Index FM 44-100-2 AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY REFERENCE HANDBOOK
FINAL DRAFT - 31 March 2000



CHAPTER 3

SHORT RANGE AIR DEFENSE

This chapter provides information on short range air defense (SHORAD), systems currently in the force and projected to be fielded to ADA units. SHORAD weapons are employed in support of maneuver forces. They defend personnel and assets against attack by enemy aerial platforms. They are employed in rear areas to defend air bases, forces, key installations, and other vital assets.

SHORAD systems include:

stinger missile

    1. Stinger missiles are deployed in four configurations: as the missile component of the Avenger missile system, as the missile component of MANPADS teams, as the missile component of the BSFV and the missile component of the Linebacker.
    2. Two versions of the missile are used: the basic Stinger missile, and the reprogrammable microprocessor (RMP) version. The basic Stinger missile is an infrared guided missile. The Stinger reprogrammable microprocessor (RMP) version is an infrared and ultraviolet guided missile. The RMP Missile uses a two color, infrared and ultraviolet detector and advanced algorithms to help identify aerial targets. This advanced capability allows the missile to effectively discriminate between targets, flares and background clutter within detectable ranges, thereby preventing false engagements. Unlike the basic Stinger missile, the RPM has the capability to track and destroy high-performance fixed-wing targets, unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in clutter and at tactical ranges.
    3. Stinger manpads team

    4. The Stinger MANPADS team carries a manportable, shoulder-fired, infrared guided missile (figure 3-1) that requires no control from the gunner after firing. It has an identification, friend or foe (IFF) interrogator that aids the gunner and team chief in identifying unknown and friendly aerial platforms.

    5. Figure 3-1. Stinger Team

    6. Stinger provides short-range Air Defense for maneuver units, rear echelon forces, special operations forces, and combat service support (CSS) units. The Stinger is designed to counter high-speed, low-level, ground attack, helicopter, observation, and transport aerial platforms.
    7. System Description

      Stinger Weapon

    8. The Stinger weapon consists of a missile-round within a launch tube assembly with gripstock. A battery coolant unit (BCU) is inserted into the weapon round to provide electrical power and argon gas, which acts as coolant for the seeker. The ability to electronically interrogate aerial platforms is provided by the IFF connected to the weapon system (figure 3-2). Table 3-1 lists the Stinger system characteristics. More detailed information can be found in TM 9-1425-429-12.

    Table 3-1. Stinger system characteristics

     

    LENGTH

    (INCHES)

    (CENTIMETERS)

    WIDTH

    (INCHES)

    (CENTIMETERS)

    HEIGHT

    (INCHES)

    (CENTIMETERS)

    WEIGHT

    (POUNDS)

    (KILOGRAMS)

    Weapon Round

    59.5

    (151.1)

    5.9

    (14.9)

    5.9

    (14.9)

    36.1

    (79.4)

    Field Handling Trainer

    59.5

    (151.1)

    5.9

    (14.9)

    5.9

    (14.9)

    36.1

    (79.4)

    Battery Coolant

    Units

    3.4

    (8.6)

    3.75

    (9.5)

    3.75

    (9.5)

    1.98

    (4.2)

    IFF Programmer

    Battery Charger

    23.6

    (59.9)

    13.3

    (33.8)

    10.7

    (27.2)

    41.0

    (90.2)


    Figure 3-2. Stinger Weapon System

    Stinger Missile Round

  1. The Stinger missile round is composed of two major parts: missile and launch tube.
  2. Missile

  3. The missile consists of three sections (figure 3-3):

    1. The guidance section of the missile consists of a guidance assembly, a control assembly, a missile battery, and four control surfaces. The guidance assembly processes target infrared radiation/ultraviolet (IR/UV) sources and provides guidance commands for the missile during flight. The seeker tracks the IR /UV source automatically after the gyro is uncaged and during missile flight. The control assembly converts the guidance commands into movement of control surfaces that direct the flight of the missile. The missile battery provides the flight power for the Stinger guided missile.
    2. The warhead section consists of a fuse assembly and a quantity of explosives, all within a cylindrical case. After the flight motor ignites, the fuse arms the warhead. The fuse can detonate the warhead in three ways: by means of a low impact switch, by a hard target sensor, or by self-destructing. Should target intercept not occur within 17 seconds after launch a self-destruct circuit initiate warhead detonation. Safety features are included to insure that the missile is safe for shipping and handling.

    3. Figure 3-3. Stinger Missile

    4. The propulsion for the missile is provided by a separable launch (eject) motor and a dual thrust flight motor. The launch (eject) motor provides initial thrust that ejects the missile from the launch tube. It allows the missile to coast a safe distance (28 feet or 8.53 meters) from the gunner, prior to ignition of the flight motor. The launch motor is expended and separated from the flight motor before the missile is out of the launch tube. The expended launch motor leaves the launch tube and falls a safe distance forward of the gunner. Also, at separation, a lanyard attached to the launch motor pulls the shorting plug from the flight motor ignition circuit, thus enabling the flight motor to ignite. The flight motor provides propulsion for the missile during flight. The flight motor fires after the missile coasts for a safe distance from the gunner. Thrust for the flight motor is provided in two phases: boost and sustain. Initially, both burn simultaneously. The boost phase rapidly accelerates the missile to its top speed. The boost phase ends, but the sustain phase continues. The sustain phase maintains the missile speed for a time sufficient to complete the mission.

    5. Part of the propulsion system is the tail assembly. The tail assembly consists of four folding tail fins that provide roll and missile stability. The fins are in a folded position in the launch tube. As the missile leaves the launch tube, the fins are erected by spring action and then locked into place by the force generated by missile spin.
    6. Launch Tube Assembly

    7. The launch tube assembly (figure 3-4) is a fiberglass tube which houses the missile. It provides the means to transport, aim, and fire the missile. The launch tube provides the main support for all other parts of the weapon round. Both ends of the launch tube are sealed with breakable disks. The front disk is transparent to IR radiation, allowing the radiation to reach the heat-sensitive missile seeker. The front disk breaks outward at launch, and the aft disk blows out as the launch motor ignites. A desiccant cartridge and humidity indicator measures the humidity level in the sealed tube. The hinged sight assembly attached to the launch tube allows the gunner to sight the weapon, determine target range, superelevate the weapon, and hear the audible tones through the acquisition indicators. The eye shield attached to the sight frame protects the gunner's left eye during launch. The launch tube is destroyed and discarded after the missile is fired.

    8. Figure 3-4. Stinger Launch Tube with IFF

      Gripstock Assembly

    9. The gripstock is attached to and removed from a launch tube by means of a latch. Located on the gripstock assembly are the safety and actuator device, uncaging switch, firing trigger, IFF antenna assembly, IFF INTERROGATE switch, IFF interrogator connector, and Battery Coolant Unit (BCU) receptacle. After a missile is launched, the separable gripstock is removed from the launch tube for reuse. It can be reused until failure.
    10. When the IFF antenna assembly is deployed and the interrogator is connected to the gripstock, it is capable of interrogating aerial platforms and receiving coded replies. After a missile is fired the IFF antenna assembly folds into a holder on the right side of the gripstock assembly.
    11. The BCU is used to energize the weapon's electrical circuits and to cool the IR detector in the missile's seeker prior to launch of the missile. It contains a thermal battery to provide power for preflight operation, and pressurized argon gas coolant (figure 3-4).
    12. Interrogator Friend or Foe System (IFF)

    13. Stinger is equipped with an IFF subsystem to aid in the identification of aerial platforms. The IFF system classifies aerial platforms as either friendly or unknown. It does not identify hostile aerial platforms. IFF components include the IFF interrogator and an interconnecting cable.
    14. The gunner initiates the IFF sequence by pressing the IFF INTERROGATE switch on the gripstock assembly. The interrogator attached to the gunner's belt sends a coded signal to the aerial platform. Once the gunner issues a challenge, the rest of the sequence is automatic.
    15. The aerial platform's transponder then prepares and sends a coded reply. The reply is received by the Stinger IFF antenna and is routed to the interrogator for decoding. The interrogator converts the reply into an audible tone that is then routed via the interconnecting cable to the gunner as a friendly tone. If the aerial platform's transponder sends an incorrect reply to the IFF challenge, the reply is processed by the IFF system into an unknown tone. Aerial platforms not equipped with transponders will not reply to the challenge, and this is also interpreted into an unknown tone. The gunner hears the friendly or unknown tone immediately after challenging the aerial platform.
    16. The IFF challenge is coded in a complex, cryptographic secure Mode 4 form, or a simpler Mode 3 form. All US combat aerial platforms and helicopters are equipped with transponders to provide friendly Mode 4 and 3 replies. Since the Mode 4 code is secure, a friendly Mode 4 reply is considered a true friend reply. A friendly Mode 3 reply is considered only as a possible friend reply.
    17. Support equipment for the IFF includes a programmer battery charger AN/GSX-1, computer KIR-1C/ TSEC (with power supply model ZAC A/1), and two code changing keys KOI-18/ TSEC. The computer and code changing keys, when set with classified code, are classified CONFIDENTIAL, and must be safeguarded as outlined in TB 380-41. The interrogator (specifically, the reply evaluator module within the interrogator) is also classified CONFIDENTIAL, and proper security measures must be taken for it. An IFF subsystem training set is available for training purposes. See TM 9-1425-429-12 and TM 9-1425-2586-10 for operation instructions.
    18. Weapon Round Container

    19. A weapon round container provides environmental protection for one weapon round and several BCU during shipping and storage. The container is equipped with on set of ear plugs, four latches, handles for two-man carry, a pressure relief valve, a humidity indicator, and a BCU storage area (figure 3-5).
    20. Ready Rack

    21. A container is converted to a ready rack by releasing the latches that make the ready round (a weapon-round with BCU installed) readily accessible. The ready rack setup provides the capability for a gunner to open the container, remove, shoulder, and prepare the weapon for engagement within 10 seconds (figure 3-5).

    22. Figure 3-5. Weapon Round Container as a Ready Rack.

      System Operational Overview

    23. The Stinger operates by the gunner sighting on a target. The gunner centers the target in the sight range ring. The gunner interrogates the target by pressing the IFF interrogator switch and listens for an IFF response. If the response is not a friend, he continues tracking and ranging the target. When the target is within range, he operates a safety and actuation device. When a distinct acquisition tone is heard, he presses and holds the uncaging switch. After identifying the target as hostile (aided and assisted by the team chief) the gunner will superelevate the weapon. He will then place the target in proper lead reticule and, if IR tone is still distinct, he squeezes and holds the firing trigger. The gunner continues to track the target for three to five seconds. The BCU must be removed in less than three minutes after firing to prevent damage to the reusable gripstock.
    24. Employment

    25. Stinger's primary role is to provide Air Defense for forward combat elements against low-altitude hostile aerial platforms. Stinger defends high-priority maneuver and field artillery battalions in position and also defends high-priority critical assets (such as command posts, trains, ammunition storage point (ASP) and POL). Stinger complements other ADA systems when priorities and the situation permit.
    26. Employment considerations

    27. The following must be considered when employing Stinger:

Stationary Point Defense

    1. Stinger's ability to engage approaching aerial platforms makes it valuable for stationary point defenses. Its effectiveness is significantly enhanced when other ADA systems are allocated to the same defense. Teams should normally be positioned so that the engagement capability of one team overlaps that of an adjacent team. Positioning teams from two to three kilometers apart will provide this capability. In cases where more than one weapon system is employed in the same defense, overlapping fires should be achieved between weapons systems. When permitted by the tactical situation, teams must be positioned far enough out from the asset being defended to permit threat aerial platform engagement prior to ordnance release.
    2. Mobile Point Defense

    3. Stinger provides the ADA commander with an excellent capability to protect mobile assets to include moving maneuver units. MANPADS teams will often provide Air Defense for units moving in convoy or march column along roads behind the line of contact. Stinger defense of such convoys may be conducted by either pre-positioning teams along the route of march at key points such as choke points and bridges or integrating teams into the march column. When integrated into the convoy the positioning of MANPADS will depend on convoy length and available MANPAD weapons
    4. Early engagement by placing the gunner out and away from the defended asset is desired whenever possible. This is done so that the gunner can engage and destroy the target prior to the aerial platform reaching its ordnance release line. Gunners must be provided sufficient time to ready their weapons. When not alerted, they must have their MANPAD weapons close by, even when they are performing their own security and maintenance duties. System effectiveness largely depends on gunner reaction time. The gunner needs to know the weapons control status (WCS) in effect and be trained on expected threat aerial platform tactics.
    5. BRADLEY STINGER FIGHTING VEHICLE

    6. The Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV) consists of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle transporting a Stinger MANPADS team. The primary role of the BSFV is to protect forward area maneuver combat forces, combat support elements, and other critical assets from attack by hostile RW and FW aerial platforms operating at low altitudes. The BSFV can deliver effective fire against ground targets such as light armored vehicles and tanks using the Bradley Fighting Vehicle onboard weapons.
    7. System Description

    8. The BSFV is a fully tracked, diesel-powered, lightly armored vehicle. The turret on the BSFV is equipped with a 25mm main gun, 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, externally mounted tube launched, optically tracked, wire guided (TOW) missile launcher, and two M257 smoke grenade launchers. The fire control system features an integrated day or night sight incorporating a thermal-imaging infrared device. The recommended load for missiles on the BSFV is six Stinger and five TOW missiles. Two TOW missiles are ready and three stored. All six Stingers are stored in a ready rack. Five soldiers man the BSFV vehicle (figure 3-6).

    Table 3-2. BSFV System Characteristics


    Missiles

    TOW: 2 ready; 3 stowed

     

    Stinger: 6 stowed

    Ammunition (25mm)

    Armor-piercing discarding sabot-tracer (APDS-T): 70 Ready; 140 stowed

     

    High explosive incendiary-tracer (HEI-T): 230 Ready; 460 stowed

    EQUIPMENT DATA

    General

    Weight (combat loaded): M2A2: 50,261 LB (22,798 kg)

     

    Weight (less fuel, crew, and OVE): M2A2: 43,500 LB (19,732 kg)

     

    Weight (air transportable): 40,775 LB (18,495 kg)

     

    Ground pressure (combat loaded): 7.7 psi (0.54 lg./cm2)

    Personnel

    5 crewmembers (2 MANPADS members)

    Performance

    Speed on land 41 MPH: (66 km/n)

     

    Cruising range: 300 miles (483 km)

    Performance

    Turning radius: Pivot to infinite

     

    Slope climbing: 60%

     

    Side slope: 40%

     

    Trench crossing: 8 ft, 4in (2.5m)

     

    Vertical wall climbing: 36 in (9lcm)

     

    Gross horsepower-to-weight ratio: 20.62 h/p/ton

     

    Ground clearance: 18 in (45.7/cm)

    Engine

    Make and model: Turbocharger Cummins VTA-9O3T

     

    Displacement: 903 cu in (14.8 liters)

     

    Type: 4 cycle

     

    Fuel: Diesel

     

    Gross horsepower: 500 (608 metric)

    Swim Fording

    4.5 MPH in water with floating device, which is installed in the front and side armor

    Main Gun, 25mm Automatic Gun, M242

  1. The main armament for the BSFV is the 25mm automatic, externally powered gun. When maneuvering in the offense, the 25mm gun is used as the primary AD weapon. It is used to destroy hostile RW and slow flying FW aerial platforms, lightly armored vehicles, and to suppress enemy fortified positions. The 25mm gun is a dual-feed weapon system that allows the crew to select two types of ammunition: APDS-T and HEI-T. The 25mm gun has three rates of fire:

    1. Six basic types of ammunition are used with the 25mm gun with effective ranges up to 3,000 meters. Further information can be found in FM 23-1.

    2. Figure 3-6. Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV)

      TOW Missile

    3. The TOW is a command-guided surface attack weapon that can destroy hostile helicopters, tanks and other vehicles at ranges from 65 to 5750 meters (depending on type of missiles in use). It can be used against fortified positions and gun emplacements.
    4. The TOW missile comes in five versions:

    1. Each version is an improvement over the previous missile. Primary improvements are in the areas of penetration, effective range, and usability in adverse firing conditions. Additional information can be found in FM 23-1.
    2. M240C 7.62 Coaxial Machine Gun

    3. The M24OC 7.62mm machine gun is used to engage FW aerial platforms, unarmored helicopters, and light armored vehicles. It is a coaxial, belt-fed, gas operated, fully automatic weapon with a maximum range of 900 meters. Further information can be found in FM 23-1.
    4. employment of bsfv

    5. The primary mission of the BSFV squad is to defeat helicopters both moving and stationary. See table 3-3 for weapon usage guidelines.

    Table 3-3. BSFV Weapon of Choice in Tactical Employment.

    WEAPON

    ROTARY WING

    FIXED

    WING

    LIGHT

    ARMOR

    HEAVY

    ARMOR

    >2000M

    <2000M

    STINGER

    1

    1

    1

    NA

    NA

    25MM

    2

    2

    3

    1

    NA

    COAX

    NA

    3

    2

    NA

    NA

    TOW II

    3

    4

    NA

    2

    1

    Offensive Employment

  1. BSFV units will accompany the main attack in offensive situations. When moving, or in situations with brief halts, the 25mm chain gun is the primary weapon with an effective range of two kilometers against aerial attack. Consequently, the BSFV should maneuver no further than 1000 meters apart to provide mutual support.
  2. The Stinger team can be dismounted to provide air defense of the forces when the attacking forces are stalled or at the objective. Dismounting Stinger teams is a squad leader's decision based on the artillery threat, the ability of the FU to overwatch the maneuver force, and anticipated future movements. The Stinger can overwatch from up to one kilometer to the rear of the defended unit. While the range of the Stinger and TOW give the platoon the ability to cover more area, they should remain within two kilometers of each other to enhance their survivability through mutual support and to mass their fires in the offense.
  3. Defensive Employment

  4. Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicles will establish ADA battle positions based on the IPB and the commander's scheme of maneuver in defensive situations. These positions need to be planned and prepared in depth to enable the use of decisive fires against attacking enemy helicopters or FW aerial platforms. Squads are positioned to maximize the Stinger's capabilities in the defense, approximately two kilometers apart. The Stinger becomes the primary RW and FW killer, with the 25mm machine gun used for close-in defense.
  5. BRADLEY LINEBACKER

  6. The Bradley Linebacker provides the air defender with shoot-on-the-move engagement capabilities against aerial threats over the full spectrum of terrain and maneuver force operating speeds (figure 3-7).
  7. System Description

  8. The Bradley Linebacker system can engage low-altitude, high-speed fixed-wing and rotary-wing aerial platforms, unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles. The standard vehicle mounted launcher (SVML) for Stinger missiles replaces the TOW launcher.
  9. The Bradley Linebacker crew consists of a driver, gunner, assistant gunner, and the commander. The assistant gunner can reload the outer two missiles from the inside of the Bradley without being exposed to enemy fire. If a malfunction causes the turret to be disabled, the crew has the capability to convert to a Stinger MANPADS team.
  10. Stinger Control Box

  11. The Stinger control box (SCB) is the primary operator interface for the Bradley Linebacker system. It provides the controls and indicators needed to perform aerial engagements with missiles. The SCB has four read lights to indicate missile status; it has a sequence switch (SEQ) used to select a missile other than the one automatically selected by the system. The mode switch controls what weapon mode the system is in and the deployment and stowage of the Stinger launcher. The go/fault light indicates system status. The arm/safe light is controlled by the toggle switch directly below it, which is used to arm the missile. Auto/manual (aut/man) switch lights are provided for uncage and track functions. The lamp test push button will light all indicators, and the intensity knob controls lamp brightness.

  12. Figure 3-7. Bradley Linebacker System

    Bradley Control Electronics

  13. The Bradley control electronics (BCE) is the main computer that monitors and controls all Stinger-related system functions. The primary function of the BCE is to be the interface between Linebacker systems and the operator. Through this interface, the operator provides input to the BCE that controls the Stinger system. The BCE also monitors input from the system, including built-in-test (BIT) status. If a system failure is detected, the BCE will cause the system fault indictor on the SCB to illuminate and display an error message on the control display terminal (CDT).
  14. Control Display Terminal

  15. The Control Display Terminal (CDT) is a hand-held terminal mounted between the commander and gunner positions. It has an 80-character black-light liquid crystal display (LCD) and a function keypad for data input. The CDT displays essential operational information and allows the gunner or commander direct interface with the BCE.
  16. Sighting System

  17. The sighting system consists of a Stinger vision module (SVM) and the Stinger vision module electronics (SVME). The SVM mounts directly to the existing Bradley Integrated Sight Unit (ISU) and displays the missile status, target data, and system status to the gunner. The SVME interfaces the SVM to the BCE and displays symbology generated by the BCE.
  18. IFF System

  19. The IFF system components include the IFF antenna, interconnecting box, and the IFF interrogator. Targets are interrogated by pressing the inner thumb switch forward on the gunnerís hand station. The IFF antenna transmits signals from the IFF interrogator and receives the response signals from the subject target. The result of the interrogation is announced over the intercom system as a series of tones. The IFF interrogator is an AN/PPX-3B Stinger interrogator. The IFF can be dismounted to support MANPADS operations.
  20. Missile System

  21. The missile system consists of the Stinger missile pod and the Interface Electronic Assembly (IEA). The missile pod holds up to four ready-to-fire Stinger missiles. It contains two argon bottles to cool down missile seeker heads, and two Launcher Electronic Assemblies (LEA) that control missile: selection, gyro drive, coolant control, cycling, signal processing, and firing. Loading and unloading missiles is accomplished through upper and lower access doors. The missile pod is mounted on a retractable platform. The platform contains an erector motor and a latch solenoid/sensor combination to ensure the platform is locked in place prior to missile firing. The pod is mounted in an armor protective box that also provides an alignment plate for azimuth boresighting.
  22. Command and Control

  23. The Linebacker is equipped with FAAD C3 I equipment, single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS), enhanced position, location and reporting system (EPLRS), precision lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR), simplified handheld terminal unit (SHTU) and automatic slew-to-cue. This allows the Linebacker to receive early warning information and enables the Linebacker to accomplish early engagement.
  24. Operation Desert Storm Enhancements

  25. The following are the ODS recommendations for the Bradley Linebacker:

Missile Countermeasure Device

    1. The Missile Countermeasure Device (MCD) system is mounted on top of the turret forward of the gunner's hatch. It generates infrared radiation (IR) and directs it through the front window of the MCD unit. When the turret is turned toward an incoming antitank guided missile (ATGM), the IR causes the operation of the missile to lose electronic guidance control by sending inaccurate course correction signals. The inaccurate signals cause the missile to fly off course and crash. The MCD can defeat a variety of current first and second generation ATGMS (TOW, Dragon, HOT, Milan, AT-4-5-6-7 and Swingfire). The system effectiveness can be limited by the angle of coverage, the battlefield's haze, and any dust or mud accumulated on the system window.
    2. Global Position System Digital Compass

    3. The PLGR, composed of an antenna and a GPS receiver, provides the user with precise position coordinates, time, and navigation under all conditions if there are no obstructions between satellite signals and the antenna. Map coordinates can be entered as waypoints. When a waypoint is selected as a destination, the receiver can provide steering indications, azimuth, and range information to the destination. A desired course to a waypoint can be programmed and offset. Distance for this course line may be indicated also. The PLGR can be removed from the vehicle and operated in a hand-held mode.
    4. Stowage

    5. Vehicle stowage improvements added to the Linebacker:

Battlefield Combat Identification System

    1. Combat and combat service support forces to positively identify (or be identified by), other BCIS-equipped friendly ground and air vehicles use the Battlefield Combat Identification System (BCIS). The BCIS will be used to minimize the risk of fratricide during the conduct of land battle.
    2. Driver's Thermal Viewer

    3. The upgrade to the driver's viewer is not available at this time. The driver's thermal viewer is currently under evaluation.

    4. Figure 3-8. Avenger Weapon System

      AVENGER weapon system

    5. The Avenger provides mobile short-range air defense protection to divisions, armored cavalry regiments, and corps air defense brigades. Avenger can counter threat aerial platforms in day or night environments.
    6. System Description

    7. The Avenger fire unit (figure 3-8) has eight ready-to-fire Stinger missiles in two turret-mounted standard vehicle missile launchers (SVML), an M3P .5O-caliber machine gun, a sensor package with forward-looking infrared receiver (FLIR), laser range finder (LRF) and IFF. It has an optical sight and digital fire control system. The Avenger is capable of firing basic, post, and RMP versions of the Stinger missile. The electrically driven gyro stabilized turret is mounted on the M1097 HMMWV (figure 3-9). The Avenger can launch a Stinger missile and fire the machine gun on the move with the gunner in the turret.
    8. The Avenger firing sequence is entirely automated, including super-elevation and lead. The gunner, upon receiving hostile target identification, fires a missile and then selects and prepares the next missile for firing.
    9. The Stinger missiles carried on the Avenger weapon system is capable of being reconfigured to a MANPADS role when necessary. An Avenger is air transportable by CH47D and UH60L helicopters and can be transported in C-5, and C-l30 aerial platforms.

    10. Figure 3-9. M1097 HMMWV Characteristics

      Communications Equipment

    11. Onboard communications equipment consists of the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) and the Single Channel Ground and Air Radio System (SINCGARS).
    12. Turret (Gunner's Station)

    13. The Avenger turret provides the gunner with unobstructed fields of fire. It can rotate through 360į degrees of azimuth and from negative 10 degrees to positive 68 degrees in elevation. The SVML pods are mounted on each side of the turret and contain four Stinger missiles each. Reload time is less than six minutes.
    14. The Avenger turret drive is gyro-stabilized to maintain the missile pod aiming direction regardless of vehicle motion. The gunner controls the operation of the turret, missile launch, and machine gun firing from the gunner's station.
    15. M3P .50-Caliber Machine Gun

    16. The M3P .50-caliber machine gun is turret mounted, with a basic load of 200 rounds, and is belt-fed through a flexible feed chute. It is used for self-protection from hostile air targets inside the Stinger missile dead zone or against threatening ground targets.
    17. Remote Control Unit

    18. The Avenger gunner can operate the system remotely up to a distance of 50 meters using the Remote Control Unit (RCU). The hand control switches and indicators on the RCU are the same as those on the gunner's console. Adjustments to the FLIR console cannot be made from the RCU. As the environment or weather changes, it is critical that the FLIR be kept properly adjusted at all times so that the RCU remains effective (figure 3-10).

    19. Figure 3-10. Avenger Remote Control Unit (RCU)

       

      Sensor

    20. The Avenger FU is equipped with a sensor system for target acquisition which includes:

Forward looking infrared receiver (FLIR)

    1. The FLIR provides enhanced acquisition capability in various environments: night, smoke, rain, background clutter, and haze. Once a target is detected and acquired using magnified FLIR optics, the gunner may manually track the target or use the FLIR automatic video-tracking feature. The AVT is a subsystem of FLIR.
    2. The automatic tracking systems use signals from the uncaged Stinger missile seeker and FLIR video auto tracker to track the target until the gunner is ready to fire. These automatic tracking features allow the gunner to concentrate on target identification.
    3. Missile Reticule

    4. To aim the missiles, the gunner looks through a transparent sight glass. On the sight glass, the gunner will see the projection of a driven reticule display. The reticule indicates the aiming point of the missile seeker, confirming to the gunner that the missile seeker is locked on the same target he is tracking and planning to engage. The missile reticule aids engagement.
    5. Interrogator Friend or Foe (IFF)

    6. The Avenger IFF subsystem is activated by the gunner. It permits the gunner to identify aerial platforms equipped with Mode 1, Mode 3, or Mode 4 programmed transponders as friend possible friend or unknown. In normal operation the system provides a coded interrogation signal for transmission from the FU to the unidentified aerial platform. A reply is automatically generated and transmitted by a friendly aerial platform. The evaluation of the reply (or failure to reply) results in a friendly Mode 1, Mode 3, Mode 4 or unknown tone sequence in the Avenger communications system. Based on this tone sequence, the gunner or squad leader takes appropriate action for target engagement.
    7. Laser Range Finder (LRF)

    8. The Avenger's fire control system processes data from the LRF and displays an advisory fire permit symbol for missile and gun use in the sight and FLIR display. The fire permit function maximizes use of the Stinger's engagement boundaries.