1997 Congressional Floor Debate
Sen. Glenn spoke on the 27th Anniversary of the
NPT, March 5.
On March 11, Rep. Frank inserted into the Congressional Record Clifford
Krauss' article from the New York Times, "Japan
Hesitant About U.S. Antimissile Project, " to show his wariness of
the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the U.S. and Japan.
Rep. Dellums has a defense budget plan, inserted
into the Record on March 13.
On March 17, House Speaker Gingrich placed the development
of a national missile defense system on the priority list for this year's
On April 9, Rep. Solomon requested the insertion
of an excerpt from the "National Security Report," criticizing the Clinton
Administration for lack of funding for missile defenses.
On the same day, Sen. Helms called for the "description of progress made"
of ballistic missile defense programs as a condition for the passage of
the Chemical Weapons Convention. See this excerpt
from Senate Executive Resolution 75. (Notice the similarity between
Kyl's Bill and Helms' Resolution.)
On April 24, Rep. Gilman introduced the European
Security Act of 1997, H.R. 1431, which advocated NATO expansion and cooperation
with Russia in the field of ballistic missile defense.
Senate majority leader Trent Lott sent
a letter to the President arguing that the Administration has not fully
consulted the Senate when making maneuvers relevant to the ABM Treaty,
and therefore the Senate should be wary of passing the Chemical Weapons
Convention. The letter was entered into the Record April 24.
See a similar letter Sen. Lott sent to
President Clinton, entered into the Record on April 24.
The White House's reply to Sen. Lott's
letters was also entered into the Record on April 24.
The President himself also sent a reply
to Sen. Lott, entered into the Record on the same day.
Sen. Lott argued for the Administration's cooperation
on the ABM Demarcation and Multilateralization Agreements on April 24.
On April 24, Sen. Inhofe harkened back to Ronald
Reagan's conditions for agreeing to a chemical weapons convention, including
the deployment of theatre missile defense and strategic defense initiative
Rep. Weldon, during debates on the effects of
NAFTA, argued how cuts in defense spending have also hurt American workers.
He suggested that military spending should increase, pointing to the need
to create more jobs and to the lack of advancement in national missile
defense and theatre missile defense development. April 29.
Sen. Sessions, on April 25, expressed his concerns
over the Chemical Weapons Convention and thought the ABM Treaty was "outmoded."
On May 14, Senators debated Condition 9 to the CFE (Conventional Forces
in Europe) Flank Document Agreement, adopted by the Committee on Foreign
Relations during consideration of the Treaty during the previous week.
(See the text for Conditions 8 [regarding
the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty] and 9.) Condition 9 stipulated
that the President would have to seek the "advice and consent" of the Senate
for the multilateralization of the ABM Treaty. Some Senators supported
the CFE Flank Agreement, but still had reservations about Condition 9.
For those who supported Condition 9, see the arguments of Senators Cochran,
Helms, Hagel, Hutchison,
Kyl, Lott, Smith,
For those who opposed Condition 9, see the arguments of Senators Dodd,
Kerry, and Levin.
The resolution of ratification, including Condition 9, was agreed to during
Rollcall Vote #67.
On May 19, Secretary of Defense Cohen released the QDR (Quadrennial Defense
Review), outlining the Pentagon's plans for the next four years. Senator
Coats had questions about financing a national missile defense and
Senator Leiberman believed the Pentagon should
have focused the QDR on preparing for future high-tech wars.
On May 20, Senator Sessions celebrated the 40th
Anniversary of Army Space and Missile Defense.
Senator Kyl, on June 18, entered into the
Record an article by Sven
Kraemer, who was Director of Arms Control at the National Security
Council during the Reagan administration. The article is general, but makes
contrasting points on Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and Clinton's
alleged "dumbing down" of ballistic missile defense programs.
On June 18, Representatives Hunter and Weldon
discussed the need for the Clinton Administration to hasten the advancement
of ballistic missile defense programs, especially Theater High Altitude
Area Defense (THAAD).
INHOFE -- THE ABM TREATY (Senate - October
09, 1997) A Day That Will Live in Infamy: 25th Anniversary of the A.B.M.
Treaty's Ratification Should Be Its Last
DEFINING A CONSERVATIVE APPROACH TO DEFENDING
THE WEST Remarks by Senator Jon Kyl at the First International Conservative
Congress--September 28, 1997 (Senate - October 01, 1997)
DASCHLE -- REDUCING THE RISK OF UNAUTHORIZED
OR ACCIDENTAL LAUNCH OF BALLISTIC MISSILES (Senate - November 09, 1997)
House Speaker Gingrich, on April 9, appealed
for the development of a missile defense system to protect against threats
Rep. Solomon, on April 23, argued for the implementation
of the Gore-McCain Act in light of allegations of Chinese and Russian missile
transfers to Iran. He also inserted into the Record an article by
Bill Gertz on Russian missile transfers
On the same day, Rep. Traficant expressed a
concern over the Administration's relations with China and Russia and those
countries' dealings with Iran.
Another resolution on missiles to Iran was submitted on 05 May, this time
by Sen. Snowe. Senate Concurrent Resolution 25
condemned the Russian Federation for "continuing to implement a commercial
agreement to provide Iran with nuclear technology that could assist that
country in its development of nuclear weapons."
Senator Levin supported the Intelligence Authorization
Act for Fiscal Year 1998 because it required the examination of potential
missile threats by terrorists (excerpt).
On July 16, Sen. Glenn spoke in opposition to
foreign assistance to Pakistan, citing Islamabad's desire of a nuclear
Foreign Relations Authorization Act
On June 4, Rep. Engel offered an amendment to
the Foreign Relations Authorization Act which would level sanctions against
Syria, in part, because it has loaded chemical weapons onto SCUD-type ballistic
On June 10, Rep. Gilman expressed opposition
to the Rohrabacher Amendment, which would
deny assistance to Russia if it transfers to China the SSN-22, a supersonic
sea skimmer missile. Gilman wanted the Amendment to include a Hyde National
Security Waiver, which would allow the President to waive a restriction
on aiding Russia if it is found to be in the national security interest
of the US.
Rep. Harman, on June 10, said the Rohrabacher
Amendment might have the opposite of its intended effects and encourage
Russia to transfer missile technology to other countries.
Also on June 10, Rep. Rohrabacher encouraged
other Representatives to support his Amendment.
On the same day, Rep. Wexler argued against
the Rohrabacher Amendment, citing its rigidness.
On June 11, Rep. Rohrabacher urged the House
to support his Amendment that would deny assistance to Russia if it transfers
an SS-N-22 missile system to China. The Amendment was agreed to in Roll
Call Vote No. 200 with a vote of 225 for the Amendment and 190 against
it. (Later, Rep. Forbes added his vote in favor
of the Amendment.)
Bennett Amendment, No. 392 Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act
On June 17, Senator Helms hailed the introduction
of the Bennett Amendment, No. 392 to the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring
Act of 1997. The Amendment urged, among other things, that President Clinton
impose sanctions on governments that transfer missile technology to countries
unfriendly toward the US.
After Senator Helm's introduction, Senator Bennett introduced his Amendment
on the same day. Read the section on Iranian missiles.
On June 17, the Senate held Roll Call Vote
No. 103, resulting in 94 "yaes" for Bennett Amendment No. 392.(Senator
Johnson also would have voted "yes" to the Amendment had he been present.)
On June 18, Senator Kyl rose in support of the
Bennett Amendment to the State Department Authorization Bill, which, in
part, urged the administration to enforce the Gore-McCain Iran-Iraq Nonproliferation
Act of 1992.
S. 495 Chemical and Biological Threat Reductions Act of 1997
Updates on ballistic missile defense programs were requested in the Chemical
and Biological Threat Reductions Act of 1997 (S. 495), which passed in
the Senate (53 to 44) on April 17. See the missile
defense excerpts of this Bill, sponsored by Sen. Kyl.
H.R. 1469 EMERGENCY SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS
On June 4, the Conference Report on H.R. 1469
[excerpt] contained restrictions on the Defense Department regarding
the management of national missile defense operations.
Defend America Act of 1997
S.7 National Missile Defense Act of 1997, introduced
January 2, 1997 as one of ten bills that are core Republican agenda, with
some remarks by Sen. Lott.
On January 21, Mr. Lugar introduced the "DEFEND THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ACT OF 1997" designed to state the national
missile defense policy of the United States
On January 23, Sen. Abraham reintroduced this
proposal of creating a ballistic missile defense system that would be intended
to protect the U.S. from accidental missile launches or terrorist missile
On April 30, Sen. Thurmond submitted, without
amendment, S.7 - for the deployment of a national missile defense system.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 - House
On June 19, the House started consideration of the National Defense Authorization
Act for Fiscal Year 1998. See Section 3131 of
the Defense Authorization Act stipulating that the Secretary of Energy
will be able to establish a program and task force to coordinate the research
of national laboraties for ballistic missile defenses.
As part of consideration for the Defense Authorization Act, the sense of
Congress was expressed regarding the Yamantau Mountain
project in Russia. Some members of Congress believe the project could
be a new strategic missile command. Consequently, the issue has been used
to bolster arguments for a national missile defense in the US.
Section 1203 of the Defense Authorization
Act calls for a report on Chinese military developments, with close attention
paid to missile developments in that country.
On June 19, Rep. Dellums expressed his support
for the Nunn-Lugar funds that helped dismantle Russian missiles but expressed
his disapproval of the push for more spending on missile defenses in the
Rep. Goss, on June 19, discussed his reasons
for putting tighter controls on technology transfer to China and Russia.
On June 19, Rep. Pickett hailed the Military
R&D Subcommittee's work on missile defense (excerpt).
Also on June 19. Rep. Spence discussed the
previous transfers of US supercomputers to China and how those computers
could be used for nuclear warheads research. Spence wants to ensure that
the US government would be able to restrict such
transfers if they contribute to security threats.
On the same day, Rep. Underwood expressed his
support for the missile defense provisions in the House National Defense
Authorization Act (excerpt).
On June 19, Rep. Vento took issue with the House
Defense Authorization Bill, arguing that it allocated too much money for
missile defense and yet decreased spending for the Nunn-Lugar program that
funds Russia to dismantle its missiles.
Rep. Weldon explained why the Defense Authorization
Bill allocated more money this year to missile defense. Also on June 19,
he again expressed his support for more spending
on missile defense programs (excerpt).
On June 20, Rep. Luther along with Rep.
Ramstad, offered an amendment to
the Defense Authorization Bill to terminate further production of the Trident
D-5 submarine launched ballistic missile, and instead rely on the C-4 missile
to save money.
On June 20, Rep. Dicks opposed the Luther-Ramstad
Amendment, saying that D-5 missiles must be produced to replace the C-4s
to ensure US security and Russia's incentives
to ratify START II.
On the same day, Rep Dellums rose in support
of the Luther-Ramstad Amendment.
Rep. Hunter, on June 20, said the Luther-Ramstad
Amendment would not save money and the Amendment could
harm Russia's approval of START II.
Rep. Hansen also opposed the Luther-Ramstad
Amendment to the Defense Authorization Bill.
Rep. Rivers, however, supported cutting the
Later on June 20, Rep. Luther again summed
up his reasons for submitting his Amendment on the D-5 ballistic missile.
Rep. Weldon submitted a list of quotes by Clinton Administration officials
regarding nuclear missile threats- - "One Hundred
Thirty And Counting: President Clinton Assures Us No Nuclear Missile Threat
Exists." Weldon submitted an amendment
to the Defense Authorization Bill, forcing the President to verify that
no Russian missiles are pointed at the US. The House passed the Amendment.
See Roll Call Vote No. 223.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 - Senate
COOPERATIVE THREAT REDUCTION
COMPUTER EXPORT CONTROLS
Cochran/Durbin AMENDMENT NO. 420 to require
a license to export computers with composite theoretical performance equal
to or greater than 2,000 million theoretical operations per second (Senate
- June 19, 1997)
Cochran/Durbin AMENDMENT NO. 420 (Senate -
June 20, 1997)
Grams AMENDMENT NO. 422 substitute for the Cochran
amendment, to require the Comptroller General of the United States
to conduct a study on the availability and potential risks relating to
the sale of certain computers (Senate - June 20, 1997)
Also on July 7, Sen. Cochran argued in support
of his amendment to restrict the exporting of high-performance computers
which could be utilized in weapons production. To reinforce his argument,
Cochran requested that three reviews be placed in the Congressional
Record: a chart of countries which have supercomputers,
a DCI report outlining weapon technology acquisition by country, and a
St. Louis Post-Dispatch editorial.
AMENDMENT NO. 420 (Senate - July 07, 1997)
AMENDMENT NO. 420 (Senate - July 09, 1997)
Grams amendment No. 422 The amendment (No.
422) was agreed to. The amendment (No. 420), as amended, was agreed to.
(Senate - July 10, 1997)
On July 10, Sen. Cochran and Sen. Grams debated
the Grams/Boxer amendment No. 422 which is a less restrictive alternative
to the Cochran amendment to ban the sale of selected dual-use supercomputers.
Letters by Secretary of Defense Cohen, National Security Advisor Berger,
and Secretary of Commerce Daley were entered into the Congressional
Record. For results on the amendment, see the Roll
On July 11, Sen. Thurmond spoke on behalf of
the Bingaman amendment which requires that by March 31, 1998, the President
submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the Helsinki
joint statement on future reductions in nuclear forces.
GRAMS - DOD AUTHORIZATION BILL CONFERENCE REPORT
(Senate - October 30, 1997)
S. Res. 82 C-802 CRUISE MISSILES
On May 5, Sen. Bennett (for himself, and on behalf of Senators D'Amato,
Helms, Dodd, Ashcroft, Hutchison, and Brownback) submitted Resolution
82 to "urge the Clinton Administration to enforce the provisions of
the Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act of 1992 with respect to the acquisition
by Iran of C-802 cruise missiles." Sen. Bennett included a letter
he sent to Secretary of State Albright on April 17. The Resolution
was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations.
On May 12, Senator Smith requested that his
name be added as a cosponsor of Senate Resolution 82.
On May 23, Senator Bennett requested that the
names of Senators Graham, Thompson, DeWine, Hutchinson, McConnell, and
Inhofe be added as cosponsors to Senate Resolution 82. This Resolution
urged the President to enforce the Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act
H. Res. 188 Regarding the Acquisition by Iran of C-802 Cruise Missiles
Rep. Gilman introduced House Resolution 188,
which requires the Executive Branch to take action against China for providing
Iran with C-802 cruise missiles.
GILMAN -- INTRODUCING HOUSE RESOLUTION 188 URGING
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH TO TAKE ACTION REGARDING THE ACQUISITION BY IRAN OF
C-802 CRUISE MISSILES (Extension of Remarks - July 17, 1997)
URGING EXECUTIVE BRANCH TO TAKE ACTION REGARDING
ACQUISITION BY IRAN OF C-802 CRUISE MISSILES (House of Representatives
- November 06, 1997)
H.R. 2709 Iran Missile Proliferation Sanctions Act of 1997
Also on June 17, Senator Bennett entered four
articles into the Record, all of which warned of the Iranian missile
threat and China's transfer of missile technology to the country.
JANE HARMAN -- SANCTIONS ON RUSSIAN ENTITIES
(Extension of Remarks - July 22, 1997)
STRICKLAND -- SUPPORT HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
121, REGARDING PROLIFERATION OF MISSILE TECHNOLOGY FROM RUSSIA TO IRAN
(House of Representatives - July 31, 1997)
GILMAN -- IRAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION SANCTIONS
ACT, H.R. 2709 (Extension of Remarks - October 23, 1997)
H.R. 2709, THE IRAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION SANCTIONS
ACT OF 1997 (Markup before the House International Relations Committee
- October 24, 1997)
WELDON -- INTRODUCTION OF H.R. 2786 (House
of Representatives - October 31, 1997)
GILMAN -- H.R. 2709, THE IRAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION
SANCTION ACT OF 1997 (Extension of Remarks - November 07, 1997)
IRAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION SANCTIONS ACT OF 1997
(House of Representatives - November 12, 1997)
OMITTED FROM THE CONGRESSIONAL RECORD OF WEDNESDAY,
NOVEMBER 12, 1997, DURING CONSIDERATION OF H.R. 2709 (House of Representatives
- November 13, 1997)
JANE HARMAN -- IRAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION SANCTIONS
ACT OF 1997 (Extension of Remarks - November 13, 1997)
S. 1311, the Iran Missile Proliferation Sanctions Act of 1997
S. Con. Res. 48 Proliferation of Missile Technology from Russia to Iran
KYL -- SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 48--EXPRESSING
THE SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING THE PROLIFERATION OF MISSILE TECHNOLOGY
FROM RUSSIA TO IRAN (Senate - July 31, 1997)
DASCHLE -- THE IRAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION SANCTIONS
ACT OF 1997 (Senate - October 28, 1997)
SENSE OF THE CONGRESS REGARDING PROLIFERATION
OF MISSILE TECHNOLOGY FROM RUSSIA TO IRAN (Senate - November 04, 1997)
REGARDING PROLIFERATION OF MISSILE TECHNOLOGY
FROM RUSSIA TO IRAN (Senate - November 07, 1997)
H.R. 2386 US-Taiwan Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense Cooperation Act
GILMAN UNITED STATES-TAIWAN ANTI-BALLISTIC
MISSILE DEFENSE COOPERATION ACT (House of Representatives - November
06, 1997) to implement the provisions of the Taiwan Relations Act concerning
the stability and security of Taiwan and United States cooperation with
Taiwan on the development and acquisition of defensive military articles.
On April 24, Rep. Traficant was angry with the
White House because it has continued to deal with China even though China
has sold missiles to Iran.
Rep. Solomon was leery of the Administration's
behavior regarding support for the sale of machine equipment to China that
was later used by China for weapons manufacturing. Solomon inserted a relevant
article by Jeff Gerth into the
Record on April 29.
On June 3, Rep. Solomon wanted to deny Most-Favored
Nation (MFN) trading status to China, in part, because of its alleged missile
technology transfers to Pakistan and Iran.
Senator Torricelli, on June 12, joined the crowd
and warned of China's missile-related activities (excerpt).
On June 16, Rep. Hamilton expressed his support
for continuing to grant MFN status to China, despite its missile activities
Senator Hutchinson, on June 5, rose in opposition to approving MFN trading
status to China. See the excerpt that refers to
China's missile activities.
On June 10, Rep. Gilman entered into the Record
a paper by Frank Gaffney with
the William J. Casey Institute of the Center for Security Policy. Gilman
said, "The paper makes the excellent point that: `While MFN is a blunt
instrument...it is also the only measure currently on the table that is
remotely proportionate to the magnitude of the danger Beijing is creating.'"
Rep. Solomon, on June 18, entered into the Record
a Washington Times article
on President Clinton's policy toward China and China's alleged missile
technology transfers to other countries.
Also on June 18, Rep. Pelosi argued against
approving MFN for China because of its sales of missiles to Iran.
On June 19, Rep. Pascrell argued against renewing
China's MFN status, citing, among other reasons, China's cooperation with
Iran on missile programs (excerpt).
On June 24, Rep. Delahunt announced his disapproval
for MFN status for China, indicating, as one of his reasons, Beijing's
illicit weapons sales to Iran, Libya, and Syria.
Rep. Fowler requested an article by Dr. Steven Breyen
and Michael Ledeen about supercomputers and Chinese weapons manufacturing
be placed in the Conressional Record.
Senator Ashcroft offers a testimony about the
possible implications that the expansion of the Chinese military places
on U.S. security interests.
DeWINE -- MFN STATUS WITH CHINA (Senate -
July 16, 1997)
BIDEN -- THE CHINA SUMMIT: WHAT KIND OF ENGAGEMENT?
(Senate - September 17, 1997)
BAUCUS -- CHINA TRIP REPORT (Senate - July
30, 1997) Asia Trip Report--Covering Visits to South Korea, Japan, North
Korea, Beijing, and Hong Kong, May 24-31, 1997
PALLONE -- TRANSFER OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY TO CHINA
(House of Representatives - October 07, 1997)
SOLOMON -- CHINA NUCLEAR CERTIFICATION THREATENS
UNITED STATES TROOPS (Extension of Remarks - October 08, 1997)
ASHCROFT -- UNITED STATES-CHINA NUCLEAR COOPERATION
(Senate - October 21, 1997)
ABRAHAM -- UNITED STATES-CHINA RELATIONS
(Senate - October 23, 1997)
SHELBY -- UNITED STATES-CHINA SUMMIT (Senate
- October 23, 1997)
ASHCROFT -- UNITED STATES-CHINA RELATIONS (Senate
- October 24, 1997)
SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 57--EXPRESSING THE
POLICY OF CONGRESS (Senate - October 27, 1997)
HUTCHINSON -- PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMIN'S STATE VISIT
(Senate - October 27, 1997)
SOLOMON --- JIANG ZEMIN CONQUERS AMERICA -- (BY
A.M. ROSENTHAL) (Extension of Remarks - October 29, 1997)
CHINA'S NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION POLICY -- (BY
EDWARD J. MARKEY, BENJAMIN A. GILMAN AND CHRISTOPHER COX) (Extension
of Remarks - October 30, 1997)
ENSURING THAT COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF PEOPLE'S
LIBERATION ARMY OF CHINA ARE MONITORED (House of Representatives -
November 07, 1997)
SENATE RESOLUTION 149--REGARDING THE STATE VISIT
TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Senate - November 08, 1997)
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