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NAVIGATION

Navigation satellites were one of the earliest military applications of space technology, and among the most useful to military forces on Earth. Warplanes now use navigation satellites to guide them to aerial tankers for in-flight refueling as they fly non-stop from their home bases to conflicts thousands of miles away. Warplanes can also use navigation satellites to guide them to their targets with pinpoint precision, where they can drop their bombs with an accuracy that will rival that of much more expensive smart weapons.

The relatively new concept of Navigation Warfare (NAVWAR) assures access to precise navigation information in a challenged environment. It also selectively denies this information to adversaries while lessening the effect on neutral or friendly operations. The three principal tenets of NAVWAR are to protect the use of GPS by DoD and allied forces in times of conflict within the theater of operations; prevent the use of GPS by adversary forces; and preserve routine GPS service to all outside the theater of operations. Navigation Warfare is focused on validating the technologies and CONOPS for implementing electronic warfare (EW) countermeasures both to protect and prevent the use of satellite navigation systems. The overall goal for the NAVWAR program is to mitigate hostile use of satellite navigation by unfriendly forces on the battlefield (prevention) while ensuring unimpeded use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for U.S. and Allied forces (protection). Throughout the execution of this program, a multi-Service evaluation team will incrementally assess the viability of developed technologies and their ability to effectively satisfy mission needs. Those technologies which are proven successful will be incorporated into the overall NAVWAR architecture. As CONOPS develop, they must make sure US and allied systems can work together. The US intends to discontinue the use of GPS Selective Availability (SA) by 2006 in a manner that allows adequate time and resources for military forces to prepare for operations without SA.

Airborne Pseudolites (APL) are rapidly deployed GPS Navigation Warfare assets that provide theater-wide coverage to combat the effect of GPS jamming on DoD users ranging from the individual soldier to combat platforms and precision GPS-guided shoot-to-coordinate weapons (e.g., JDAM, JSOW, TLAM, SLAM-ER, AGM-130, etc.). The considerably increased transmit power of the APL fights off the effects of jamming on the DoD receivers. In this approach, the NavWar resources are concentrated on the APLs instead of having to be deployed to each DoD GPS receiver. APLs must overcome the following two critical challenges: (1) Backward compatibility solves the non-Keplerian motion of the UAV platform in a manner that accommodates APL use with a software-only modification to existing DoD GPS receivers (e.g., PLGR, JDAM, etc.); and (2) APL self-positioning provides sufficiently high GPS jam resistance on the APL to continue precision self-positioning using the GPS satellites directly through jamming. DARPA’s GPS Experiments (GPX) consist of a two-pronged effort leading up to flight demonstrations of brassboard equipment.

The American Transit navigation satellite network was initiated in the early 1960s, with twelve operational and spare Transit satellites currently in orbit. The Transit navigation satellite network continued operations in 1993, with twelve operational and spare Transit satellites in orbit. Most of the military users of Transit, such as the Navy's ballistic missile submarines that were the original impetus for Transit, will soon shift to Navstar. The Transit constellation will remain in service to civilian users at through 2000 (rather than the previously plan of 1995).(1)

The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites provide two-dimensional (latitude and longitude) coverage with three satellites in view, and three dimensional (including altitude) coverage with four satellites in view.(2) The total of 21 active plus 3 spare GPS satellites is planned for implementation by 1993, which will extend this service on a continuous global basis.

The launch of five Navstar satellites in 1990 brought the total constellation to fifteen active satellites by year's end. Additional launches over the following three years brought the total constellation operational complement of 21 active and 3 reserve satellites by the end of 1993.(3) Several older Navstar navigation satellites, launched between 1980 and 1985, continued in service in 1993.

The Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) code broadcast at 1575.42 MHz normally provides approximately 30 meter accuracy, while the precision Code (P-code) at the 1227.6 Y-Frequency provides 10 to 16 meter accuracy. Encryption of the C/A code under Selective Availability, which reduces C/A accuracy to 100 meters, began in mid-March 1990, and ceased temporarily during operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.(4) The P-code can also be encrypted, in a format referred to as Y-Code.(5)

This ten-fold improvement in accuracy will revolutionize warfare on Earth. Traditionally Navstar has been regarded as providing navigation support to vehicles and platforms rather than weapons, but this is changing.(6) Small and inexpensive GPS receivers will be added to the air-launched version of the Navy's Harpoon cruise missile known as the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM), the Block III version of the non-nuclear Tomahawk long-range cruise missile (which begins tests in 1991 for a 1993 initial operational capability), as well as free-fall conventional Inertially Aided Munition gravity bombs.

Traditionally Navstar has been regarded as providing navigation support to vehicles and platforms rather than weapons, but this is changing.(7) Small and inexpensive GPS receivers will be added to the air-launched version of the Navy's Harpoon cruise missile known as the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM), the Block III version of the non-nuclear Tomahawk long-range cruise missile (which began tests in 1991 for a 1993 initial operational capability), as well as free-fall conventional Inertially Aided Munition gravity bombs.

The shifting sands and lack of visible landmarks in Saudi Arabia accentuated the utility of Navstar for ground forces.(8) Given the limited availability of military GPS receivers, the military ceased encoding GPS signals(9) (to reduce the accuracy of civilian receivers to 100 meters, versus the 16 meter encoded military standard), and several thousand commercial receivers were quickly purchased for shipment to Desert Shield forces.(10)

A - Army

35164A Navstar GPS Receivers(11)

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is a joint program composed of Space Control and User Equipment segments. NAVSTAR will use satellites broadcasting accurate position and time information. Ground monitoring and control will be used to determine satellite status and positions, time, and to command the satellites. Users will be able to determine their position and velocity to a high precision in three dimensions on a common grid system anywhere at any time under any weather condition. Funding for the concept validation phase was being accomplished under 63403A, 63401N, and 63421F and certain residual efforts will continue to be funded under these elements. Full scale development of all system segments is being accomplished under 64778A, NJ F and 64478F. The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps should use this element (35164 with the appropriate Service designator suffix) to fund production of operational user equipment. Excludes integration and operation of NAVSTAR user equipment funded in the appropriate unit/vehicle/aircraft/ vessel program elements; civilian and military mar,power included in appropriate management and support program elements; and the operational space and control segments funded under PE 35165F.

63403A NAVSTAR Global Positioning System(12)

Includes civilian and military personnel authorizations and related costs as applicable. Includes RDTE funds to develop, test, and evaluate a family of user equipment which, when used in conjunction with a satellite system, will provide precise position location and navigation for a wide variety of users. Users will include individual soldiers, ground and marine vehicles, and fixed and rotary wing aircraft. The DNSS will provide a DoD position fixing and navigation system capable of furnishing worldwide, three dimensional position and velocity with very high accuracy in real time. This program is performed in-house and on contract under the supervision of a number of major R&D activities within the U.S. Army Materiel Development ar,d Readiness Command. Excludes military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.

64778A Navstar User Equipment(13)

Project #D163, Modular Azimuth Positioning System Hybrid Product Improvement Program

(MAPS Hybrid PIP), provides for full scale engineering development of a hybrid Modular Azimuth Positioning System (MAPS) and integration engineering into one host system Howitzer Improvement Program (M109A6 HIP). MAPS will be integrated with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to provide rapid initialization and frequent updates of the inertial positioning and orientation system without need of local survey control and limit inertial navigation system position errors. Project #D168 provides increased effectiveness on the battlefield, and improved navigation capabilities to determine weapons systems and fighting units positions under adverse weather conditions, day or night, in all environmental conditions, worldwide. The NAVSTAR GPS provides the Army this capability at a significant expected reduction in life cycle cost. GPS consists of 24 satellites, a satellite control segment, and user equipment sets for combat and combat support vehicles, aircraft (rotary/fixed wing), manpacks, and watercraft. The system provides global, highly accurate information which satisfies a significant portion of Army navigation and positioning missions. This is a joint program. The Air Force is developing and procuring the satellites and control segment, and the Services are jointly developing and procuring a family of user equipment to satisfy Joint Service needs.

Includes civilian and military personnel authorizations and related costs as applicable. Includes furtherance of the development and acquisition of Service user equipment designed to function with the satellites and Master Ground Station of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. The System will provide global, highly accurate Information which will serve a broad spectrum of navigation and positioning missions. Excludes military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program. Also excludes the development and acquisition of the satellites and Master Ground Stations. These efforts will be accomplished in PE 64478F.

Project D168 - NAVSTAR Global Positioning System provides increased effectiveness on the battlefield, and improved navigation capabilities to determine weapons systems and fighting units positions under adverse weather conditions, day or night, in all environmental conditions, worldwide. The NAVSTAR GPS provides the Army this capability at a significant expected reduction in life cycle cost. GPS consists of 24 satellites, a satellite control segment, and user equipment sets for combat and combat support vehicles, aircraft (rotary/fixed wing), manpacks, and watercraft. The system provides global, highly accurate information which satisfies a significant portion of Army navigation and positioning missions. This is a joint program.

Work on the NAVSTAR GPS is performed by Rockwell/Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa is the contractor for Joint Service user equipment. Texas Equipment, Plano, TX is contractor for non-developmental item (NDI) Manpack Vehicle sets and Canadian Marconi and SCI of Huntsville, AL are contractors for aircraft sets. Internal Army program support and development is provided by the U.S. Army Communications - Electronic Command (CECOM), Ft. Monmouth, NJ.

Work on the MAPS HYBRID PIP is performed by MAVD Division, Honeywell Inc. of Clearwater, FL is the production MAPS Dynamic Reference Unit (DRU) contractor. BMY at York, PA is the prime HIP contractor.

B - Navy

35164M Navstar GPS Receivers- Marine Corps(14)

35164N Navstar GPS Receivers - Navy

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is a joint program composed of Space Control and User Equipment segments. NAVSTAR will use satellites broadcasting accurate position and time information. Ground monitoring and control will be used to determine satellite status and positions, time, and to command the satellites. Users will be able to determine their position and velocity to a high precision in three dimensions on a common grid system anywhere at any time under any weather condition. Funding for the concept validation phase was being accomplished under 63403A, 63401N, and 63421F and certain residual efforts will continue to be funded under these elements. Full scale development of all system segments is being accomplished under 64778A, NJ F and 64478F. The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps should use this element (35164 with the appropriate Service designator suffix) to fund production of operational user equipment. Excludes integration and operation of NAVSTAR user equipment funded in the appropriate unit/vehicle/aircraft/ vessel program elements; civilian and military mar,power included in appropriate management and support program elements; and the operational space and control segments funded under PE 35165F.

63401N Navigation Satellite / Astronautics (NNSS)(15)

Includes RDT&E funds to advance the technology/capabilities for miliary space navigation systems. Current proJect is to improve the utility and viability of the operational TRANSIT system and to conduct experiments for furthering technology for the definition of a future Defense Navigation Satellite system. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.

64777N Navstar GPS(16)

The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio positioning and navigation system that provides users with worldwide, all-weather, three-dimensional position, velocity and precise time data based on a constellation of 21 or more satellites. GPS provides a common navigation grid for land, air and sea units for coordinated operations. Navy's portion of the GPS program develops user equipment and provides for the integration and testing of this equipment on each class of aircraft and submarine, as well as for the planning necessary to support the equipment when introduced into the fleet.

Includes RDT&E funds to advance the technology/capabilities for military space navigation systems. Current projects are to develop atomic frequency standards for the satellites, to participate in the Joint Program Office, and to support service user equipment for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. The system will provide global, highly accurate navigation information which will serve a broad spectrum of navigation and positioning missions. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program; and development and acquisition of the satellites and master ground stations. These efforts will be accomplished in PE 64478F.

Activities supported under this program element include integration engineering on the A-6E, AV-8B, C-2, E-6A Update, EA-6B, ES-3A Update, F/A-18, F-14A, F-14D, H/KC-130, KA-6B, OV-10D, P-3C Update III, S-3, T-45, and UC-12 aircraft, and the AH-1, CH-46, CH-53E, HH-60 H/J, MH-53E, SH-2G, SH-3H, SH-60F Update, UH-1N, VH-3D, and VH-60 rotocraft. Other system integration engineering efforts include the Tactical Aircraft Mission Planning System (TAMPS), Electrically Suspended Gyro Navigator (ESGN), Carrier Navigation System (CVNS), Combat Direction System (CDS), the AN/WSN-5, and integration with shipboard command and control systems through the Navigation Sensor System Interface (NAVSSI).

Work is performed by Air Force Materiel Command Space & Missile Systems Center Joint Program Office, Los Angeles, CA; NCCOSC (RDT&E Division), Warminster, PA; NAWC (Aircraft Division), Indianapolis, IN, NAWC (Aircraft Division) Patuxent River, MD; NAWC (Weapons Division), China Lake, CA, NAVAVNDEP, Pensacola, FL, and NAVAVNDEP, San Diego, CA. Contractors include Grumman Aerospace Corp., Long Island, NY; Boeing Company, Seattle, WA; and McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, MO.

64778N Navstar User Equipment(17)

Includes furtherance of the development and acquisition of service user equipment designed to function with the satellites and Master Ground Station of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. The system wilt provide global, highly accurate information which will serve a broad spectrum of navigation and positioning missions. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program; and development and acquisition of the satellites and Master Ground Stations. These efforts will be accomplished in PE 64478F.

C - Air Force

35164F Navstar User Equipment(18)

This program element funds Research and Development to integrate Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment into Air Force airborne and ground platforms. Military forces need precise location data to enhance command and control and to engage in strategic and tactical warfare. The GPS satisfies these requirements and improves target mapping, the probability of target acquisition, flexible routing, low-level ingress/egress, and accuracy of weapons delivery. GPS is a space based navigation system which provides highly accurate position, velocity and time. GPS consists of three segments. The space segment (funded in PE 35165F) is the satellite constellation which provides the worldwide navigation signals. The control segment (also funded in PE 35165F) measures and corrects satellite performance parameters and provides a user interface to the system. The user equipment (UE) segment consists of the electronic equipment and interfaces necessary to receive and process GPS satellite signals into position, velocity and time data for its various military uses. Navstar GPS is the largest avionics modification program in the DoD today.

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is a joint program composed of Space Control and User Equipment segments. NAVSTAR will use satellites broadcasting accurate position and time information. Ground monitoring and control will be used to determine satellite status and positions, time, and to command the satellites. Users will be able to determine their position and velocity to a high precision in three dimensions on a common grid system anywhere at any time under any weather condition. Funding for the concept validation phase was being accomplished under 63403A, 63401N, and 63421F and certain residual efforts will continue to be funded under these elements. Full scale development of all system segments is being accomplished under 64778A, NJ F and 64478F. The Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps should use this element (35164 with the appropriate Service designator suffix) to fund production of operational user equipment. Excludes integration and operation of NAVSTAR user equipment funded in the appropriate unit/vehicle/aircraft/ vessel program elements; civilian and military mar,power included in appropriate management and support program elements; and the operational space and control segments funded under PE 35165F.(19)

The acquisition of GPS is managed by a Joint Program Office located at the Air Force Material Command's Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles AFB, CA. User equipment is produced by Rockwell International, Collins Avionics and Communications Division, Cedar Rapids, IA; Quantic Industries Inc, San Carlos CA; E-Systems, Clearwater FL; Trimble Navigation Inc, Sunnyvale CA; and SCI, Huntsville AL. Intermetrics, Cambridge, MA, is the user equipment software independent verification/validation contractor. Holloman Air Force Base (AFB) and Army Electronic Proving Ground (EPC) Yuma AZ provide technical support to the program for UE testing. The Joint Service Systems Management Office (JSSMO) located at Robins AFB provides technical support to the program for the development of the Integrated Support Facility. The Air Force Wright Laboratory at Wright Patterson AFB and Eglin AFB provide advanced technology support to the program. The Naval Research and Development Center, Warminster, PA and the Naval Air Warfare Center, Indianapolis, IN, are providing technical and validation support to the program office for joint service user equipment development and production.

GPS development and operational implementation are joint activities. AF is Executive Agent and develops, procures, and operates space and control segments. Services jointly develop and procure user equipment through the Joint Program Office. Other agencies are the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Defense Mapping Agency, Dept of Transportation, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and Australia.

35165F Navstar Space/Ground Segments(20)

This program element funds Research and Development for the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) space and control segments of the overall GPS program. This includes: satellite development, procurement, deployment, and operation of the ground control segment; upgrades to the space and ground segments; and R&D efforts to support deployment of the entire GPS system. Military forces need precise location data to enhance command and control and to engage in strategic and tactical warfare, especially at night and in adverse weather. The GPS satisfies these requirements. GPS is a space based radio positioning and navigation system which provides worldwide passive, all-weather, and all-altitude precise three-dimensional position (16 meter spherical error probable), velocity (0.1 meter/second), and time (within 0.1 microsecond). These capabilities, coupled with the inherent feature of highly accurate silent user operation, enhance the force effectiveness and survivability of many U.S. weapon systems. GPS consists of three segments. The space segment is the satellite constellation which provides the worldwide navigation signals. GPS satellites also carry Nuclear Detonation (NUDET) Detection System sensors as additional payloads. The control segment measures and corrects satellite performance parameters and provides a user interface to the system. It consists of five monitor stations and three ground antennae located around the world and a Master Control Station (MCS) at Falcon AFB CO, and a Phase 1 back-up MCS at Gaithersburg, MD. The user equipment segment (funded by 35164F) consists of the electronic equipment and interfaces necessary to receive and process GPS satellites signals into position, velocity, and time data for its various military uses.

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is a joint program composed of Space, Control, and User Equipment -segments. NAVSTAR will use satellites broadcasting accurate position and time information. Ground monitoring and control will be used to determine satellite status and positions, time, and to command the satellites. Users will be able to determine their positions and velocity to a high precision in three dimensions on a common arid system anywhere at any time under any weather condition. Funding for the concept validation phase, developments and prototyping of user equipment is being accomplished under 63403A, 63401N and 63421F. The Air Force should use this element (35165F) to fund production and launching of the operational satellites, and deployment, operation and support of the operational Master Control Station and monitor sets. Civilian and military personnel are Included. Excludes production of user equipment funded under PE 351640; and integration and operation of NAVSTAR user equipment funded in the appropriate unit/vehicle/aircraft/vessel program elements.(21)

The acquisition of GPS is managed by a Joint Program Office under the DAC, located at Los Angeles AFB, CA. The Block II satellite contractor is Rockwell International, Seal Beach, CA. IIT, Nutley, NJ (Block IIR), and Rockwell International, Autonetics Strategic Systems Division, (Block II) Anaheim, CA, are the subcontractors for the navigation subsystems. The Block IIR satellite contractor is General Electric, East Windsor, NJ. Operational control segment development and deployment is being done by IBM, Federal Systems Division, Gaithersburg, MD. User equipment is produced by Rockwell International, Collins Government Avionics Division. Cedar Rapids, IA and SCI, Huntsville,

64618F Joint Direct Attack Munitions(22)

Operation Desert Storm revealed the need for a more accurate weapon delivery capability in adverse weather conditions and from medium/high altitudes. Failure to satisfy this requirement will allow the enemy to continue to take advantage of the sanctuary of weather and/or prevent US air power from prosecuting a conflict on its terms. JDAM is a three part, concurrent Air Force and Navy munitions program to correct these shortfalls, with the Air Force as the executive service.

JDAM I will upgrade the existing inventory of general purpose bombs (MK 84 and BLU-109/B) by integrating them with a guidance kit consisting of a global positioning system aided inertial navigation system (INSJGPS). JDAM I will provide an accurate adverse weather capability. The program will incorporate, where feasible, lNS/GPS commonality with the Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) program managed by the Navy. JDAM I will initially be integrated with the B-IB and F/A-18C/D aircraft.

JDAM 2a will be an Air Force managed fuse improvement program (Joint Programmable Fuse) funded in PE 0604602F (Armament/Ordnance Development). This effort will provide complete fuzing options for the JDAM products as well as an upgrade to the existing inventories of fuzes. JDAM 2b will develop a new 500-pound warhead, managed by the Navy, and funded in PE 0604503N. JDAM 2c is a product improvement program for the Proximity Sensor (DSU-33A/B) and is funded in PE 0208030F.

JDAM 3 will develop a precision guidance capability to improve the accuracy of the JDAM 1 developed weapon, with maximum commonality with the Navy JSOW unitary weapon version.

Work Performed By: For JDAM 1 and 3, this is a FY 1993 new start. No contracts have been awarded for JDAM I yet. The Deputy, Air-to-Surface Weapons, Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC/YH-2), Eglin AFB, FL manages the JDAM I program for the AF Program Executive Officer for Conventional Strike (AFPEO/TS). JDAM I will start with two contractors, followed by a downselect to one contractor in FY 1995 to continue EMD. The aircraft prime contractors, under direction from the aircraft SPOs, will perform the weapon/aircraft integration.

For JDAM 3, four contracts were awarded in February 1993 to evaluate various concepts for precision accuracy. These contracts were awarded to the following companies. Coleman Research Corporation, Orlando, FL; Nichols Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL; SRT International, Menlo Park, CA; and The Analytical Sciences Corporation (TASC), Reading, MA and Fort Walton Beach, FL. The Deputy, Air-to-Surface Weapons, Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC/YHR), Eglin AFB, FL will manage this program for the Commander, Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH until MS I at which time it will transfer to the AFPEO/TS.

64778F Navstar User and Control Equipment(23)

Includes full-scale engineering development of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System space and around control segments. This involves the purchase of additional satellites to replenish those launched during the concept validation phase to ensure satellite availability in the 1982-1983 timeframe. This deployment is required to support initial operational test and evaluation of NAVSTAR user equipment and for range-tracking instrumentation of the Navy's fleet ballistic missile improved accuracy program. Also included in this element are all development efforts associated with the operational master control station and for a block change to the satellites to incorporate all required operational features. Excludes development and procurement of NAVSTAR user equipment; procurement, operation and personnel associated with the space and around control segments; and civilian end military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.


References

1. Danchik, Robert, et al, "The Navy Navigation Satellite System (TRANSIT)," Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, volume 11, numbers 1 & 2, 1990, pages 97-101.

2. "Sluggers Pinch Hit for Army GPS," Military Space, 24 September 1990, page 1, 8.

3. "Magnavox Prepares for GPS Buildup," Military Space, 25 September 1989, page 3-5.

4. Kiernan, Vincent, "Air Force Alters GPS Signals to Aid Troops," Space News, 24 September 1990, page 1, 35.

5. Klass, Philip, "Inmarsat Decision Pushes GPS to Forefront of Civ Nav-Sat Field," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 January 1991, page 34-35.

6. NATO AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development), Tactical Applications of Space Systems, Avionics Panel Symposium 16-19 October 1989, (AGARD-CP-460, NTIS N90-27438), contains several papers that provide an excellent review of the status of Navstar users.

7. NATO AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development), Tactical Applications of Space Systems, Avionics Panel Symposium 16-19 October 1989, (AGARD-CP-460, NTIS N90-27438), contains several papers that provide an excellent review of the status of Navstar users.

8. Moore, Molly, "US Training, Tactics Shift With Desert Sand," The Washington Post, 25 November 1990, page A1, A25.

9. Kiernan, Vincent, "Air Force Alters GPS Signals to Aid Troops," Space News, 24 September 1990, page 1, 35.

10. "Sluggers Pinch Hit for Army GPS," Military Space, 24 September 1990, page 1, 8.

11. 11 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-40.

12. 12 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-40.

13. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 514.

14. 14 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-40.

15. 15 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6N-26.

16. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 781.

17. 17 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6N-93.

18. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 160.

19. 19 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-40.

20. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 164.

21. 21 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-40.

22. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 605.

23. 23 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6F-73.


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