North Korean Mass Destruction Weapons PREPARED STATEMENT OF JU-HWAL CHOI FORMER OFFICIAL MINISTRY OF THE PEOPLE'S ARMY NORTH KOREA NORTH KOREAN MISSILE PROLIFERATION HEARING before the SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, PROLIFERATION, AND FEDERAL SERVICES of the COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS UNITED STATES SENATE OCTOBER 21 1997 I am Choi Ju-hwal, I served in the Ministry of People's Army from 1968 to 1995. I defected from m y post as Colonel and Chief of joint venture section of Yung-Seong Trading Company under the Ministry of People's Army. I would like to describe North Korean weapons of mass destruction. It is widely known in North Korea that North Korea produces, deploys and stockpiles two or three nuclear warheads and toxic material such as over 5,000 tons of toxic gas. It also developed and deployed rockets such as Nodong 1 and Nodong 2 with a range of 1,000 Km. The North Korean people know that the North is at the final stage of developing Taepodong rockets with a range of 5,000 Km. North Korea acquires powerful and destructive weaponry with political and military purposes in mind. By having the weapons, the North is able to prevent itself from being slighted by such major powers as the U.S., Russia, China and Japan and also to gain the upper hand in political negotiations and talks with them. On the military front, the North can deal a blow to the 40,000 U.S. forces stationed in the South and target the U.S. defense facilities and the Japanese defense facilities in Japan, thereby effectively destroying supply based in times of war. With the weaponry, the North can wreak havoc on the U.S., including Alaska, in a war where there is no victor nor loser. The 2nd Economic Committee, which is in charge of its defense industry, is run by the Party Central Committee. In the Party Central Committee, Secretary Chun Byung-ho is in charge of the defense industry and runs the Department of Machinery Industry. The 2nd Economic Committee is located in Kangdongkun of Pyongyang and consists of eight General Bureaus and one bureau, the 2nd National Science Institute, and one trading company for material. The 4th General Bureau and the 5th General Bureau produce rockets and chemical weapons. production, deployment and sales of rockets (the 4th general bureau) Production of Rockets Since the mid-197O's, the North has launched its effort to build rockets by itself. As part of the effort, the North built rocket factories for Scuds from the Soviet Union and began R&D activities for rocket production in the National Defense Institute in the Yongseung Area of Pyongyang. As a result, the North was able to produce SS rockets with a range of 250 to 300 Km by the end of 1980's. According to Vice Marshal and former First Deputy Minister of People's Armed Forces Kim Kwang-jin (Vice Marshal of Armed Equipment), the North succeeded in developing and producing rockets with a range of more than 4,000 Km. He said that once the North develops rockets with a range of 1,000 Km, it is not so difficult to develop rockets with a range of 5,000 Km to over 10,000 Km. According to him, the range of rockets depends on propellants and fuel. This is what he mentioned when he visited China as the head of the North Korean military delegation. Rocket Factories There are a number of rocket factories in North Korea. They include the ``125 Factory'', which is commonly referred to as ``Pyongyang Pig Factory,'' in the Hyengjesan Area of Pyongyang, the Number 26 Factory in Kangkye of Jakangdo, the Yakjeon Machinery Factory in Mankeyungdae and the 118 Factory in Kagamri, Kaecheon-kun in the southern province of Pyongahn. ``Pyongyang Pig Factory'' (Number 125 Factory) was open to the military delegation from Iran and Egypt. The delegation inspected rocket assembly line. Rocket Deployment Since the North uses mostly mobile rocket launchers, not fixed ones, it is assumed that the North does not have fixed rocket launchers. However, as far as I know, there are intermediate range rocket bases in Sangwon-kun in Pyongyang and Hwadae-kun in the northern province of Hamkyung. The Export of Missiles North Korea has been engaged in a plan to develop missiles jointly with Egypt. At the request of Egyptian President Mubarak, Kim Il-sung in the early 1980's transferred missile technology to Egypt and dispatched a group of North Korean experts to the country. The two countries seem to have maintained this relationship continuously. As a result, Egypt in the mid-1980s was successful in manufacturing 400 Km range surface-to-surface missiles. I confirmed this fact when I met the chief of the General Bureau of External Cooperation in the Second Economic Commission in his office located in Botonggang-kuyok in Pyongyang in 1989. That time I visited the office on a business related with Vice Marshal Choi Kung's scheduled tour of Egypt. Choi at that time was the chief of the General Staff of the People's Army. He was named the minister of Armed Forces later. North Korea has been exporting missiles to Iran since before the Iran-Iraq War. North Korea has exported a large amount of surface-to- surface and surface-to-air missiles to Iran. the production of chemical weapons (the 5th general bureau) The Hamhung Branch and three other institutes under the Second Natural Science Academy are responsible for research and production of chemical weapons, and seven factories scattered throughout the country are manufacturing these weapons as well as various anti-chemical equipment. The Germ Research Institute in the General Logistic Bureau of the Armed Forces Ministry is responsible for developing biological weapons. North Korea is currently producing various kinds of poison gas including nerve gas, blister gas, among others. These factories include the Kangye Chemical Factory in Jangang Province, the Sakju Chemical Factory in North Pyongan Province, the ``February 8'' Vinalon Factory in Hamhung, North Hamgyong Province, the Ilyong Branch of the Sunchon Vinalon Factory in South Pyongan Province, the Factory No. 297 in Pyongwon, South Pyongan Province. There are other chemical factories in Bongung, Hamhung City, South Hamgyong Province, Hyesan City Yanggang Province, and Kangye City, Jagang Province. Kim Jong-chan (major), who served as an assistant military attache at the North Korean Embassy in East Germany in late 1970's, is said to have obtained the technological data for manufacturing extremely poisonous gas from Germany. Based on this new technology, North Korea has begun to manufacture new kinds of poison gas since the mid-1980s. It is said that Dr. Li Sung-gi, who is known to have developed vinalon (a synthetic fiber made from limestone), have participated in the project to develop the new gas. Kim Joung-chan made a quick advancement, thanks to his achievement. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1984 and named the chief of the External Business Affairs Bureau, a position usually occupied by a general-grade officer, in the Armed Forces Ministry. The Chemical Bureau in the Armed Forces Ministry once boasted that North Korea had been able to complete the chemical warfare preparation, thanks to Kim Joung-chan. All officers, including general-grade officers, are obliged to participate in anti-nuclear and anti-chemical warfare training twice a year (in spring and autumn). During this training the experiments are conducted: a dog and a rabbit are put in separate glass tubes, respectively, and a poison gas is blown in, then these animals will die within 20 seconds. The gas bombs are designed to be delivered by rocket launchers or howitzer. Some Americans believe that even if North Korea possessed the ability to strike the U.S., it would never dare to because of the devastating response. But I do not agree with this idea. If a war breaks out in the Korean Peninsula, the North's main target will be the U.S. forces based in the South and Japan, which is the reason that the North has been working furiously on its missile programs. Kim Jong-il believes that if North Korea brings 20,000 American casualties in the region, it would win a war.