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Warning

Early warning satellites carry infrared sensors that detect the heat from a rocket's engines. These satellites are used for monitoring missile launches to insure treaty compliance, as well as providing early warning of missile attack. They can also be used to locate the launch sites of missiles used in combat operations.

The American Satellite Early Warning System (SEWS) consists of five Defense Support Program spacecraft.(1) Three of these provide frontline operational service, with two additional spacecraft available as backups should problems emerge with the primary satellites.(2) At the beginning of 1990 five DSP spacecraft were operational. DSP F-13 and DSP F-12, launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, were on backup duty, and DSP F-6R launched in 1984, DSP F-5R, launched in 1987, and DSP-I 14, launched in 1989, were the primary operational spacecraft.(3) The second Improved DSP (DSP-I) was launched on Titan 4 on 12 November 1990. The DSP-I satellites, of which spacecraft 14 through 25 were on order in early 1989 with options for 26 through 28 under consideration,(4) will incorporate upgraded sensors and improved resistance to laser attack.(5) Two DSP satellites were used to track Iraqi Scud missile launches.(6) Although the system was slow to provide warning of initial Iraqi test launches in early December,(7) by the end of the year the system had been greatly improved.(8)

The elimination of the anti-missile mission requirement for Booster Surveillance and Tracking System (BSTS) in SDI led to a decision in 1990 to transfer budget authority for this program back to the Air Force,(9) which sought to justify continuation of the program, initially renamed the Advanced Warning System and subsequently termed the Followon Early Warning System (FEWS), on the basis of its improved early warning of missile attack, and enhanced intelligence collection and verification capabilities. The future of this project remains in doubt, since BSTS grew out of the Advanced Warning System which was rejected for deployment in 1983.(10) The greater sensitivity of the FEWS sensors could improve its ability to track third world missiles compared with the current capabilities of DSP early warning satellites.(11)

In the early 1960's the United States began launching a series of satellites known as Vela, dedicated to the detection of nuclear explosions on the Earth and in space. More recently, these dedicated satellites have been replaced by nuclear explosion detection sensors mounted on other spacecraft. The American Navstar navigation satellites, along with weather and early warning satellites, carry several types of sensors to detect the location and yield of nuclear explosions. This Integrated Operational Nuclear Detection System, or IONDS, will relay this information to widely dispersed mobile ground terminals, enabling battle managers to identify which targets were missed by defective missiles or warheads, and to assign further strikes.

On 8 August 1989 the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia deployed what appears to be the first of a new generation of MASINT satellites under the FOREST GREEN program. By early October amateur astronomers had noted that sunlight reflected from this spacecraft was flashing, as though the spacecraft were tumbling out of control.(12) But by mid-November the satellite was observed to have maneuvered to a higher orbit,(13) suggesting that the spacecraft was operational.

The expansion of treaty verification satellite programs has largely been the results of the efforts of Oklahoma Democratic Senator David Boren, Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee. Under his proposal, as much as $5 billion was programmed(14) for a new system of satellites that would be deployed in the mid-1990's(15) or no later than the 1997-99 timeframe(16) to monitor Soviet laser testing.

The Space Based Wide Area Surveillance System (SB-WASS), with potential NATO(17) and Canadian(18) participation, would be used to track ships and aircraft on a global basis, although there is intense disagreement over the type of sensor that would be used. The Navy favors passive infrared sensors that would track the heat emitted by ships and aircraft, while the Air Force favors an active radar system, which it believes would have a superior all-weather capability(19). These technical preferences mark a reversal from earlier preferences. Navy interest in space-based radar extended from the Albatross studies of the early 1960's through the Clipper Bow effort of the late 1970's.(20) The Air Force and DARPA spent almost $500 million developing the Teal Ruby infrared system before deciding not to fly it.(21)

The choice is more than one of engineering convenience, since the infrared system could require as few as four satellites for continental air defense or 8 to 10 for global coverage,(22) while the radar system could require(23) anywhere from 8 to 24 massive spacecraft (weighing over 11,000 kilograms(24)), costing from $8 billion(25) up to $20 billion.(26) The Navy is interested primarily in a system to assist with fleet air defense, while the Air Force requirements also extend to strategic air defense, support of forces forward deployed in areas such as the Persian Gulf, as well as drug interdiction.(27) The Navy is seeking a system that will be responsive to tasking by fleet commanders, while the Air Force prefers a system that will be centrally directed by the U.S. Space Command.(28) The services also differ on how the space-based system would complement terrestrial systems, with the Air Force claiming that the space-based system could replace ground-based and airbased radars (such as AWACS),(29) and the Navy seeing the space-based system more as a complement to terrestrial systems.

However, their are serious questions concerning the ability of the SB-WASS to track stealth targets, as well as concerns about the vulnerability of these low-flying satellites to Soviet ASAT attack,(30) and approval of development of this system has been deferred to 1990, with a first test flight anticipated around 1995.

A - Navy

62111N AAW/ASUW Technology(31)

This program provides technology in support of future surveillance and weapons development for surface, air and space platforms. This element was created beginning in FY1986, as a result of a restructuring of the Navy Exploratory Development Program. It represents a combination of a number of program elements, including 62712N Surface and Aerospace Target Surveillance Technology. Work previously conducted under Project F12-141 Space-Based Radar and Project F12-142 Satellite IR Sensors was continued as part of the new program's Surveillance and Target Detection effort.

Space-Based Radar activities included clutter and ECCM processing techniques, with a partial array of radar transmit/receive modules and a unique ECCM processor were developed in 1986 and tested on an aircraft in 1987. Significant improvements in performance were required to ensure global operations against potential Soviet high power jammers.

Satellite IR Sensors activities focused on the HICAMP II airborne infrared measurement program, which was established to collect infrared signature data on aircraft and ships against ocean and land backgrounds. Flight tests in 1985 were used to support the design of a future Navy space-based collection system.

62712N Surface and Aerospace Target Surveillance Technology

Project F12-141 Space-Based Radar

Project F12-142 Satellite IR Sensors(32)

This program includes RDT&E funds for exploratory development of surface and aerospace sensor system technology aimed at the detection, identification, classification and localization of surface and aerospace targets. Targets of interest include aircraft, spacecraft, and surface craft, and their employed weapons which are presumed to be hostile and employing inherent tactical characteristics of high speed, evasive maneuvering, sophisticated countermeasures, and control of electromagnetic radiation. The essential objective of this program is to achieve extended range and detection and classification, effective operation in a countermeasures environment, and against a multiplicity of diverse targets, and reliable system operation with an acceptable cost of ownership

Project F12-141 Space-Based Radar, addresses critical technology related to development of a radar sensor for a Navy tactical surveillance satellite. Emphasis in the early 1980s was on the detection and classification of air/surface targets against a sea clutter background. In 1982 a tradeoff analysis and baseline design were completed for a potential Navy space based radar sensor. In 1983 ground tests of a radar classification technique applicable to a space platform was conducted at Point Loma, CA. The following year, aircraft flight tests of the radar target classifier were conduced, with results scaled to a satellite platform.

Project F12-142 Satellite IR Sensors addresses critical technology related to development of an infra-red sensor for a Navy tactical surveillance satellite. Activities in the early 1980s included survivability and vulnerability analyses, as well as studies of infrared cloud background data. Work on these technologies was conducted under Project F12-141 prior to FY1983.

These activities transitioned to 62111N AAW/ASUW Technology in FY1986.

63451N Tactical Space Operations - Project X1846(33)

The National Systems Enhancement for Tactical Support project supports the testing and development of Navy user equipment for the Defense Support Program surveillance satellite system. The primary focus of this project is the development of the Tactical Ground Station. Additional activities conducted by this project include software conversion to Ada (Phase III) within the Air Force SYS-1 upgrade to DSP.

Work is conducted by NAVSPASYSACT, Los Angeles, CA, and NAVSWC, Dahlgren, VA. Contractors include IBM, Boulder, CO, and Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA.

B - Air Force

12431F Defense Support Program(34)

The Defense Support Program is a classified program requiring access in accordance with AFR 205-23. Excludes all Defense Communications System (DCS) and non-DCS communications resources.

[ This old definition of the DSP program element is illustrative of the highly secretive approach that was formerly taken to this program. Until recently, DoD would acknowledge the existence of the Defense Support Program satellite system, and would acknowledge the existence of the Satellite Early Warning System (SEWS), but would not acknowledge any connection detween the DSP spacecraft and the SEWS mission. ]

12433F Integrated Operational Nuclear Detection Systems IONDS(35)

Includes funds for an Integrated Operational NUDET Detection System (IONDS) terminals and cross-link being developed to provide data to fulfill tactical, technical intelligence and nuclear test ban treaty monitoring requirements. IONDS will consist of sensors on DSP and DSP satellites and ground readout and display equipment for the users; the NCA, Commanders of theaters and Unified/Specified Commands, and others as may be designated. Excludes RDT&E resources in Program Element 63435F.

12447F Defense Support Program Communications(36)

Includes dedicated DCS and leased,long-haul, external communications circuits required for support of DSP program. Supports PE 12431F.

31314F Infra-Red / Electro-Optical / Directed Energy Weapon

IR/EO/DEW Processing / Exploitation

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work related to the use of space-based electro-optical sensors for measurements and signatures intelligence (MASINT) multiple mission support for detection and characterization of adversary ballistic missiles and directed energy weapons systems tests, using data derived from the unacknowledged FOREST GREEN (31324F) satellite program. ]

31315F Missile & Space Technical Collection

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work related to the use of space-based electro-optical sensors for measurements and signatures intelligence (MASINT) multiple mission support for detection and characterization of adversary ballistic missiles and directed energy weapons systems tests, using data derived from the unacknowledged FOREST GREEN (31324F) satellite program. ]

31324F FOREST GREEN

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work on the use of space-based electro-optical sensors for measurements and signatures intelligence (MASINT) multiple mission support for detection and characterization of adversary ballistic missiles and directed energy weapons systems tests. This unacknowledged satellite program appears to involve a dedicated spacecraft, similar in configuration to the Defense Support Program Multiple Orbit Spacecraft (DSP-MOS), launched into a highly inclined semi-synchronous orbit. ]

31357F Integrated Operational Nuclear Detection System IONDS

Includes funds for an Integrated Operational NUDET Detection System (IONDS) terminals and cross-link being developed to provide data to fulfill tactical, technical intelligence and nuclear test ban treaty monitoring requirements. IONDS will consist of sensors on DSP and DSP satellites and ground readout and display equipment for the users; the NCA, Commanders of theaters and Unified/Specified Commands, and others as may be designated. Excludes RDT&E resources in Program Element 63435F.

35172F Combined Advanced Applications / BERNIE

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work on the use of space-based radars for multiple mission support for detection of surface ships and aircraft. Unacknowledged Space Based Wide Area Surveillance System (SB-WASS) activities include definition of system concepts, technology efforts for critical subsystems, and conduct of a prototype demonstration. ]

35892F Special Analysis Activities

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work on the use of space-based radars for multiple mission support for detection of surface ships and aircraft. Unacknowledged Space Based Wide Area Surveillance System (SB-WASS) activities include definition of system concepts, technology efforts for critical subsystems, and conduct of a prototype demonstration. ]

35905F Improved Space-Based TW/AA Budget Activity

FEWS Follow-on Early Warning

The purpose of the ISBTW/AA program (also known as the Follow-on Early Warning System or FEWS) is to select and develop a satellite which provides increased performance over the existing Defense Support Program (DSP-I) satellite. The ISBTW/AA spacecraft primary mission is to provide initial warning of a ballistic missile attack on the US. The ISBTW/AA satellite will incorporate new technologies that would enhance detection and provide direct reporting of ICBM/ SLBM launches and improve space based surveillance of tactical ballistic missile launches worldwide. This program consists of three parts: a Space Segment (SS), a Fixed Ground Segment (FGS), and a Survivable Ground Segment (SGS).

Work during FY1992 through 1994 for ISBTW/AA Dem/Val phase is being performed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Sunnyvale, CA and TRW Incorporated, Redondo Beach, CA.

35911F Defense Support Program (DSP) Space Activities(37)

The DSP system provides a spaced-based surveillance system to detect and report missile and space launches and nuclear detonations in near real time during pre-, trans-, and post-attack periods. The DSP system consists of a constellation of satellites in geostationary orbits, fixed and mobile ground processing stations, one multi-purpose facility, and a ground communications network (GCN). DSP's primary mission is to provide tactical warning and limited attack assessment of a ballistic missile attack. DSP also detects and reports nuclear detonation events. This program element provides funding for development to modernize ground stations to ensure continued operability and integrate satellites to launch vehicles, procurement of satellites and ground station hardware, and operation of the DSP ground stations.

Recent work includes continued development to replace fixed ground station software architecture to complement new satellite capabilities (e.g. stereo processing, laser crosslink data processing, processing new sensor data, Ada-based language), and software maintenance and support programs. Due to cost increases and schedule delays, System 1 software was terminated in December 1992. Delivery of System 1 Software was delayed from Jun 93 to Jun 94 due to developmental delays by the contractor. The contractor estimate-at-completion for System 1 Software had grown from $129M to $202M. The revised plan is to award contracts in FY 94 to upgrade current software to provide similar capabilities and for computers compatible with the existing software.

The Program Executive Officer (PEO) for Space is responsible for system development and acquisition. The major contractors are TRW, Redondo Beach, CA; Aerojet Electronic Systems Division, Azusa, CA IBM, Boulder, CO; Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA; Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, and Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM.

35913F Nuclear Detonation (NUDET) Detection System (NDS /IONDS)(38)

The National Command Authorities require a highly survivable capability to detect, locate, and report any nuclear detonation f,NUDET) on a global basis in near real time. The NUDET Detection System consists of sensors integrated on the operational Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites plus a user segment consisting of Ground NDS Terminals (GNTs). The GPS/NDS satellite payload consists of X-ray, optical, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensors. These sensors, when coupled with the extremely precise GPS timing capability, will provide location of nuclear bursts worldwide with high accuracy. These data are crosslinked to other GPS/NDS satellites to provide worldwide connectivity. A broad range of users (National Command Authorities, Strategic Command, US Space Command) receive NUDET data, direct from the spacecraft. on the precise location, yield, count, time, and height of burst. These activities were formally covered under Program Elements 0102433F and 0301357F

Project Number 2124. Nuclear Detonation Detection System (NDS): This program funds development and integration of the data crosslink and downlink and integration of sensors and NDS processors on the GPS spacecraft. This program complements Project number 2808 which develops and procures EMP sensors for GPS satellites and develops NDS ground terminal prototypes.

Project Number 2808. Nuclear Detonation Detection System (NDS): Funds development of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensors and development of the ground terminals. It complements Project number 2124 which provides for the integration of these NDS sensors on GPS spacecraft.

Recent work has included design definition of low cost ground NDS terminals, engineering development and requalification of NDS sensors for Block IIR satellites, integration of ground terminals in STRATCOM and AFSPACECOM mobile command posts, production phase of NDS electromagnetic pulse sensor, and completion of the Ground/Airborne Integrated Terminal (G/AIT) contract, with all five units placed in storage for contingency use.

System development and procurement is accomplished by AF Materiel Command's Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles AFB, CA. Rockwell International, Seal Beach, CA, integrates the NDS sensors on Block II GPS satellites and produces the EMP sensor for Block II satellites. General Electric, East Windsor, NJ will integrate NDS sensors on Block II replenishment satellites. Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, NM, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, are under contract to the Department of Energy to produce the X-ray and optical nuclear detonation sensors. E-Systems, Garland, TX, is producing the EMP receiver/processor for the Block II satellites and International Telephone and Telegraph (IT&T) Aerospace and Comm Division. Nutley. NJ. is under contract to Sandia National Laboratory to develop the EMP sensor for Block II replenishment satellites.

63105F OLYMPIC

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work on the use of space-based radars for multiple mission support for detection of surface ships and aircraft. Unacknowledged Space Based Wide Area Surveillance System (SB-WASS) activities include definition of system concepts, technology efforts for critical subsystems, and conduct of a prototype demonstration. ]

63111F MERIDIAN

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work on the use of space-based radars for multiple mission support for detection of surface ships and aircraft. Unacknowledged Space Based Wide Area Surveillance System (SB-WASS) activities include definition of system concepts, technology efforts for critical subsystems, and conduct of a prototype demonstration. ]

63402F Teal Ruby (STP)

Includes RDT&E funds for the test and evaluation of advanced development equipments and certain operational spacecraft contributing to new or improved DoD space systems. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.

Although originally intended to for ballistic missile detection, the program was reoriented in 1985 toward detection of cruise missiles. The P80-1 spacecraft was to be placed in 350-450 nautical mile orbit with an inclination of 72 degrees. The spacecraft's primary infrared sensor was intended to have a one year life, based on the on-board store of cryogenic coolant. This infrared sensor consisted of 13 fixed narrow band IR filters from 2.5 to 15.5 microns. Each focal plane array had 12,288 detectors in 1024 element mosaic arrays. The sensor design featured tunable spectral filters for spectral agility in single FPA to counter laser jamming, although these were not included in flight experiment.

63424F Missile Surveillance Technology (part)

This program supports two major activities involving the collection and analysis of infrared phenomenology in support of the Advanced Warning System program. The first is associated with the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere as a background, and the second is directed at specific targets such as strategic and tactical missiles. Test efforts included the Balloon Altitude Mosaic Measurements (BAMM) program, as well as the Target Engine Measurements (TEM) rocket probe flights.

The technical content of this program was transitioned to the SDIO in FY 1985.

63425F Advanced Warning System

RDT&E funds to support design and development of a survivable first generation improved performance space based infrared mosaic sensor satellite network to provide high confidence strategic missile warning and assessment of the nature of an attack against the United States. The satellites will be survivable in the face of high energy laser and collateral nuclear weapons effects Extensive on-board data processing will permit design of a data network that will transmit data directly to the NCA even in the presence of electronic jamming, nuclear scintillation effects, or sabotage against ground communications links. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs.

The General Accounting Office noted in 1986 that:(39)

"The Air Force Scientific Advisory Board ad hoc committee to assess approaches to space-based missile warning systems met in February 1983. The committee's report stressed survivability options and concluded that the `state of the production art does not support a fiscal year 1985 start on a starring mosaic array sensor system requiring several million detector elements'....The AWS emphasis on performance enhancement was being dealt a severe setback on the basis of affordability, the state of technology, and lack of user interest..."

The technical content of this program was transitioned to the SDIO in FY 1985.

63428F Space Subsystems Technology(40)

63428F Space Surveillance Technology - EAGLE DANCER

This program includes efforts to identify and quantify the space environment impact on surveillance and dvelopment of space phased array and signal processing technology. This is the Air Force's primary source of wide area surveillance advanced technology development. This program element was restructured into a Science & Technology (S&T) program based on the 2 November 1990 Acquisition Decision Memorandum for Space Based Wide Area Surveillance. The program is now focused on phased array radar wide area surveillance component development, utility demonstrations and supporting technology.

The program also includes two advanced technology demonstration efforts: a series of integrated brass-board ground demonstrations; and a larger scale flight demonstration - EAGLE DANCER. These key demonstrations will integrate radar and infrared technologies to provide an understanding of the synergistic advantages and the requirements/effects on the many spacecraft subsystems. They will also enable confident transition of innovative wide area surveillance technologies to operational system development and lessen the developmental risk and associated cost. Technologies to be developed include algorithms for signal processing, sensor components and registration, and experimental payload development.

Managed by the Directorate of Space Technology, Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM. Canadian participation was anticipated in both the ground demonstrations and the flight demonstration.

[ The 1991 budget submission provided a $25 million funding request for FY1992, and $35 million for FY1993. However, the FY1992 funds were reduced to $4.8 million, and $4.2 millin for Fy1993. No funds were requested for FY1994.]

63429F Warning Information Correlation

This is a special access program. Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know " basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list. Excludes civilian and military manpower and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management, and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work on the use of space-based radars for multiple mission support for detection of surface ships and aircraft. Unacknowledged Space Based Wide Area Surveillance System (SB-WASS) activities include definition of system concepts, technology efforts for critical subsystems, and conduct of a prototype demonstration. ]

63439F Advanced Space Application Program(41)

Includes RDT&E funds for the Advanced Space Applications Program which will develop systems that provide for global military operations without the need for overseas basing. Objectives of these systems arc to provide multiple mission support and integrated command and control to force commanders during various levels of hostilities. Applications are divided into two areas: Use of IR techniques for detection of enemy systems; and use of space-based radars for multiple mission support. Starting in FY 1978, this program will perform the following related tasks: Gather target measurements particularly in the auroral zone, to determine the structure of the radiated signal for use in detailed sensor design; develop a system concept; develop data processing algorithms; and develop a flight-qualified sensor. Also starting in FY 1978, space-based radar tasks will be performed as follows: Define a system concept; institute a limited technology effort for critical subsystems; and conduct a prototype demonstration. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.

63731F Advanced Detection System Development(42)

Includes RDT&E funds for development projects which permit practical use in the Atomic Energy Detection System (AEDS) of new scientific sensors and analysis techniques. The scientific areas include seismology, acoustics, radiation in various parts of the spectrum, and environmental contaminants. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.

[ It is believed that this program funds work related to the use of space-based electro-optical sensors for measurements and signatures intelligence (MASINT) multiple mission support for detection and characterization of adversary ballistic missiles and directed energy weapons systems tests, using data derived from the unacknowledged FOREST GREEN (31324F) satellite program. ]

C - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

62301E Strategic Technology

ST-6 Warning Technology

Detection of Aircraft TEAL EMERALD

Detection from Space(43)

The Warning Technology Project consists of Detection of Aircraft TEAL EMERALD and Detection from Space.

The Detection of Aircraft activity includes the determination of the infra-red (IR) signatures of ICBMs and SLBMs, strategic aircraft, and the natural and perturbed backgrounds against which these targets are observed from a spaceborne IR surveillance sensor. This effort includes the Highly Calibrated Airborne Measurements Program (HI-CAMP) airborne flight experiments, and the TEAL EMERALD next-generation stabilized platform.

The Detection from Space effort consists of the development of the core technology for space-based radar systems. Activities under this project included fabrication of both phased-array radar membrane and space-fed radar arrays, as well as associated silicon-based and gallium-arsenide based transceiver modules.

The technical content of this program was transitioned to the SDIO in FY 1985.

62711E Experimental Evaluation

EE-6 Advanced Sensor Mini-HALO(44)

This project is focused on an Advanced Sensor Demonstration, based on the successful High Altitude Large Optics (HALO) program for development of infrared surveillance sensor technology. This project supports development and laboratory demonstration of the key elements of a sensor applicable to advanced surveillance missions, including air vehicle detection, satellite surveillance, and theater surveillance, as well as ballistic missile attack warning and characterization. New technologies include Mercury Cadmium Telluride long wavelength IR sensors, and on-board multi-channel processors. These developments will support major system improvements in sensitivity and measurement precision as well as significant improvements in spatial and temporal precision.

The technical content of this program was transitioned to the SDIO in FY 1985.

62711E Experimental Evaluation

EE-2 TEAL RUBY(45)

This project supports a space experiment to demonstrate infrared detection of strategic aircraft from a space platform, to measure target and clutter background signatures from space, and to demonstrate advanced infrared detector technology.

Includes RDT&E funds for the test and evaluation of advanced development equipments and certain operational spacecraft contributing to new or improved DoD space systems. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.

D - Department of Energy

DEW Verification

The Department of Energy has proposed a series of small satellites to support verification and monitoring of foreign directed energy weapon programs.


References

1. Ball, Desmond, A Base for Debate, (Allen & Unwin, London, 1987) is perhaps the most comprehensive discussion of the DSP system.

2. Kenden, A., "Military Maneuvers in Synchronous Orbit," Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, February 1983, V. 36, pp. 88-91.

3. "Advanced Missile Warning Satellite Evolved From Smaller Spacecraft," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 January 1989, page 45.

4. "Air Force to Decide by End of Month on DSP Acquisition Method," Aerospace Daily, 5 October 1989, page 30-31.

5. Covault, Craig, "New Missile Warning Satellite to be Launched on First Titan 4," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 January 1989, page 34-40. (This article is an excellent review of the history an status of this program).

6. Covault, Craig, "USAF Missile Warning Satellites Providing 90-Sec. Scud Attack Alert," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 January 1990, page 60-61.

7. Toth, Robert, "Iraqi Missile Test Had US Thinking War Had Started," Los Angeles Times, 21 December 1990, page A1, A11.

8. Diehl, Jackson, "Jordon's Troop Shifts Raise Questions in Israel," The Washington Post, 2 january 1991, page A17, A23.

9. Lawler, Andrew, "Pentagon Revamping BSTS; Project Moving to Air Force," Space News, 14 May 1990, page 1, 20.

10. General Accounting Office, "DOD Acquisition: Case Study of the Air Force Advanced Warning System," GAO/NSIAD-86-45S-14, 31 July 1986.

11. "BSTS is in a 'Time of Peril': Hard," SDI Monitor, 6 July 1990, page 150.

12. "Secret CIA Satellite Launched by Shuttle Columbia Observed 'Tumbling' By Astronomers in 7 Countries," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 October 1989, page 35.

13. "Secret DoD Shuttle Payload Boosted to Higher Orbit," Aerospace Daily, 8 December 1989, page 393.

14. "A Secret Laser Hunter," Newsweek, 3 october 1988, page 7.

15. "CIA Chief Warns Congress Not to Cut Recon Satellites," Aerospace Daily, 30 November 1989, page 323.

16. Foley, Theresa, "Monitoring Soviet Space Weapons Adds to Demand for U.S. Intelligence," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 February 1989, page 22-23.

17. "DOD Considering 27 New NATO Programs for Nunn Funds Over Two Years," Inside the Pentagon, 25 August 1989, page 13-14.

18. Lowman, Ron, "Canada, U.S. Work to Hone Space-Based Radar Objectives," Defense News, 20 November 1989, page 21.

19. "Piotrowski Says CINCs Prefer Space-Based Radar to Nay Infrared Surveillance," Electronic Combat Report, 29 September 1989, page 1.

20. Robinson, Bill, "Space Based Radar," Air Force Industry Briefing, 1 March 1989.

21. Smith, Bruce, "TEAL RUBY Spacecraft to Be Put in Storage at Norton AFB," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 January 1990, page 22-23.

22. Lynch, David, "Space Surveillance Effort in Limbo," Defense Week, 25 september 1989, page 13.

23. U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, "Summer study on Space Based Radar," September 1987.

24. Lynch, David, "Space Surveillance Effort in Limbo," Defense Week, 25 september 1989, page 13.

25. "Piotrowski Says CINCs Prefer Space-Based Radar to Nay Infrared Surveillance," Electronic Combat Report, 29 September 1989, page 1.

26. Hasley, Donna, "JCS Bid to Define Space Surveillance Mission May Resolve USAF, Navy Fight," Inside the Pentagon, 10 March 1989, page 1, 10.

27. "Drug Wars Turning to Star Wars," Space News, 9 October 1989, page 2.

28. "Airborne, Space Radars Top ADI Needs," Military Space, 22 May 1989, page 5-6.

29. Canan, James, "The Big Hole in NORAD," Air Force Magazine, October 1989, pages 54-59.

30. "Senate Armed Services Committee Report," Inside the Pentagon, 27 July 1989, page 8.

31. Department of the Navy, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1987 Budget Estimate Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, February 1986, page 73.

32. Department of the Navy, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimate Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1983, page 137.

33. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 279.

34. 34 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-24.

35. 35 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-24.

36. 36 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-26.

37. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 194.

38. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 197.

39. U.S. General Accounting Office. DOD Acquisition: Case Study of the Air Force Advanced Warning System, (Report to Congressional Requesters, [Washington, DC], U.S. General Accounting Office, July 31, 1986), p.5.

40. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1992/1993, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, February 1991, page 494.

41. 41 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6F-29.

42. 42 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6F-36.

43. Office of the Secretary of Defense, Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Defense Agencies, January 1983, pages 128-131.

44. Office of the Secretary of Defense, Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Defense Agencies, January 1983, pages 218-222.

45. Office of the Secretary of Defense, Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Defense Agencies, January 1983, page 203.

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