1997 Congressional Hearings
Special Weapons
Nuclear, Chemical, Biological and Missile


                 PROLIFERATION: CHINESE CASE STUDIES
                SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL SECURITY,
                  PROLIFERATION, AND FEDERAL SERVICES
                                 of the
                              COMMITTEE ON
                          GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
                          UNITED STATES SENATE
                            APRIL 10, 1997


CHINESE PROLIFERATION CASES

Dates Refer to Date of Press Report
       
                     __________

                        Chinese Proliferation Cases and the U.S. Assessment and Response                        
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Allegation             Relevant Law Options             Administration Assessment            Sanctions?   
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
November 1996--IRAN:   * Arms Export Control Act        NO FORMAL DETERMINATION MADE             NONE           
Gyroscopes,            * Export Administration Act       ``[W]e will continue to be very                        
 accelerometers, and   * Iran-Iraq Arms                  vigilant on this subject and to                        
 test equipment for     Nonproliferation Act             raise with the Chinese . . . every                     
 missiles                                                report we receive that we believe is                   
                                                         credible of such arms transfers''--                    
                                                         G. Davies, 11/21/96                                    
                                                                                                                
November 1996--IRAN:   * Arms Export Control Act                                                 NONE           
Chemicals used to      * Export Administration Act                                                              
 produce nerve agents  * Executive Order 12938                                                                  
                       * Iran-Iraq Arms                                                                         
                        Nonproliferation Act                                                                    
                                                                                                                
October 1996--         * Arms Export Control Act        NO FORMAL DETERMINATION MADE             NONE           
 PAKISTAN:             * Export Administration Act      ``We do not conclude that China has                     
Industrial furnace     * Nuclear Proliferation           violated the commitments it made in                    
 and high-tech          Prevention Act                   its May 11th Statement.''--N. Burns,                   
 diagnostic equipment                                    10/9/96                                                
 to nuclear facility                                                                                            
                                                                                                                
August 1996--          * Arms Export Control Act        NO FORMAL DETERMINATION MADE             NONE           
 PAKISTAN:             * Export Administration Act      ``We take it [the allegation]                           
Blueprints and                                           seriously, and we are looking into                     
 equipment to                                            it.''--G. Davies, 8/26/96                              
 manufacture M-11                                                                                               
 missiles                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                
September 1994-June    * Arms Export Control Act        NO FORMAL DETERMINATION MADE SINCE 8/    NONE           
 1996--PAKISTAN:       * Export Administration Act       25/93                                                  
M-11 missiles and/or                                    * ``[T]his is an issue that's been                      
 components                                              under continuous review and still                      
                                                         is. It is something we're very                         
                                                         concerned about.''--J. Holum, 8/7/96                   
                                                        *  ``The United States will continue                    
                                                         to monitor and evaluate reports of                     
                                                         missile transfers . .  We take                         
                                                         reports of alleged proliferation                       
                                                         very seriously.''--N. Burns, 6/11/96                   
                                                                                                                
March 1996--IRAN:      * Arms Export Control Act        NO FORMAL DETERMINATION MADE             NONE           
Chemical weapons       * Export Administration Act      ``[W]e take very seriously all                          
 equipment and         * Executive Order 12938           reports of possible transfers to                       
 technology            * Iran-Iraq Arms                  Iran of technology related to [WMD]                    
                        Nonproliferation Act             . . . We're going to continue to                       
                                                   ook at the fact.''--N. Burns, 3/8/                    
                                                         96                                                     
                                                                                                                
February 1996--        * Arms Export Control Act        DETERMINATION MADE NOT TO SANCTION       NONE           
 PAKISTAN:             * Nuclear Proliferation          ``[T]he policy makers in China at a                     
Ring-magnets for        Prevention Act                   senior level have assured us that                      
 uranium enrichment    * Export Import Bank Act          they were unaware of the transfer of                   
                                                         ring-magnets.''--N. Burns, 5/10/96                     
                                                                                                                
January 1996--IRAN:    * Iran-Iraq Arms                 DETERMINATION MADE NOT TO SANCTION       NONE           
C-802 anti-ship         Nonproliferation Act            ``[T]here's no question that there                      
 cruise missiles                                         has been a transfer of anti-ship                       
                                                         cruise missiles to Iran.''--N.                         
                                                         Burns, 3/8/96                                          
                                                  ater concluded missile sales were                      
                                                         not destabilizing                                      
                                                                                                                
June 1995--IRAN:       * Arms Export Control Act        NO FORMAL DETERMINATION MADE             NONE           
Missile guidance       * Export Administration Act      ``What we need to have is a series of                   
 systems and           * Iran-Iraq Arms                  discussions with [the Chinese], and                    
 computerized machine   Nonproliferation Act             we also have to continue to look at                    
 tools                                                   the problem ouselves.''--N. Burns, 6/                  
                                                         22/95                                                  
                                                                                                                
December 1992--        * Arms Export Control Act        DETERMINATION MADE TO IMPOSE CATEGORY                   
 PAKISTAN:             * Export Administration Act       II SANCTIONS                                           
M-11 missiles and/or                                    ``We do not have conclusive evidence                    
 components                                              that they [Pakistan] have an M-11                      
                                                         missile. We have conclusive evidence                   
                                                         that they have received from the                       
                                                         Chinese, from China items related to                   
                                                         an M-11 missile.''--L. Davis, 8/25/                    
                                                         93                                                     
                                                                                               Imposed          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  Dates Refer to Date of Press Report