Approval Date:

28 Jan 92

Document:


UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
MARINE CORPS COMBAT DEVELOPMENT COMMAND
QUANTICO, VIRGINIA 22134 5001


3900
C 44
May 22 1996

From:   Commandig General, Marine Corps Combat Development
        Comand 3300 Russell Road, Quantico, VA  22134-5021

Subj:   OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT (ORD) (NO. CCC
        1.34A) FOR THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS);
        CHANGE 2

Ref:    (a) DoD Regulation 5000.2-R

(b) National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal
            Year 1994, Public Law 103-160 dated 30 Nov 1993

Encl:   (1) Marine Corps GPS Allowances

1.  Purpose.  Per reference (a), the following changes to the basic Operational Requirements Document (ORD) (NO. CCC 1.34A) for the Global Positioning System (GPS) are approved.

2.  Action

    a.  Based on the current Marine Corps force structure and section 152 of reference (b), replace Annex A of the ORD for the GPS with the enclosed updated Marine Corps GPS Allowances.

    b.  Replace the second sentence of paragraph 8, Schedule Considerations, with the following: "A full operational capability date of 4th Quarter FY00 is required".

    c.  Add the following sentence, as the second sentence in paragraph 4c(4)a: "The user equipment must be capable of electronically transferring its current position to various tactical data systems (i.e., Data Automated Communications Terminals (DACT) and MAGTF C4I workstations) via organic tactical communications means (i.e., cable, SINCGARS, HF radios, etc.)."

3. Filing Instructions. This change transmittal will be filed immediately following the signature page of the basic ORD.

4. The Marine Corps point of contact for this requirement is the Command, Control, Communications, and Computers Branch, Requirements Division, MCCDC, DSN 278-6185, commercial 703-784-6185.

                              L. S. ASADOORIAN
                              By direction
The enclosure may be obtained from Requirements Division, MCCDC



UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
MARINE CORPS COMBAT DEVELOPMENT COMMAND
QUANTICO, VIRGINIA 22134 5001


3900
C 44
Oct 19 1992


From: Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development
      Command

Subj: OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT (ORD) (CCC 1.34A) FOR
      THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS); CHANGE 1

Ref:  (a) MCO 3900.4D

1.  Purpose. Per the reference, the Asslstant Commandant ot tne Marine Corps has approved the following changes to the basic Operational Requirements Document (ORD) (CCC 1.34A) for the Global Positioning System (GPS).

2.  Action

    a.  Replace paragraph 4c(3), Accuracy, with the following:

        Velocity

        .2 meter/second

    b.  Replace paragraph 4c(4)c6, User Information Output, with the following:

        6  Battery low power warning.

    c.  Replace paragraph 4c(4)c7, User Information Input, with the following:

        7  A means to zeroize the set when power is applied.

    d.  Replace the third sentence of paragraph 4e(3), Power Source and Mounting, with the following: ...The ground forces user equipment will operate continuously, without changing batteries, for not less than 10 hours.

3. Filing Instructions. This change transmittal will be filed immediately following the signature page of the basic ORD.


                        S. E. LINDBLOM
                             By direction


OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT (ORD)FOR THE
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
(CCC 1.34A)



1. General Description of Operational Capability

a. Requirement.  The requirement exists for a highly accurate position fixing and universal timing capability to complement existing and planned Command and Control systems that support Marine Corps tactical operations.  This position fixing capability will provide highly accurate position information to equipped users, thus enabling the establishment of an absolute grid system using accurate Global Positioning System (GPS) derived positions as reference points for the Position Location Reporting Systems (PLRS).

b. General Use. This positioning system will provide general use navigation and position information for users outside the PLRS network.  The timing capability within the GPS will provide an accurate, universal time for those Command and Control systems which require it.

c. Mission Area.  The GPS capability falls under Mission Area 11, Command and Control.

d.  Operational and Support Concepts.  The operational and support concepts for the GPS shall stress user self-sufficiency with maintenance performed as far forward as possible.  Organic Marine Corps maintenance is required for first through fourth echelon.  Envisioned is a system with unclassified user equipment (i.e., unclassified even when keyed) in ground forces/vehicles which will be used throughout the elements of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF).  GPS will be employed in the following manner:

(1) PLRS operators will use GPS to establish an accurate and dynamic reference community.

(2) Reconnaissance, radio reconnaissance, direct action, and Air/Naval Gunfire Liaison Company (ANGLICO) teams, frequently operating outside a PLRS network, will use GPS throughout a mission as an aid for navigation.

(3) Forces conducting over-the-horizon amphibious assaults, riverine operations, raids and night operations will use GPS as an aid for navigation of maneuver elements.

(4) In MAGTF operations where the PLRS is not employed (e.g., Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEW) operations) GPS will provide an aid for navigation.

(5) Units having a hasty survey requirement will use GPS for position determination (e.g., artillery, mortar, Communications Battalion, and Marine Air Command and Control units).

(6) Units having a logistical resupply mission to front-line elements outside of the PLRS network, GPS will provide the aid for precise navigation and location to accomplish this mission.

(7) Units with equipment requiring timing information (e.g., HAVEQUICK) will use GPS to provide accurate and universal timing.

2. Threat

a. General.  The GPS could be subjected to broadband jamming and interference.  Further, the Navigation by Satellite Timing and Ranging (NAVSTAR) GPS satellites, which provide location data, could be targeted for destruction, jamming, or electronic deception.

b. Jamming and Interference Threats.  Most modern adversaries will have an Electronic Warfare (EW) capability, but the Soviets have the most extensive.  The Soviets, still considered a formible threat, have developed their EW capabilities into an integrated system called Radio-Electronic Combat (REC).  This threat is documented in Defense Intelligence Agency's publications entitled "Soviet Radio-Electronic Combat Capability", "ECM/ESM Capabilities - ECC" and "Soviet Electronic Warfare 1986-2005". They provide assessments of Soviet EW doctrine, strategy, tactics, organization, equipment, and military forces through the year 2005.  In addition to this Soviet threat, their client states (e.g., Cuba, North Korea, Libya) have adopted Soviet doctrine and tactics to varying degrees.  Like the Soviets, they can be expected to make a major effort to neutralize Command and Control systems by conventional as well as unconventional means. Further, the advent of advanced jamming equipment, both Soviet and Western, to the Third World nations has increased this overall threat.

c. Anti-satellite and Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Threats. The NAVSTAR GPS satellite system is vulnerable to both anti-satellite systems and jamming.  Additionally, nuclear effects and future directed energy weapons must be considered when planning to use electronic-dependent navigation systems.
 
3. Shortcomings of Existing Systems.  Under combat conditions when the visibility is greatly reduced, maps are unavailable/ inaccurate, or the terrain is devoid of prominent landmarks, the current technique of employing map and compass is inadequate.  A multitude of tactical functions require combat forces to be capable of determining accurate position information in a worldwide grid reference.  A capability is needed to provide immediate position information that approaches survey accuracy, functions worldwide, operates passively, operates independently of any other ground or airborne references, and allows for unlimited subscribership. Additionally, an increasing number of communication systems (e.g., HAVEQUICK) require accurate and universal timing to ensure system interoperability.

4. Capabilities Required.  GPS will provide the capability for an accurate and dynamic reference community within the MAGTF which can be quickly established for the PLRS. PLRS users will be able to determine position information and navigate relative to other PLRS network users.  The position and navigation capability is also required for those units that will: (1) Frequently operate outside the PLRS network (e.g., reconnaissance); (2) Operate prior to the establishment of the PLRS network (e.g., advance force operations); and (3) Operate when the PLRS is not present (e.g., MEU operations).

a. Performance Capabilitie and Characteristics. The performance capabilities and characteristics required for the GPS include:

(1) Operational effectiveness Positional accuracy 10 meters Circular Error Probable (CEP) horizontal 16 meters Spherical Error Probable (SEP)

(2) Operational suitability

(a) Reliability 500 hours or greater Mean Time Between Operation Failure (MTBOMF)

(b) Availability 0.97 percent or greater

(c) Mean Time To Repair 0.25 hours or less - organizational 0.5 hours or less - intermediate

(d) Time-To-First-Fix 3 minutes or less

b. GPS Contribution to MAGTF Master Plan.  The GPS will contribute to the attainment of the following capabilities detailed in the MAGTF Master Plan:

(1) Capability 1:  Capability to conduct amphibious raids on short notice at night in adverse weather under emission control from over the horizon via air or surface means against distant inland targets.

(2) Capability 8:  Capability to execute all aspects of military operations in urban terrain.

(3) Capability 15:  Capability to train forces for operations across a wide range of geographic and climatic conditions.

(4) Capability 18:  Capability to rapidly move up to two-thirds of the assault element of the Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Ground Combat Element and its equipment over extended distances at night in adverse weather.

(5) Capability 20:  Capability to conduct a MEF amphibious assault at night from over the horizon.

(6) Capability 24:  Capability to provide initial terminal guidance for aircraft and surface craft.

(7) Capability 25:  Capability to designate and mark targets for air attack with organic, lightweight equipment.

(8) Capability 31:  Capability to distribute essential combat material to MAGTF units around the clock.

c. System Performance.  The GPS receiver can be expected to be in actual operation a total of two to eight hours a day.  The average mission duration can be expected to be two hours, consisting of initialization, time to first position fix, switch to standby mode of operation and subsequent position fixes at approximately 15 minute intervals.  Additionally, the receiver will operate in the continuous mode from either vehicle or battery power.  An operational mission failure occurs when the receiver does not provide a user his current location.

(1) Operating Modes and Functions.  The unclassified user equipment (unclassified even when keyed) shall be totally passive in its operation.

(2) Physical Characteristics/Configuration for Ground Forces and Vehicles

(a) This equipment shall be hand-held. The configuration will be no larger than 120 cubic inches including control display unit, internal antenna, and battery.

(b) This configuration must weigh (no more than) 4 pounds (1.81 kilograms), including batteries, and antenna.

(3) Accuracy.  The receiver shall provide the accuracies listed below to include when Selective Availability (SA) and/or Anti-Spoofing (A-S) are implemented and active.

Position                Velocity                  Time

10 meters CEP (horizontal) .1 meter/second    100 nanoseconds 16 meters SEP

(4) User Information Output

(a) The user equipment will visually display its current position, range, and bearing to a known location. Time To First Fix, from a cold start, shall not exceed three minutes.  Time To First Fix is the elapsed time from the user demand on a receiver that has been on for a maximum of three minutes, to the first display of present position.

(b) All positional data must be available in terms of geodetic latitude and longitude, 15 character Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) coordinates, Universal Transverse Mercator or Universal Polar Stereographic.  Current approved Department of Defense (DoD) standard datum or local datum will be used as referenced datum.

(c) Controls must include:

    1 System power on/off

    2 Standby

    3 Continuous readout

    4 A means to input data such as:  Current position, final destination, and at least 50 intermediate way points required, 100 desired

    5 A means to retrieve data and control displays

    6 Battery power indicator

    7  A means to zeroize the set at any time.

(d) Information, subsequent to first fix, must be displayed within one second of query and must include:

    1 Steering information for a course which will provide minimum miss distance (closest approach to waypoint if current course is maintained) from desired destination.

    2 True or magnetic bearing to destination

    3 Horizontal distance to destination

    4 Current position

    5 Current ground speed and course.

    6 Height above/below way point or destination

      7 Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) hour, minute, and second.

    8 Cross track error display.

(e) In addition to the above, while in the continuous readout mode, the receiver will provide an instantaneous digital display of positioning or navigation information.

d. Logistics and Readiness

(1) MTBOMF. The required MTBOMF for the GPS receiver is 500 hours.

(2) Operational availability (A°).  The A° for the GPS user equipment shall be at least 0.97 percent.

(3) Maintenance Skill Requirements.  The GPS has been designed to preclude any lengthy formal training in order to operate.  No increase in maintenance personnel is planned, however, additional formal training for the intermediate maintenance personnel (MOS) 2821 will be required.

e. Critical System Characteristics

(1) Counter-Measures.  An electronic counter- countermeasure capability is required to the extent it protects against electronic deception.  There must be no electromagnetic interference with any other Marine Corps electronic equipment currently in service.

(2) Nuclear Survivability.  EMP hardening is not required.

(3) Power Source and Mounting.  Unless otherwise precluded by the size/weight requirement, the batteries for the ground forces user equipment will be compatible with the power sources for other tactical field communications equipment.  Batteries should include rechargeable and single use variants.  The ground forces user equipment will operate continuously, without changing batteries, for not less than 18 hours.  The receiver shall display battery elapsed time and approximate time remaining.  The ground vehicle user equipment must be capable of mounting in all Marine Corps wheeled and tracked vehicles, rigid raiding craft, combat rubber raiding craft, and riverine assault craft.  The ground vehicle user equipment must operate from vehicle power and riverine assault craft power.

(4) Environmental Constraints.  The receiver shall operate without degradation in all climates and environments that Marines may encounter.  Operating temperature range must be at least -20 Centigrade (C) to +70C. The receiver must operate in all humidity levels to 100 percent.  It must be resistant to saltwater, and extreme sand and dust conditions to the extent outlined in Military Standard-810E.  It must be able to withstand the shock attainable during a parachute opening maneuver (i.e., 8Gs instantaneous).  The receiver must operate beneath a single-layer canopy, with desired proper operation under triple-canopy.  Proper operation is required after the receiver is immersed, with additional waterproofing, to a depth of 40 feet for four hours (50 feet desired).

5. Integrated Logistics Support (ILS)

a. Maintenance Planning

(1) Organizational level maintenance will consist of self test, Built-in-Test (BIT) and fault isolation to obtain a go/no-go indication.

(2) Intermediate level maintenance will fault isolate to the component/piece part level and will replace failed component/piece part as authorized.  Authorization is dependent on the availability of trained personnel and support equipment.

(3) Depot level maintenance may require contractor support.  Contract maintenance is not desirable, but can be identified as part of a warranty agreement when support equipment will not adapt to the tactical situation or when combat readiness is below established levels.  A Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) for GPS will be conducted.  Every effort will be made to accommodate an ILS concept consistent with the requirements set forth in Military Standard (MIL-STD) 4105 and MIL-STD 1388-1A.

b. Support Equipment.  Plug-in modular design shall be maximized.  BIT capability shall be automatic and commensurate with the need to minimize special test equipment.  At least 95 percent of all malfunctions shall be detected.  The malfunction indication shall have at least a 95 percent level of confidence that a malfunction has occurred.  Size and weight of special test equipment will be kept to a minimum.  The required GPS receiver Mean Time To Repair (Ml lK) for organizational level maintenance will be less than 0.25 hours and the MTTR for intermediate level maintenance will he less than 0.5 hours.

c. Human Systems Integration

(1) The user equipment design will not greatly restrict operator requirements, but shall include an on/off switch, position display switch, and battery power indicator.

(2) The ground forces user equipment will normally be handheld with the visual display situated on the unit in a conveniently observable location.  The location must also facilitate use when mounted in a ground vehicle, rubber/rigid raiding craft, and riverine assault craft.  The receiver shall be able to be carried in a lightweight, water resistant case.  The case shall be attachable to standard military personnel harness, backpack frames, and web belts.  When operating out of the case, the receiver shall have an adjustable carrying strap.

(3) The receiver controls and display shall be visible under all light conditions in day and night operation.  Lighting intensity shall be adjustable and programmable to recall previous settings after power on/off cycles.  Screen and control lighting shall not interfere with operator use of night vision goggles.

(4) The GPS receiver must be useable by a Marine outfitted in any level of mission oriented protective posture and cold weather uniform to include standard military issue gloves or cold weather mittens.

(5) There is no increase in the current structure or manning level planned for the GPS.  The system has been designed so that any Marine, regardless of MOS, can operate the GPS with a minimum of local training.

(6) The training objective is to provide qualified Marines to operate and maintain the GPS.  This objective is to Train Marines of any MOS to successfully operate The GPS. Operators will be taught system description, design characteristics, operating features, hardware configuration, isolation of malfunctions, and replacement of batteries.

(7) Maintenance personnel will require some formal training for organizational and intermediate level of repair. This impact should be minimal.  Depot level repair may require contractor support.

d. Computer Resources.  The GPS has software embedded on electronically programmed read-only memory integrated to the receiver's internal processor.

e. Other Logistics Considerations

(1) At the organizational level, BIT will be used as the go/no-go capability.

(2) Existing facilities are adequate for local training.

(3) No additional maintenance facilities will be required.

(4) Storage will be minimal because of the size and weight.

6. Infrastructure Support and Interoperability

a. Command. Control. Communications. and Intelligence.  The GPS will integrate into the command, control, communications, and intelligence architecture through the PLRS.  The GPS user equipment will be interoperable with the following systems for the exportation of timing and position information:

(1) PLRs

(2) HAVEQUICK radios

(3) GPS Interface Unit (GPSIU)

(4) Single Channel Ground Air Radio System (SINCGARS)

b. Transportation and Basing.  The GPS ground forces/vehicular user equipment will be used throughout the MAGTF. The GPS will be transported by an individual Marine and any tactical ground vehicle.

c. Standardization, Interoperabilitv, and Commonality. The requirement for a small and lightweight GPS receiver for multipurpose applications by Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force will be satisfied through the Joint Program Office (JPO). Additionally the JPO has structured the GPS program to enhance the interoperability and effectiveness of U.S., Australia, and 10 North American Forces Organization countries.

(1) Related efforts

(a) Joint Service Operational Requirement (JSOR) for the PLRS of Aug 76.

    1 Operational Requirement Command and Control System for Over The Horizon Amphibious Assault, 3900, SER 986/9U551109.

    2 Required Operational Capability (ROC) No. LOG 1.26, Family of Marine Corps Survey Equipment of 13 Dec 77. GPS survey applications will be pursued under the purview of this survey ROC.

    3 ROC No. CCC 1.42 for the PLRS PIP, 3900, WFllG, of 11 Jan 1991.

(b) This Operational Requirements Document is intended to replace the Following:

    1 ROC No. CCC 1.34, GPS of 23 Nov 79

        2 ROC No. INT 1.28 for a Small Unit Navigation System (SUNS) of 29.

(c) Energy/Environmental Impacts. GPS is not an energy intensive system.  The very accurate position information that is provided will reduce energy consumption through more cost-effective operations. There are no energy intensive materials used in the hand-held receiver program.

d. Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Support.  All positional data must be available in terms of:

(1) Latitude and Longitude

(2) Military Grid Reference System

(3) Universal Transverse Mercator

(4) Universal Polar Stereographic

(5) Current approved DoD standard datum

e. Environmental Support.  The GPS is dependent on the space segment for accurate position navigation information. The space segment consists of 21 SA/A-S capable satellites, an additional three satellites will be spares.  These satellites provide satellite coverage for continuous, worldwide, three-dimensional positioning information.

7. Force Structure.  The distribution and quantities of the GPS is contained in Annex A.

8. Schedule Considerations.  An initial operational capability date of 4th Quarter Fiscal Year (FY) 94 is required.  A full operational capability date of 4th Quarter FY 95 is required.


Annex A and B can be obtained from Requirements Division, MCCDC, Quantico, VA