will perform actions as necessary for matters
under his functional responsibility to support Marine Corps C2W
forces and missions.

f. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Installations and Logistics
(DC/S I&L) will exercise the following C2W-related responsibilities:

(1) Coordinates with COMMARCORSYSCOM for the life cycle
support of C2W systems being developed for the Marine Corps.

(2) Provides personnel to serve as members or observers
of commissions, boards, advisory groups, or committees external
to the Marine Corps which require representation from the DC/S
I&L on C2W matters.

(3) Incorporates, as appropriate for OPSEC, visual
deception, counter-surveillance, and physical security measures
in installations and facilities housing C2W systems.

(4) Coordinates with the COMMARCORSYSCOM to:

(a) Develop and publish OPSEC material and design
criteria required to incorporate counter-surveillance measures
for C2W systems installations.

(b) Establish an OPSEC research and development
program to produce techniques, materials and design criteria for
C2W system installations that facilitate camouflage, visual
deception and counter-surveillance construction.

2. The CG, MCCDC will exercise the following C2W-related
responsibilities:

a. Develops, assesses, and publishes C2W operational
doctrine, tactics, techniques, studies, concepts, plans,
procedures, and requirements.

ENCLOSURE (1)

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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

b. Conducts mission area analyses for all assigned C2W mission
areas. Formulates, programs, and executes the Marine Corps Studies
Program. Ensures that C2W strategy is included in appropriate
simulations, models, and wargames. Identifies changes to C2W
doctrine, training, force structure, and material. Conducts
long-term C2W studies and analyses to identify shortfalls and
requirements. Ensures C2W lessons learned and mission area
analysis items enter the concept-based requirements system.

c. Develops and effects C2W concepts. Examines strategies,
operational and tactical C2W issues, and ensures that the C2W
strategy is integrated into plans, operations and exercises as a
combined arm.

d. Coordinates with other Services, Unified and Specified
(U&S) Commands, and Allied Commands in developing joint and
combined C2W doctrine.

e. Serves as the MAGTF proponent for all warfighting mission
areas. Serves as force structure proponent for all elements of
the MAGTF. Identifies C2W mission needs of the MAGTF and
establishes requirements for changes to doctrine, training,
organization, and equipment. Establishes priorities for
acquisition of C2W related equipment through the POM process.

f. Develops requirements and coordinates the staffing of
Marine Corps requirements documents and the harmonization of
other Service requirements documents. CG MCCDC will ensure that
provisions for adequate C2W features are incorporated into
required documents for Marine Corps electronics systems.

g. Monitors the progress of COMMARCORSYSCOM in satisfying C2W
equipment requirements. Ensures that C2-protection capabilities
are included in combat vehicle requirements documents.

h. Establishes and ensures C2W doctrine and concepts are
included in appropriate Marine Corps training programs. Ensures
that adequate C2W instruction is included in the courses of
instruction at The Basic School and Marine Corps Service Schools
to include lessons provided through the Marine Corps Institute.
CG MCCDC will also identify Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)
and billet requirements for C2W instructors to support those
programs. Ensures continuous and progressive training for Marine
Corps personnel throughout their careers. Ensures that adequate
instruction and formal training in all aspects of C2W are
incorporated into the curricula and program of instruction of
other Service and joint formal schools.

ENCLOSURE (1)

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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

i. Reviews Marine Corps requirements for C2W training
equipment. CG MCCDC will also coordinate with the
COMMARCORSYSCOM program managers of C2W systems to ensure that
the development of training aids, devices, and simulators is
included in the basic development plan for C2W systems. CG MCCDC
will then provide assistance during the development process.
Ensures that adequate C2W training is incorporated into training
and exercises conducted by the Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat
Center (MCAGCC).

j. Provides personnel to serve as members on the C2WPAT.

3. The COMMARCORSYSCOM will exercise the following C2W-related
responsibilities:

a. Conducts research, development, and acquisition
activities needed to satisfy requirements validated by CG MCCDC
for new or upgraded C2W equipment.

b. Coordinates with DC/S PP&O, AC/S C4I and DC/S Avn to
ensure that provisions for adequate C2W features are incorporated
into Marine Corps electronic systems under development.

c. Provides the Marine Corps Service Representative to the
DIA MIIDS/IDB Functional Control Board (FCB). Establishes the
Marine Corps MIIDS/IDB FCB. Provides the Chair to the Marine
Corps MIIDS/IDB FCB.

d. Coordinates with AC/S C4I, DIA and the joint intelligence
centers for the acquisition, integration, dissemination, and
maintenance of the MIIDS/IDB and other C2W related data bases.
Coordinates with AC/S C4I to ensure C2W systems integrate and use
the MIIDS/IDB as the standard for C2W intelligence support data
bases. Ensures that C2W systems using the MIIDS/IDB provide for
MIIDS/IDB interoperability between Marine Corps and other
Services C2W systems by maintaining the DIA data base elements
and data base structure in accordance with the DIA MIIDS/IDB FCB
and the Marine Corps MIIDS/IDB FCB.

e. Ensures that combat vehicle developments incorporate, as
appropriate for OPSEC, visual deception, counter-surveillance,
and physical security measures in installations and facilities
housing C2W systems. Coordinates with DC/S I&L to provide for
visual deception requirements and life cycle support to C2W
systems being developed.


ENCLOSURE (1)

7


MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

f. Identifies and evaluates potentially useful new
technologies, and advises CG MCCDC of new or improved C2W combat
capabilities that may be achievable through the exploitation of
those technologies.

g. Provides technical support and other data, as necessary,
to CG MCCDC as input for requirements documents.

h. Provides personnel to serve as members on the C2WPAT.








ENCLOSURE (1)

8


MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994


COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE REFERENCES

1. Department of Defense Publications

DoD Directive 5-3115.7 Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) (U)

DoD Directive 3222.4 Electronic Warfare (EW) and
Command, Control, Communications
Countermeasures (C3CM)

DoD Directive TS-3600.1 Information Warfare (U)

2. Joint Publications

Joint Pub 1 Joint Warfare of the U.S. Armed Forces

Joint Pub 1-02 Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Joint Pub 2-0 Joint Doctrine for Intelligence Support to
Operations

Joint Pub 3-0 Doctrine for Joint Operations

Joint Pub 3-13 Joint Command and Control Warfare (C2W)
Operations

Joint Pub 3-51 Electronic Warfare in Joint Military
Operations

Joint Pub 3-53 Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations

Joint Pub 3-54 Joint Doctrine for Operations Security

Joint Pub 3-56 Tactical C2 Planning Guidance and
Procedures for Joint Operations

Joint Pub 3-58 Doctrine for Joint Operational Deception

Joint Pub 6-0 Doctrine for Command, Control,
Communications and Computers (C4) Systems
Support to Joint Operations

CJCS MOP 6 Electronic Warfare

CJCS MOP 30 Command and Control Warfare

CJCS MOP 29 Operations Security

CJCS MOP 116 Military Deception

ENCLOSURE (2)
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MCO 3430.5A
14 Mar 1994

3. U.S. Navy Publications

CNO/N64 Space and Electronic Warfare (SEW) Navy
Policy Paper, June 1992

4. U.S. Marine Corps Publications

MCO 3070.2 Operations Security (OPSEC)

MCO 3120.8A Policy for the Organization of Fleet
Marine Forces for Combat

MCO 8240.1 Directed Energy (DE)

FMFM 3 Command and Control

FMFM 3-1 Command and Staff Action

FMFM 3-21 Marine Air-Ground Task Force Intelligence
Operations

FMFM 3-23 Signals Intelligence/Electronic Warfare
Operations

FMFM 3-27 Aviation Intelligence

FMFM 3-54 Operations Security

FMFM 3-55 Tactical Directed Energy

FMFM 3-55-1 Tactical Directed Energy Technical
Information

FMFM 3-57 EW Officers Handbook

FMFM 3-350 Spectrum Management in a Joint Environment

FMFM 7-1 Fire Support Coordination

FMFM 7-12 Electronic Warfare

FMFM 7-13 Military Deception

FMFM 7-33 Psychological Operations

FMFRP 15-5 Electronic Warfare in Combined Arms


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5. U.S. Army Publications

FM 6-20 Fire Support and the Air/Land Battle

FM 3-31 Psychological Operations

FM 34-1 Intelligence and Electronic Warfare
Operations

FM 34-130 Intelligence Preparation of the
Battlefield

6. U.S. Air Force Publications

AFR 55-50 Command, Control, and Communications
Countermeasures (C3CM) Policy

AFR 700-52 Compatibility and Interoperability of
Tactical C3 and Intelligence Systems

7. Combined Publications

QSTAG 295 Command and Control of Electronic Warfare









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COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE TERMINOLOGY

1. Command and Control (C2). The exercise of authority and
direction by a properly designated commander over assigned or
attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. C2
functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel,
equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by
a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling
forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission.
(Joint Pub 1-02)

2. Commander's Critical Information Requirements (CCIR).
Information the commander deems critical to prepare the battle
space and lead to decisions that generate decisive information
that prompt action, creates or identifies vulnerabilities and
bring about swift victory. CCIR's are also the commander's tool
to focus the C2 organization and the C2 support system to
effectively manage the processing, flow, and quality of
information.

3. Command and Control (C2) Organization. C2 organization
includes all commanders, their staffs, and supporting forces;
associated force structure and command relationships; task
organization; and battlespace organization and control. Forces
are structured, trained, and equipped with the manpower, weapons,
mobility, sustainment, and associated resources to support known
mission requirements. Forces are task organized to support
specific mission requirements; task organization establishes
command authority and responsibilities within the force through
command relationships. The battle space is structured through
standardized techniques and procedures that enhance control and
improve freedom of action, while reducing the demand for
information.

4. Command and Control Support (C2S). The planned complementary
employment of all information related systems, assets, and
associated resources such that the flow and processing of
information is deliberately controlled to advantage in support of
the MAGTF decision and execution cycle. The C2S concept seeks to
balance exploitation of the significant human potential for
abstract reasoning and logic, with the power of automation, to
transport, manipulate, fuse, store and recall information. The
principal goal of the C2S concept is to create a common
situational awareness that speeds commander's and key personnel's
ability to convey and share ideas quickly to enhance unity of
effort and tempo of operations.


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5. C2S System. An organized assembly of C2S forces or elements
task organized and arrayed to overlay the C2 organization with a
C2 support system that collects, transports, processes,
disseminates, and protects information, as well as supports C2W
actions, essential to the commander and subordinate elements in
the generation and decisive application of combat power. A C2S
system includes C2 facilities, decision support, information
exchange, surveillance, and C2S control sub-systems. C2S enables
command and control with communications, computers, surveillance,
reconnaissance, intelligence, interoperability, C2-protection,
and counter-C2 operations, their associated resources, and
technology.

6. C2S Forces. The personnel, equipment, facilities,
communications, and procedures involved with reconnaissance,
surveillance, intelligence, fire support coordination, tactical
air control, electronic warfare, automated data processing,
sensor management, signals intelligence, deception, space
systems, and other information-related areas. Also called C2S
forces.

7. Command and Control Warfare (C2W). The integrated use of
operations security, military deception, psychological
operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction,
supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence,
degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities
and to protect friendly command and control against such actions.
Also called C2W. There are two divisions within C2W:

a. Counter-C2. That division of C2W comprising measures
taken to deny adversary commanders and other decision-makers the
ability to command and control their forces effectively.

b. C2-Protection. That division of C2W comprising measures
taken to maintain the effectiveness of friendly C2 despite both
adversary and friendly counter-C2 actions. (CJCS MOP 30;
proposed for inclusion in Joint Pub 1-02)

8. C2W Actions. The use of lethal and non-lethal means to
attack and destroy or degrade enemy C2 while protecting friendly
C2. C2W actions include the integrated use of Operations
Security (OPSEC), Military Deception, Psychological Operations
(PSYOP), Electronic Warfare (EW), and physical destruction,
mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to,
influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control
capabilities, while protecting friendly command and control
capabilities against such actions.

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9. Decisive Information. Guidance, directives, orders, or any
other type of authoritative information that has been generated
by the commander or his staff. It is the result of processed
information that includes command decisions and/or judgements of
the commander designed to influence specific actions.

10. Directed Energy. An umbrella term covering technologies
that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated
electromagnetic energy or atomic or subatomic particles. Also
called DE. (Joint Pub 1-02)

11. Electronic Warfare. Military action involving: (1) the use
of electromagnetic or directed energy to attack an enemy's combat
capability; (2) protection of friendly combat capabilities
against undesirable effects of friendly or enemy use of the
electromagnetic spectrum warfare or surveillance of the
electromagnetic spectrum for immediate threat recognition in
support of electronic warfare operations and other tactical
actions such as threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. Also
called EW. There are three divisions within electronic warfare:
Electronic Attack (EA), Electronic Protection (EP), and
Electronic Warfare Support (ES).

a. Electronic Attack. That division of electronic warfare
involving the use of electromagnetic or directed energy to attack
personnel, facilities, and/or equipment with the intent of
degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability.
Also called EA. EA includes: 1) actions taken to prevent or
reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum,
such as jamming and electromagnetic deception; 2) employment of
weapons that either use electromagnetic or directed energy as
their primary destructive mechanism (lasers, particle beams) or
use an enemy source of electromagnetic energy as their primary
means of terminal guidance, for the purpose of damaging or
destroying personnel, facilities, or equipment.

(1) Electromagnetic Jamming. The deliberate radiation,
re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the
purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy's effective use of the
electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or
neutralizing the enemy's combat capability. As used in this
order, jamming includes the use of flares, chaff, and corner
reflectors, since these devices radiate or reflect
electromagnetic energy.



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(2) Electromagnetic Deception. The deliberate radiation,
re-radiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial,
enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner
intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy
electromagnetic-dependent weapons, thereby degrading or
neutralizing the enemy's combat capability. Among the types of
electromagnetic deception are:

(a) Manipulative Electromagnetic Deception. Actions
to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic
telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces.

(b) Simulative Electromagnetic Deception. Actions to
represent friendly notional or actual capabilities to mislead
hostile forces.

(c) Imitative Electromagnetic Deception. The
introduction of electromagnetic energy into enemy systems that
imitates enemy emissions.

b. Electronic Protection. That division of electronic
warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities,
and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of
electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly
combat capability. Also called EP.

c. Electronic Warfare Support. That division of electronic
warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of,
an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and
locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose
of immediate threat recognition. Electronic warfare support
provides information required for immediate use by an operational
commander's decisions involving electronic warfare operations and
other tactical actions such as threat avoidance, targeting, and
homing. Also called ES. Electronic warfare support data can be
used to produce signals intelligence (SIGINT), both
communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronics intelligence
(ELINT) (CJCS MOP 6)

12. Emission Control. The selective and controlled use of
electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command
and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations
security (OPSEC), detection by enemy sensors; to minimize mutual
interference among friendly systems; and/or to execute a military
deception plan. Also called EMCON. (Joint Pub 1-02)

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13. Frequency Deconfliction. A systematic management procedure
to coordinate the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for
operations, communications, and intelligence functions.

14. Implementation of the C2W Strategy. A process which
determines the requirements for and develops a plan to integrate
C2W actions into the overall concept of operations.

15. Information. Information is symbols (e.g., numbers,
letters, words, graphics, visual images, sounds, smells, or
physical contact) whether they represent something concrete or
abstract, that give visualization or convey a thought. A given
symbol, or piece of information, may be meaningless by itself.
However, combining pieces of information produces ideas or
provides knowledge. When ideas are structured into logical
patterns they produce concepts or frameworks from which plans
formed and, ultimately, information is managed. There are
basically two sources of information, original and existing:

a. Original Information Source. Original sources are the
first witnesses to the information, be it a human or automated
observation or the intellectual creation of an idea.

b. Existing Information Source. Existing sources of
information are already stored in some type of medium; for
example, a book, microform, a computer, or someone's brain.

16. Information Warfare (U). Information Warfare is the use of
information in support of national security strategy to rapidly
seize and maintain a decisive advantage by attacking an
adversary's information infrastructure through exploitation,
denial and influence, while protecting friendly information
systems. Information Warfare is implemented in national military
strategy by C2W.

17. Management of C2 Information. A process aimed at attaining
timely critical information to support decision making and
dissemination of decisive information to the right place, at the
right time, and in a form that influences appropriate action.
Information management is based on principles that govern its
quality and flow throughout the cycle of collecting,
transporting, processing, disseminating, and protecting
information.



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18. Military Deception. Actions executed to mislead foreign
decision-makers, causing them to derive and accept desired
appreciations of military capabilities, intentions, operations,
or other activities that evoke foreign actions that contribute to
the originator's objectives. There are three categories of
military deception:

a. Strategic Military Deception. Military deception planned
and executed to result in foreign national policies and actions
which support the originator's national objectives, policies, and
strategic military plans. (FMFM 7-13)

b. Tactical Military Deception. Military deception planned
and executed by and in support of operational commanders against
the pertinent threat, to result in opposing operational actions
favorable to the originator's plans and operations. (FMFM 7-13)

c. Department/Service Military Deception. Military
deception planned and executed by Military Services about
military systems, doctrine, tactics, techniques, personnel or
service operations, or other activities to result in foreign
actions which increase or maintain the originator's capabilities
relative to adversaries. (Joint Pub 1-02)

19. Nondestructive Electronic Warfare. Those EW actions, not
including employment of Wartime Reserve Modes (WARM), that deny,
disrupt, or deceive rather than damage or destroy. (CJCS MOP 6)

20. Operations Security. A process of analyzing friendly
actions attendant to military operations and other activities to:

a. Identify those actions that can be observed by adversary
intelligence systems.

b. Determine indicators hostile intelligence systems might
obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive
critical information in time to be useful to adversaries.

c. Select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to
an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to
adversary exploitation. Also called OPSEC. (Joint Pub 1-02)

21. Signals Intelligence. A category of intelligence
information comprising either individually or in combination all
communications intelligence, electronics intelligence, and
foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however
transmitted. Also called SIGINT. (Joint Pub 1-02)

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a. Communications Intelligence. Technical and intelligence
information derived from foreign communications by other than the
intended recipients. Also called COMINT. (Joint Pub 1-02)

b. Electronics Intelligence. Technical and intelligence
information derived from foreign non-communications
electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear
detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. (Joint
Pub 1-02)

c. Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence. Technical
information and intelligence information derived from the
intercept of foreign instrumentation signals by other than the
intended recipients. Note: Foreign instrumentation signals
include but are not limited to signals from telemetry, beaconry,
electronic interrogators, tracking/fusing/arming/firing commando
systems, and video data links. Also called FISINT.

22. Spectrum Management. Planning, coordinating, and managing
joint use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational,
engineering, and administrative procedures, with the objective of
enabling electronic systems to perform their functions in the
intended environment without causing or suffering unacceptable
interference. (CJCS MOP 6)










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