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MAPPING & GEODESY

Problems with mapping product availability in Third World contingency scenarios has typified American military operations in recent years. American troops arrived to discovered that their maps provided little useful detail, and were largely outdated by recent construction that even major facilities and highways were not marked.

The success of Coalition ground operations during Desert Storm was highly dependent on maps produced from imagery derived from commercial remote sensing satellite systems. These civilian satellites were not under operational military control, but were rather directed by their commercial operators. The Defense Mapping Agency worked to produce new maps of the region using SPOT and LANDSAT imagery. One of the reasons that this imagery proved particularly important is its applicability to terrain classification. Normally maps will show valleys, mountains and rivers, but do not classify the terrain in terms of hard sand, soft sand, or marshy areas that are currently dry.

The Defense Mapping Agency supplied more than 4,500 different maps of the theater, all of which were updated following the 2 August invasion.(1) A total of 35 million maps were distributed to forces in the Gulf by the end of 1990, an effort that was estimated to be ten times the amount of work done during the entire Korean War. These had been produced by cartographers at centers in St. Louis (which makes aeronautical maps) and Brookmont, in suburban Maryland (which makes sea and land maps), relying on satellite imagery.(2) In some cases, the staff at these facilities had been placed on a three-shifts-per-day, seven-days-per-week schedule.(3)

Digital maps for Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAM-C) with conventional warheads were prepared using satellite imagery by the Defense Mapping Agency. However, delays experienced in producing

these maps for Tomahawk cruise missiles will be alleviated with the introduction of Navstar-based guidance systems in the Block III version of the missile.

The Defense Mapping Agency apparently has tried to get approval for a Map-Sat which would be dedicated military mapping satellite, but this has not been approved. Instead, the newer KH-12 satellites have been given an improved mapping capability.

Following these experiences, and given the disappointing commercial experience of EOSAT, the Defense Department decided to sponsor construction of a new Landsat 7, which will provide 5 meter resolution imagery for military mapping applications. DoD is paying for building the satellite, and NASA is supporting ground processing.

A - Army

62784A Military Engineering Technology

Project A855 - Topography, Image Intelligence and Space Technology(4)

This project funds the technology to enhance the tactical commander's ability to visualize the battlefield in an easily understandable, 3-D (three dimensional) perspective and exploit his knowledge of combat relevant intelligence as a force multiplier to conduct and win AirLand Battle Operations across the operational continuum. Using tactical/strategic/space sensor data, together with terrain data bases as input, the technology program emphasizes automating the processes of detecting changes on the battlefield, identifying battle significant features (e.g., tank ditches), and integrating the impacts of the battlefield environment (e.g., rain, snow, dust, etc) to significantly improve combat planning and operations. Development efforts will enable the commander to locate and position enemy and friendly forces in day/night all-weather conditions, provide crucial terrain data for command and control systems (C 2), and enhance the speed and accuracy of maneuver and weapon systems. The technology being developed will help those who move, shoot, and communicate on the battlefield to "fight smarter" through superior knowledge of the total battlefield terrain and environment. Information required on weather and atmospheric effects is provided by the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory under Project AH7 1.

The research conducted in this Program Element provides technology in direct support of the critical Army combat engineer missions of mobility, counter-mobility survivability, sustainment engineering and topography needed to win on the modern battlefield. Research is also conducted that supports the special requirements for tactical decision aids, weather intelligence products and capabilities to exploit space assets. Key operational technologies developed are demonstrated to Army units under Program Element #0603734A, Military Engineering Advanced Technology. Results are tailored to support the materiel development, test and acquisition community in evaluating the impacts of weather, terrain and atmospheric obscurants. In addition, a portion of the program is directed towards developing technology for Echelons-Above-Corps and Army-in-garrison activities to vastly improve the efficiency of facility acquisition and operations (design, construction, operation and maintenance) thereby providing significant cost savings and improving military personnel productivity through better quality of life. The work in this program element is consistent with DoD Science and Technology Thrust Area for Precision Strike, the resource constrained Army Technology Base Master Plan and the Science and Technology Objectives (STOs) therein.

B - Navy

35131N Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy(5)

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to the acquisition, collection, and reduction of Mapping, Charting, and Geodetic (MC&G) data, and related operation and maintenance of facilities, include U.S.Navy MC&G ships operated by Military Sealift Command, Project MAGNET, and NAVOCEAN (hydrographic survey activities) and associated MC&G shore establishment facilities. Excludes Military Department Headquarters MC&G staffs (see Program 9); Unified Command Headquarters MC&G staffs (see Program 2); Management Headquarters (Auxiliary Forces) (PE35898B); oceanographic Activities (see Program 3); MC&G Investigations and Prototype Development (PE63701B); and MC&G Engineering Development and Test (PE64701B).

35160N GEOSAT Follow-on(6)

This project provides a satellite-borne altimeter to obtain ocean topography measurements from which tactically significant features such as fronts, eddies, and ice edge are derived. Topography provides a unique and important data source in support of a number of Naval warfare areas, such as anti-submarine and undersea warfare. The data was previously provided by GEOSAT from 1985 until its failure in January 1990. The GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) satellite currently under development is intended to provide interim altimetry data until DMSP Block 6 becomes operational in FY 2005. The sensors developed for GFO satellite will provide a baseline for the new operational radar altimeter sensors to be incorporated in the DMSP development efforts.

Work is directed by NRL, Washington, DC. Contractors include the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, and Ball Aerospace, Denver, CO, which was selected for construction the prototype

and both follow-on satellites by competitive procurement.

63371N Trident II

Project R1452 GEOSAT

This project provided a satellite-borne altimeter to obtain ocean gravimetric data to support guidance and navigation accuracy improvements for the Trident II submarine launched ballistic missile. This data was provided by GEOSAT from 1985 until its failure in January 1990.

C - Air Force

61102F Defense Research Sciences

Project 2309 Terrestrial Science(7)

This Project provides fundamental research in geodesy, gravity, and seismology. Precise understanding of the size and shape of the changing Earth's surface is required to assure the accuracy of existing and planned navigational systems. Basic research in geodesy and gravity seeks to improve inertial navigation systems (INS) for guidance of aircraft, weapons, and spacecraft. Research in the subarea includes gravity field modeling, inertial instrumentation, and Global Positioning System (GPS) geodesy to determine the maximum utility of GPS for precise satellite navigation and attitude control.

Work is performed by Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, which conducts research under this project. The top contractors include California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Columbia University, New York, NY, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), Washington, DC.

62101F Geophysics

Project 7600 Terrestrial Geophysics(8)

This project supports work on new superconductors and superfluids, which combined with improved models of the Earth's gravity promise significant breakthroughs in reaching the goal of a fully autonomous inertial system for precise navigation. This project develops technology in the areas of the Earth's geometry, motion, gravity and seismology for the Air Force strategic and tactical systems.

Recent work has included completion of a GPS Inertial Measurement Unit integrated algorithm for the GPS-Aided Inertial System Experiment, as well as continued development of new-generation GPS spaceborne receiver technology and performance of a GPS/IMU gravity extraction feasibility study.

The project is managed by and is the technical activity of the Geophysics Directorate of Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA. Contractors include the University of Maryland, College Park, MD, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, Mayflower Communications Corp, Reading, MA, and Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

D - Office of the Secretary of Defense

35157I LANDSAT

This program funds DoD participation in the joint NASA/DoD Landsat 7 program. DoD is funding spacecraft development, while NASA is funding the ground segment to support the space system.

64703D LANDSAT

The Defense Mapping Agency is one of the leading customers of the Landsat civil remote sensing satellite system.

E - Defense Mapping Agency

Civil Personnel (w/ SCI clearance)

A substantial fraction of the civil personnel of DMA hold Sensitive Compartmented Information clearances, reflecting the extensive use of classified imaging intelligence products in the work of the agency.

LANDSAT data purchases

The Defense Mapping Agency is one of the leading customers of the Landsat civil remote sensing satellite system.

35131B Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy(9)

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to the acquisition, collection, and reduction of Mapping, Charting, and Geodetic (MC&G) data and the production, stores, and distribution of MC&G products of the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), and the related operation and maintenance of facilities, to include Defense Mapping Agency components, Excludes Military Department Headquarters MC&G staffs (see Program 9); Unified Command Headquarters MC&G staffs (see Program 2); Management Headquarters (Auxiliary Forces) (PE35898B); DMA Communications (PE35132B); MC&G Investigations and Prototype Development (PE63701B); and MC&G Engineering Development and Test (PE64701B).

35132B Defense Mapping Agency Communications(10)

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and specifically identified and measurable to communication terminal facilities and leased costs related to AUTOVON, AUTODlN, AUTOSEVCOM, Intelligence Communications, and communications services; i.e., telephone services, WATS, and Western Union. Includes all dedicated point-to-point circuits servicing Headquarters Defense Mapping Agency and Defense Mapping Agency components.

35159B Defense Reconnaissance Support Program

Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources assigned will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

[ The Defense Reconnaissance Support Program apparently funds processing and dissemination systems designed to enhance the ability of strategic forces to exploit the capabilities of national intelligence gathering systems, and to improve national systems support for combat operations. It is related to but distinct from the Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program. ]

63701B Mapping, Charting, Geodesy Investigations,

and Prototype Development

Project A - Geodesy & Geophysics

This project includes RDT&E funds for advanced development activities directed toward new and improved techniques, products, prototype equipment and prototyping systems to support the fulfillment of strategic and tactical weapons and command and control systems for geodetic data, products and services. Objectives include the development of concepts and designs of prototype equipment capable of providing new and more usable products, or which decrease response time and costs involved in data acquisition, storage and retrieval, data reduction, data transmission, and map/chart reproduction techniques.

F - Defense Support Program

35359I Major Equipment DSPO LANDSAT 7

This program funds DoD participation in the joint NASA/DoD Landsat 7 program. DoD is funding spacecraft development, while NASA is funding the ground segment to support the space system.


References

1. Kiernan, Vincent, "Satellite Data Boosts Map Quality for US Troops," Space News, 15 October 1990, page 3, 28.

2. "Agency Shows Way for Gulf Forces," The Washington Post, 2 January 1991, page A11.

3. "DMA Effort," Aerospace Daily, 17 December 1990, page 443.

4. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 186.

5. 5 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-36.

6. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 165.

7. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 209.

8. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 22807.

9. 9 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-36.

10. 10 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-36.


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