Approval Date:

01 Sept 92

Document:


MISSION NEED STATEMENT (MNS)
FOR A
UHF SURROGATE SATELLITE RELAY SYSTEM

                         (NO. CCC 1.47)


1.  Defense Planning Guidance Element.  This Mission Need Statement responds to the two foundations of the National Defense Policy:  Forward Presence and Crisis Response.  The Marine Air- Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Master Plan dated 28 June 91, capability numbers 3, 17, 30, 39 and 40, documents the need for this capability.   

2.  Mission and Threat Analyses  

    a.  Mission.  The Marine Corps deploys MAGTFs throughout the world to meet operational commitments.  The MAGTF's command element must be capable of communicating with its higher headquarters and its subordinate command.  This capability is extremely important in the rapid assessment of intelligence and the dissemination of this information to subordinate commanders.  The MAGTF's ability to communicate is being challenged by the new concepts of over-the-horizon (OTH) operations and maneuver from the sea.  OTH communications is needed to execute necessary command and control (C2) for amphibious operations and sustained operations ashore.  The use of Landing-Craft-Air-Cushion vehicles and helicopters to transport the landing force ashore has permitted amphibious assault operations to be initiated from OTH.  OTH amphibious operations have extended the C2 radio ranges beyond line-of-sight and require long range communications.  Use of DoD UHF satellites has become a primary means to satisfy OTH requirements for C2 for stationary and moving units.  However, there are numerous limitations which restrict the use of UHF satellites to include:  accessibility to DoD satellites, susceptibility to jamming, and limitations with frequency use based on characteristics of satellite transponders.  HF is a viable alternative; however, the use of HF is limited by the following: susceptibility to direction finding, propagation limitations, HF antenna deficiencies aboard amphibious ships, and lower quality voice/data communications.  In contrast, a UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System provides a means of communications not as susceptible to DF or propagation limitations.

    b.  The required Initial Operational Capability date is FY94.  The desired Full Operational Capability date is FY96.

    c.  Threat.  Potential electronic warfare (EW) threats confronting the Fleet Marine Force can incapacitate UHF satellite communications.  The ability to counter EW and allow the MAGTF commander to successfully command and control his subordinate elements is paramount to the successful execution of the mission.  All radio communications systems are susceptible, in varying degrees, to electronic exploitation and enemy attack if located.  For example, the current UHF Satellite Communications System is vulnerable to jamming and intercept of transmission links.  This threat is identified in the classified Naval Technical Intelligence Center report, System Threat Assessment Report (STAR)-Satellite Systems, NTIC TA #008089, of March 1989.  A threat also exists to the UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System.  This threat is documented in various Defense Intelligence Agency studies (e.g., ECM/ESM Capabilities-ECC, and Free World Electronic Warfare Capabilities).

3.  Nonmateriel Alternatives.  This requirement is driven totally by the necessity to enhance the OTH communications in support of the information requirements of the MAGTF.  The resolution of this communications requirement is a materiel requirement.  There are no changes in doctrine, tactics, organization, or training that will provide this capability to the Marine Corps.  

4.  Potential Materiel Alternatives

    a.  A nondevelopmental solution for a relay system could be sought to meet this requirement.  A potential candidate company for the relay system's electronics is Cincinnati Electronics.  However, a research and development effort is necessary to develop mechanical connections to the platforms.  
   
    b.  A new research and development effort could be initiated which would develop both the relay system electronics and the mechanical connections to the platforms.
     
5. Constraints

   a.  Mobility and Transportation.  The Surrogate Satellite will not need any special preparation for transportation and will be mobile by any military or commercial means.  Individual transportation cases are required to protect the Surrogate Satellite during transportation and from harsh environment.
 
   b.  Manpower.  The Surrogate Satellite will be employed in the Fleet Marine Force (FMF) without the requirement for additional personnel nor the requirement for new or additional military occupational specialties (MOS).  Terminals will be operated by the field radio operator (2531) and maintained by the ground radio repairman (2841) or radio technician (2861).

   c.  Operational Environment
        
       (1) Organizational Concept
           (a) The Surrogate Satellite Relay System will be used to support the MAGTF Commander's internal UHF satellite requirement.  The Surrogate Satellite will be an organic asset to the Communications Battalion, Surveillance Reconnaissance Intelligence Group and will be used in conjunction with existing or planned UHF satellite communications equipment (currently AN/PSC-3s and AN/MRC-140s).  The requirement exists for the active forces, Prepositioned War Reserves and the Reserves (6th Communication Battalion).

           (b) The UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System will be used by the Command Elements of the MAGTF to provide communications to support command and control requirements in situations when there are insufficient UHF satellite channels available to support MAGTF OTH communications requirements.

           (c) The UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System will be used for voice and data.  This system should also be capable of transmitting general service traffic or special compartmented information intelligence communications.  Additionally, it must be capable of passing 16 kbp secure voice communications and data communications at rates up to 2.4 kbps.

           (d) The UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System would be activated during the assault phase of an amphibious operation to provide OTH communications.  Actual operation time would be dependent upon the loiter time of the supporting aircraft, or in case of a fixed relay site, as long as operationally required.

           (e) The UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System would be ideal for providing OTH communications for special operations missions, including Non-combatant Evacuation Operations, Raids, and Tactical Recovery of Aircraft or Personnel.
        
       (2) Performance Characteristics

      (a) The system must be able to provide support to the MAGTF commander with timely and reliable communications paths.  The system must be modular in nature to allow selective replacement of modules for maintenance.

      (b) The system must be compatible with all USMC organic UHF SATCOM equipment and be able to relay secure voice, and data transmissions.  Specifically, it must be capable of:

               1. operating at a bandwidth of 5 or 25 khz.

               2. operating from 225 to 399.995 mhz.

               3. use from 1-29 watts of adjustable power.

               4. providing a bit error rate of 10-5.

               5. operating with no more than a 1db loss.
        
               6. providing a frequency readout and an ability to change the frequencies from the front panel.

               7. providing a power indicator and activity indicator.

           (c) The system must be able to support simultaneous communications on a minimum of four separate channels and a maximum of eight separate channels.
 
           (d) The system must be able to operate from any elevated location, including hilltops, balloons, short range or long range unmanned aerial vehicles, KC-130 aircraft and all helicopters.

           (e) The system must be capable of operations aboard ship or ashore on a global basis.  Its design should emphasize simplicity and ruggedness to ensure a high degree of reliability and maintainability.

           (f) The system must be capable of reliable 24 hour operation when powered by existing 24 VDC power sources and batteries currently in the Marine Corps inventory.

           (g) The system will be capable of being installed in aircraft and operational within thirty minutes required and fifteen minutes desired.

           (h) The system will be man-packable and require no more than one Marine to transport.

           (i) The system shall be configured so that the loss of one channel will not affect the other channels.

           (j) The system will provide transmission range of up to 400 miles depending upon the elevation of the platform from which it operates.

           (k) The system must be manportable.

        (3) Weather and Terrain.  The UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System will be employed in all environmental and weather conditions to include, but not limited to:  tropical, desert, temperate, arctic, maritime, forest, jungle, rain, snow, sleet, fog, dust, and sand.  

        (4) Nuclear Biological and Chemical.  There is no requirement for this system to be nuclear hardened; although, there is a requirement for this equipment to be functional in a chemical or biological environment.  Furthermore, it is required for Marines to operate the UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System while wearing Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) gear.    
   d.  Training.  Initial fielding will be supported by new equipment training teams (NETT).  Formal school training of operators/maintainers will be determined at a later date.  

   e.  Logistics.  Organizational level maintenance (1st and 2d echelon) will consist of preventive maintenance (PM) procedures which will keep the system operational on a daily basis.  Intermediate level maintenance (3d and 4th echelon) will fault isolate to the component/piece part level and will replace failed component/piece parts as authorized or limited repair of non-solid state components within the capability of the maintenance organization.  Authorization is dependent on the availability of trained personnel and support equipment.  Depot level maintenance (5th echelon) is rebuild and technical support performed by Marine Corps depot repair facilities for items that cannot be repaired or replaced at the intermediate level.  Contract maintenance is not desirable, but can be identified as part of a warranty agreement when support equipment will not adapt to the tactical situation or when combat readiness is below established levels.  The UHF Surrogate Satellite Relay System will be a Critical Low Density item.
 
   f.  Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Interfaces.  The Surrogate Satellite Relay System must be interoperable with all DoD UHF satellite terminals.
 
   g.  Security and Standardization.  Users of the Surrogate Satellite Relay System will be able to pass communications traffic of any security level.

   h.  Mapping, Charting and Geodesy Support.  None applicable.