SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 48--EXPRESSING THE SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING THE PROLIFERATION OF MISSILE TECHNOLOGY FROM RUSSIA TO IRAN (Senate - July 31, 1997)

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Mr. KYL (for himself, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr. Shelby, Mr. Allard, Mr. Ashcroft, Mr. Brownback, Mr. Burns, Mr. D'Amato, Mr. Inhofe, Mr. Johnson, Ms. Mikulski, and Mr. Specter) submitted the following concurrent resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations.

S. Con. Res. 48

Whereas there is substantial evidence missile technology and technical advice have been provided from Russia to Iran, in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime;

Whereas these violations include providing assistance to Iran in developing ballistic missiles, including the transfer of wind tunnel and rocket engine testing equipment;

Whereas these technologies give Iran the capability to deploy a missile of sufficient range to threaten United States military installations in the Middle East and Persian Gulf, as well as the territory of Israel, and our North Atlantic Treaty Organization ally Turkey; and

Whereas President Clinton has raised with Russian President Boris Yeltsin United States concerns about these activities and the Russian response has to date been inadequate: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That it is the sense of the Congress that--

(1) the President should demand that the Government of Russia take concrete actions to stop governmental and nongovernmental entities in the Russian Federation from providing missile technology and technical advice to Iran, in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime;

(2) if the Russian response is inadequate, the United States should impose sanctions on the responsible Russian entities in accordance with Executive Order 12938 on the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, and reassess cooperative activities with Russia;

(3) the threshold under current law allowing for the waiver of the prohibition on the release of foreign assistance to Russia should be raised; and

(4) our European allies should be encouraged to take steps in accordance with their own laws to stop such proliferation.

Mr. KYL. Mr. President, I rise today to submit a Concurrent Resolution which expresses the sense of the Congress that Russia should refrain from providing additional missile assistance to Iran, and calls for the imposition of sanctions should Russia fail to stop.

A broad, bipartisan consensus exists among leaders in the Congress and the administration that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction [WMD] and ballistic missiles used to deliver them is one of the key national security challenges facing the United States today. In fact, in 1994, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12938 declaring that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means of delivering them constitutes `an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States,' and that he had therefore decided to `declare a national emergency to deal with that threat.' The President reaffirmed this Executive Order in 1995 and 1996.

The Concurrent Resolution that I have submitted today has bipartisan, bicameral support. Over the past few weeks I have enjoyed working with Representative Jane Harman, the principal sponsor of the resolution in the House of Representatives, and I am pleased to announce that Senators Feinstein, D'Amato, Inhofe, Allard, and Burns are original cosponsors of the legislation.

This resolution is important because Iran's ballistic missile program--in concert with its nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs--poses a grave threat to the United States and our allies in the region.

Iran is a state-sponsor of terrorism led by a regime which is hostile to the United States.

Its chemical and biological weapons programs, which began in the early 1980's, are now capable of producing a wide variety of highly lethal chemical and biological agents, and Tehran has an aggressive program to develop nuclear weapons.

In addition, Iran currently possesses Scud-B and Scud-C ballistic missiles, and with Russian assistance, is working to develop longer-range missiles.

Russia has stated that it recognizes the danger posed by Iran's missile program. At the Helsinki summit in March 1997, President Yeltsin reaffirmed that it was not Moscow's policy to assist Iran's missile program, since such missiles could be used to threaten Russia in the future. In addition, Russia is a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime [MTCR], which regulates the sale of missile technology to non-member nations, and has signed a bilateral agreement with the United States pledging not to conclude additional arms contracts with Iran.

Despite Russia's assurances and bilateral and international commitments, recent press articles indicate Russian entities have engaged in missile cooperation with Iran. On February 12, 1997, the Los Angeles Times reported that Russia had recently transferred SS-4 missile technology to Iran. The transfer reportedly involved detailed instructions on how to build the missile and some unspecified components. This transfer is of particular concern since the SS-4 has a range of 2,000 km--more than three times greater than any missile currently in Iran's arsenal.

In addition to the transfer of SS-4 technology, Russia appears to be selling Iran a wide variety of other equipment and material useful in the design and manufacture of ballistic missiles. According to a Washington Times article published on May 22, 1997, Russian entities signed numerous missile-related contracts with Iran's Defense Industries Organization in 1996. The contracts reportedly included deals worth over $100,000 for projects such as the construction of a wind tunnel for missile design, manufacture of missile models, and the sale of missile design software. Construction of the wind tunnel alone is expected to cost several million dollars.

These press reports are corroborated by an unclassified report to Congress, prepared by the CIA and coordinated throughout the Intelligence Community, that was released in June. The report titled, `The Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions,' states that, `Russia supplied a variety of ballistic missile-related goods to foreign countries [in 1996], especially Iran.' The report also noted that Russia and China continued to be the primary suppliers of missile technology and were `key to any future efforts to stem the flow of dual-use goods and modern weapons to countries of concern.'

This Concurrent Resolution expresses the sense of the Congress that the President should demand that the Russian government take concrete actions to stop governmental and nongovernmental entities from providing missile assistance to Iran. If Russia fails to respond to United States concerns, the Resolution calls on the President to impose sanctions on the responsible Russian entities in accordance with existing United States law. This resolution is a reasonable response to an important problem.

I am pleased that Russian President Yeltsin has clearly stated that it is not Russia's policy to assist Iran's missile program. But unfortunately, there continue to be discrepancies between Russian words and deeds. The time has come for Russia's leaders to halt this dangerous missile cooperation with a dangerous regime in Tehran. I urge my colleagues to support this resolution.

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