Index FM 44-100-2 AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY REFERENCE HANDBOOK
FINAL DRAFT - 31 March 2000



CHAPTER 5

COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS

This chapter discusses the command and control (C2) systems that are in use by the United States Army Air Defense Artillery. The systems discussed are:

AIR DEFENSE BRIGADE TACTICAL OPERATIONS CENTER

    1. The brigade TOC consists of six shelters each mounted on a high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) with an operations center work area (OCWA) covered by tentage. The six shelters are the jump tactical operations center (JTOC), the fire distribution center (FDC), the communications van (COMM Van), the S2/S3 current operations van (COPS Van), the S2/S3 future operations van (FOPS Van), and the S1/S4 staff van. Each shelter has a specific function. All six shelters are rigid wall shelter (RWS), standardized integrated command post systems (SICPS). The vehicles and tentage will be situated as necessary to meet terrain and operational requirements (figure 5-1 and 5-2).
    2. System Description

      Operations Center Work Area (OCWA)

    3. The ADA Brigade commander exercises command and control of the assets at his disposal from the OCWA. The Commander has non-secure voice communications with the TOC staff via the intercommunication system capability of the digital small switch (DSS-1) and secure voice communications with other units. TOC system displays can be viewed on the OCWA large screen display. The BDE staff can plan, monitor, and control the conduct of theater air defense operations using the remote Tactical Planner monitor and keyboard in the OCWA. The S1/S4 staff and BMMO have two notebook computers connected to a LAN to assist in executing the functions of the TOC.
    4. Figure 5-1. Brigade TOC configuration

      Figure 5-2. Interior of Brigade TOC (OCWA)

      Jump Tactical Operations Center (JTOC)

    5. The JTOC element is a standalone operations center which monitors airspace management and operations, conducts the IPB for air defense situation awareness, and displays the common integrated air situation to the other ADA TOC and friendly force elements. Typical uses for the JTOC include moving to a new location and establishing TOC functions prior to the relocation of the brigade TOC, and as a functional back-up for the TOC FDC in emergency situations (e.g., FDC power failure). These functions are accomplished with the use of computers and communications equipment mounted in the JTOC shelter. The JTOC shelter is a modified RWS SICPS mounted on a M1097 HMMWV (Heavy Variant). It houses two system operators and contains the ADSI Workstation, a Tactical Planner/SHORAD workstation, and communications and support equipment.
    6. Fire Direction Center (FDC)

    7. The FDC monitors airspace management and operations, conducts the IPB for air defense situation awareness, and displays the common integrated air situation to the other ADA TOCs and friendly force elements. These functions are accomplished with the use of computers and communications equipment mounted in the FDC shelter. The FDC shelter is a modified RWS SICPS mounted on a HMMWV. The FDC shelter houses two system operators and contains an ADSI workstation, ADSI remote display processor (ADSI RDP) workstation, a COMM Rack, and support equipment.
    8. COMM Van

    9. The COMM van supports communications requirements for the BTOC elements. This is accomplished using computers and communications equipment. The COMM van is a modified RWS SICPS mounted on a HMMWV. It houses one system operator/maintainer and three COMM stations (forward, roadside, and curbside) containing communications and support equipment. In addition, the roadside COMM station houses a SHORAD processor. The COMM stations support multiple TOC functions using different communications and computer systems.
    10. S2/S3 Current Operations (COPS) Van

    11. The TOC S2/S3 COPS element conducts IPB for preemptive strikes/planning, identifies potential launch sites, monitors engagement operations, and plans air defense missions. These functions are accomplished with the use of computers and communications equipment mounted in the COPS shelter. The COPS shelter is a modified RWS SICPS mounted on an M1097 HMMWV, heavy variant. It houses two system operators and contains the TP workstation, the Warrior workstation, a COMM rack, and miscellaneous communications and support equipment.
    12. S2/S3 Future Operations (FOPS) Van

    13. The TOC S2/S3 FOPS element performs operations and intelligence functions for preemptive strikes/planning, identifies potential launch sites, monitors engagement operations, and plans air defense missions. The TP provides a defense awareness and defense planning capability. The All Source Analysis System (ASAS) provides the intelligence planning functions and interfaces with corps G2. The Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS) automates the process of creating theater air tasking orders, which coordinate theater airlift support and tactical mission schedules.
    14. The brigade TOC S1/S4 staff element performs administrative and logistics functions. The TP automates these staff functions using computers and communications equipment mounted in the S1/S4 staff shelter. The staff shelter is a modified RWS SICPS mounted on an M1097 HMMWV, heavy variant. It supports a system operator and contains one TP workstation, one TP equipment station, and miscellaneous communications and support equipment.
    15. brigade TOC System Overview

    16. The two primary functions of the TOC are to plan the defense and counter the enemy's air breathing threat. In addition, it has a role in countering the enemy TBM threat. The TOC uses battlefield functional area software systems that were developed for division and below maneuvering forces:

    1. While the FDC monitors the defense operations against a threat in progress, it is the function of the S2/S3 COPS element to transmit alerts/threats to the forces. Monitoring TOC systems, the S2/S3 COPS operators determine impact points and transmit alerts/warnings via voice radio or flash message over AGCCS wide area network (WAN). Table 5-1 shows a compilation of the brigade TOC operations.

    Table 5-1. Brigade TOC Operations

    o Monitor Airspace Management and Operations

    - Display air defense /TMD unit locations and coverage's

    - Display airspace management

    - Receive and display air picture from multiple sources

    - Receive TBM launch information from joint force or corps commander

    o Conduct intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) for air defense situation

    - Display enemy unit locations and likely avenues of approach, potential TBM launch sites, etc.

    - Establish priorities and assess defense effectiveness

    - Use intelligence for preemptive strikes/planning

    o Display Common Integrated Air Situation

    - Provide near real-time air situation for ABTs and TBMs

    o Pass Engagement Orders to Patriot Battalions and/or other Air Defense Shooters

    o Monitor Engagement Operations

    o Support Scheme of Maneuver Development

    - Using IPB, imagery, and air defense situation display, determine friendly areas not protected, partially protected, or fully protected.

    - Pass via MSE link those areas to the battle planners

    o Monitor and Display Friendly Ground Situation

    o Warn Friendly Forces

    o Record and Display ABT and TBM track history

    o Reduce Sensor-to-Shooter Time Line

    o Assess Inputs from National Intelligence Assets

    o Display Selected Enemy Order-of-Battle (OB)/Fuse Display relevant to Intelligence

    o Record and Display ADTOC Operations

    Communications/Navigation Equipment

  1. The brigade TOC contains numerous communications and navigation systems to support the air defense mission. An AN/PSN-11 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver provides navigation position data.
  2. Voice radio communications are supported by Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) very high frequency (VHF), AN/PSC-7 ultra high frequency (UHF) satellite communications (SATCOM), AN/GRC-193 high frequency (HF), and AN/ARC-187 UHF equipment.
  3. Land line voice, data, facsimile (FAX), and Teletype (TTY) communications are supported by TA-1035A/U Digital Non-secure Voice Terminal (DNVT), TSEC/KY-68 Digital Secure Voice Terminal (DSVT), secure telephone unit (STU) III, TS 31 FAX, AN/UGC-144 Communications Terminal, and DSS-1 32-Channel Intercommunications (INTERCOM) equipment.
  4. Sensor data communications are provided by:

Figure 5-3. Air Defense TOC (AMDPCS)

Air and missile defense planning and control system (amdpcs)

    1. AMDPCS is an automated planning and control system that provides interoperability between Air Defense, Army, Joint, and Coalition forces. It is a standardized element of ADA Tactical Operation Centers.
    2. The AMD brigade and AAMDC TOCs are standardized with common hardware (vehicles, shelters, communications, and computers) (figure 5-3, 5-4). The AMDWS integrates FAAD C2, Patriot, THAAD, and MEADS force operations (FO) software products (defense planning, staff functions) to provide common AMD workstations for all echelons of command. The AMD brigade fire control and monitoring capability is achieved by integrating the AMDWS with the Air Defense System Integrator (ADSI) and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution (JTIDS) radio.
    3. air and missile defense workstation (amdws)

    4. The AMDWS is the digitized tool for monitoring and managing AMD operations. It allows integration of the air and missile defense plan with the ground scheme of maneuver. The Air and Missile Defense Workstation receives air situational information from the Air Defense System Integrator (ADSI). Ground situation and intelligence information are received from the Maneuver Control System (MCS), All Source Analysis System (ASAS) remote workstation and other sources. The AMDWS maintains a comprehensive database of the tactical situation and also has mission-planning capabilities that can provide overlays of sensor and weapons coverage, airspace control measures, threat locations and planned unit positions. Air and Missile Defense Workstations are integrated into air defense command and control systems at all echelons.
    5. maneuver control system (MCS)

    6. A digitized system that provides a common picture of the battlespace to commanders from battalion to corps level. The MCS databases maintain and display tactical information on friendly and enemy forces in both text and graphic formats. Commanders can use the MCS decision support graphics (map overlays and battle resources by unit) to analyze possible courses of action and determine the best course of action. Through MCS, the commander can transmit battlefield information such as mission information, courses of action, schemes of maneuver, warning and operations orders, changes in priorities, intelligence data, and air operations requests. MCS assists the commander in applying combat power at the appropriate time and place in response to changing battlefield situations.

    7. Figure 5-4. AAMDC TOC (AMDPCS) Layout

      All source analysis system (ASAS)

    8. ASAS is a mobile, digitized intelligence processing and dissemination system. It functions as an intelligence early warning (IEW) subsystem for command and control systems. ASAS produces ground battle situation displays, disseminates intelligence data, provides target nominations, assists in providing operations security support, and aids in deception and counterintelligence operations. ASAS is deployed from theater to battalion levels.
    9. PATRIOT MASTER ICC (MICC)

    10. The Patriot Information and Coordination Central has the capability to function as a master ICC fire distribution element. Major features of a MICC include:

    1. The master ICC can work together with nine external elements. These may be:

Forward Area Air Defense (Faad) C3I system

    1. The FAAD C3I system provides automated engagement operations (EO) and force operations (FO) capabilities at the SHORAD battalion. EO capabilities include real-time early warning and target cueing information to SHORAD weapon systems, friendly aircraft identification, and air-battle management. FO capabilities include automated mission planning, automated staff planning, and interoperability with other command systems. FAAD C2I effectively utilizes joint and combined operations by processing air picture information from USAF E-3 (AWACS), USN E-2C (Hawkeye), and TADIL-B HIMAD sources such as Patriot.

    2. Figure 5-5. FAAD C3I Command Post

    3. The components of the FAAD C3I system include:

    1. The ABMOC and A2C2 systems utilize the Army Standard Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) shelter with HMMWV. SINCGARS and EPLRS radios, Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE), and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) terminal provide communications (voice and data) (figure 5-5).

FAAD C3I provides command and control to Avenger, MANPADS Stinger, Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV), and Linebacker weapon systems and the Sentinel and LSDIS sensor systems (figure 5-6). FAAD C3I provides:


Figure 5-6. FAAD C3I System

COMMAND AND CONTROL

    1. The heart of command and control (C2) is the process of acquiring information, assessing how this information affects current activities, determining a course of action, and directing the implementation of these decisions. The intelligence component provides input to each C2 echelon on the hostile and neutral aspects of the battlefield environment.
    2. The Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) network will allow each ADA CP and weapon system to receive:

COMMUNICATIONS

    1. Communications and intelligence provide the means to perform the C2 process effectively and in a timely manner. The communications system provides the network to transfer information, orders, instruction data, and intelligence between and within echelons of command. AD commanders must continuously update and coordinate their operations through the integration of communications. Characteristics of FAAD C3I communications are:

    1. Major components are the SINCGARS radios, mobile subscriber equipment (MSE), Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS), and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS).
    2. Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System

    3. SINCGARS radios are used for both secure voice and digital data in the FAAD C2I equipped SHORAD Battalions. SINCGARS operates in the 30 to 88 MHz frequency range, in 25 kHz steps for a total of 2,320 channels. It can operate in either a single channel or frequency-hopping mode.
    4. Radio set AN/VRC-87. A short-range, vehicle-mounted radio set with a solid-state, securable transceiver intended for very high frequency-frequency modulation (VHF-FM) tactical operations. The VRC-87 is used where the communications range is normally 10 km or less. The VRC-87 cannot be used in a dismounted role. Replaces the VRC-64 radio (figure 5-7).

    5. Figure 5-7. SINCGARS AN/VRC 87/88

    6. Radio set AN/VRC-88. The VRC-88 has a 10-km range and may be operated while mounted in a vehicle or in a dismounted (manpack) configuration. It replaces the AN/GRC-160 radio (figure 5-7).
    7. Radio set AN/PRC-119. Radio set AN/VRC-88 may be removed from the vehicle, and by installing the antenna and battery case, can be reconfigured as an AN/PRC-119 manpack radio.
    8. Radio set AN/VRC-89. A vehicle-mounted, dual configuration set of radios that consists of one short-range and one long-range, solid-state, securable transceiver. It is intended for very high frequency-frequency modulation (VHF-FM) tactical operations. The VRC-89 provides long-range (up to 40 km) and short-range (up to 10 km) operation in two nets, simultaneously. It replaces existing VRC-47 configurations, as well as separate configurations of VRC-64 or VRC-46 in a single vehicle. The VRC-89 has an added power amplifier that provides one of the radio sets with a long-range communication (figure 5-8).

    9. Figure 5-8. SINCGARS AN/VRC-89 & 91

    10. Radio set AN/VRC-9O. A long-range, vehicle-mounted radio set with a securable transceiver intended for VHF-FM tactical operation. The VRC-90 is used where the communication range must normally operate over long distances (up to 40 km) (figure 5-9).

    11. Figure 5-9. SINCGARS AN/VRC-90

    12. Radio set AN/VRC-9l. Vehicle-mounted, dual configuration set that consists of one long-range and one short-range radio for VHF-FM tactical operations. VRC-9l provides long-range (up to 40 km); and short-range, (up to 8 km) operations in two nets simultaneously. The short-range radio can be manpack configured. The VRC-9l combines the features of a VRC-88 and VRC-9O into a single vehicle installation.
    13. Radio set AN/VRC-92. Vehicle-mounted, dual configuration set that consists of two long-range transceivers intended for VHF-FM tactical operations. The VRC-92 also has an automatic retransmission capability. The VRC-92 is used to meet dual, long-range (up to 40 km) communications requirements. The VRC-92 is also used for VHF retransmissions operations. It is a VRC-89 with an additional power amplifier mount to provide communications range up to 40 km to the second radio system.
    14. Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE)

    15. MSE is a common-user, switched communications system of linked switching nodes. The nodes form a grid that provides the force with an area common-user communications system. MSE is digital, secure, and flexible. It contains features that compensate for link or functional equipment outages, overload in traffic, and rapid movement of users. FAAD C2I uses Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) to share TADIL-B track data with HIMAD battalions and adjacent SHORAD battalions, as well as interface with other Army Battle Command System elements.
    16. Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS)

    17. Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) radios are used for secure digital data communications. The EPLRS network supports timely air track broadcast, two-way command and control, communication need-line allocation and sensor netting. EPLRS resists jamming by waveform design and signal processing techniques, relatively high values of effective radiated power, automatic network reconfiguration and path redundancy.
    18. The EPLRS user unit configured as a man-pack is shown in Figure 5-10. The same basic unit is used in all configurations, but the battery box is replaced with a selectable power adapter for vehicles. See Table 5-2 for characteristics.


    Figure 5-10. Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS)

    Table 5-2. EPLRS Characteristics

    Power Requirements

    28 volts DC, 14 watts

    Operating Frequency

    UFH, 420 to 450 MHz

    EPUU weight

    24 pounds (10.9 KG) (includes battery box with one battery)

    EPUU dimensions

    Height: 5.1 inches (12.95 cm, Width: 10.2 inches (25.41 cm), Depth: 4.7 inches (37.34 cm)

    System Architecture

    Synchronous time division multiple access. Frequency and code division multiplexed

    Network Management

    Automatic central resource relay assignment and maintenance

    Typical System Size

    250 terminals and 1 NCS per brigade area, with potential of up to 460 termination’s

    Electronic Countermeasures

    Spread spectrum, frequency hopping, error detection and correction, automatic rerouting, power control

    Security

    Embedded cryptographic capability; dual level communications security (Confidential and Secret), over-the-air rekey of cryptographic codes

    Terminal Data Rates

    Multiple circuits with selectable individual needline rates up to 1200 BPS; Simplex and 600 BPS duplex; total terminal data rates to 2500 BPS

    Communications Performance

    More than 90% needlines satisfied, speeds of service as fast as two seconds

    Navigation Aids and Services

    Over 20 services, positions, navigation, zone alerts, corridor/lane guidance, friendly identification, time, etc.

    Typical Position Accuracy

    15 Meters circular error probable

    Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS)

  1. JTIDS is a jam resistant, secure data and voice communications system used for command, control, and identification (figure 5-11). Tactically it is used to support the following:

    1. JTIDS provides FAAD C2I with a link 16 (TADIL-J) capability to participate on the JDN. In support of FAAD C2I, JTIDS class 2M radios are located at the divisional level in the Army Airspace Command and Control (A2C2) and at the battalion level in the ABMOC. The ABMOC and A2C2 use JTIDS to receive long range early warning, classification and identification from the JDN (i.e. AWACS, Hawkeye). That data is then correlated with other external sources (i.e. HIMAD) and organic sensors and is then broadcast to the sensor C2 nodes in the battalion. JTIDS provides the ABMOC and A2C2 the means to transmit specific organic SHORAD air tracks (i.e. CM, UAV) to the JDN.

    2. Figure 5-11. Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS)

      Air defense sensor systems (Intelligence)

    3. Intelligence systems provide early warning information vital to all forces. Air Defense sensors are a valuable source of EW data.
    4. Light and Special Divisions Interim Sensor (LSDIS)

    5. The LSDIS radar is compact, lightweight, highly mobile and provides short range (15-20 km), low altitude (under 10,000 feet) early warning coverage of both FW aircraft and helicopters for SHORAD units.
    6. The LSDIS consists of:

Table 5-3. LSDIS System Characteristics

Target Classification

Fixed-wing or Rotary-wing

Transportability

Man-carry; HMMWV; UH-1; Parachute drop; LAPES

Operator Display

Remote up to 100 meter (328 feet); Sunlight readable; Back light for night

Range

20 kilometers (12 miles)

Altitude

0-3000 meters (1-10,000 feet)

Data Link

PJH1/ADDS/C2I; hardware interface; SINCGARS (C2 Broadcast NET)

Transmitter

1000 watts peak; 19 channels

Frequency

L-Band

Antenna

10 RPM (60 degree/second) rotation speed; 5 degree to 29 degree normal (-5 degree to 24 degree look down); operate in wind speed of steady 88.5 km/hr (55 mph), gusts to 113 km/hr (70 MPH)

ECCM

Two each Side Lobe canceller; sector blank; frequency agility; Clear Channel Search

Sub-clutter visibility

60 dB

Maintenance

MTBF>1000 hours; MTTR 15 minutes; Built-in-Test


Figure 5-12. LSDIS Radar Antenna and Receiver-Transmitter Assembly

Radar Antenna Assembly

    1. The Radar Antenna Assembly is a planar array antenna used to detect and acquire targets (figure 5-12). There are no active components in the antenna assembly; therefore, the manufacturer seals it against the environment.
    2. Receiver and Transmitter Assembly

    3. The Receiver and Transmitter (RT) assembly is mounted on a shelf in the middle of the tripod. It provides the electronic and radio frequency (RF) interface between the external power source, control indicator unit (CIU), pedestal, side-lobe canceller antennas, FAAD C3 link and optional IFF interrogator unit (figure 5-12).
    4. Control Indicator Unit (CIU)

    5. The Control Indicator Unit (CIU) displays a synthetic air picture. It is a self-contained unit with a keyboard and display. The CIU contains all of the controls that operate the radar after the system is energized at the RT assembly. The CIU is connected to the RT assembly using a cable that can be remotely extended 100 meters away from the pedestal.

    6. Figure 5-13. CIU Planned Position Indicator (PPI)

    7. The planned position indicator (PPI) display (figure 5-13) shows 360° radar coverage out to a 2O-km range. The radar sweep is displayed as a plus (+) symbol which rotates clockwise around the outer ring of the PPI at 10 revolutions per minute (RPM). Either a range ring display or a SHORAD grid display can be selected to aid in target display location. Targets acquired by the radar are displayed as symbols at the correct range and azimuth from the center of the display. The SHORAD grid display contains 10 kilometers grid for Universal Transverse Mercator/Military Grid Reference System (UTM/MGRS) interfaces.
    8. Side-Lobe Canceller (SLC)

    9. The two Side-Lobe Canceller (SLC) antennas are sealed units. Each antenna consists of two elements providing 360° of azimuth coverage with elevation shaping to provide coverage corresponding to the main antenna coverage. The tripod stand is attached to the antenna for quick emplacement. An attached coaxial cable connects the SLC antenna to the RT assembly. The SLC has ECCM capability against a sweep " noise" jammer.
    10. Operational Overview

    11. The LSDIS was specifically designed to meet the requirements of a FAAD C2 sensor for all weather surveillance and detection of low flying targets. The operational capabilities and unique features of the LSDIS provide the light and special division ADA battalion commander with a tactical sensor that can operate autonomously in the battlefield.
    12. The LSDIS design provides optimum mobility in tactical operations. The crew can pack the major system components into four shipping containers for complete transportability in a HMMWV. The HMMWV configuration allows rapid response to changing scenarios in a fluid combat environment and maximizes forward engagement opportunities. The shipping containers may also be palletized for delivery by helicopter or cargo transport aircraft and they may also be air dropped.
    13. Simplicity of operation is an important operational feature. Components of the system have been constructed to simplify erection and emplacement. Two people can deploy the system in less than 10 minutes. A standard 24-volt source, two l2-volt batteries in series, a 24-volt battery power pack, or a 1.5-kilowatt field generator may supply power.
    14. LSDIS has demonstrated a capability to detect one square-meter target out to a range of 20 km with an 80% probability of detection. Range and azimuth to the target are presented to the operator on a portable CIU display. The target is identified in azimuth within a 10° sector on the CIU display. The crew can operate the CIU remotely from up to 100 meters from the antenna. Radar coverage is 360° in azimuth with an antenna scan rate of 60° per second. Elevation coverage is from ground level to 10,000 feet in altitude, which is determined by the antenna elevation angle. LSDIS can operate in adverse environments such as heavy ground clutter and electromagnetic interference. Clutter rejection capability eliminates all ground reflections.
    15. Employment

    16. Employment considerations of LSDIS sensors are:

    1. The LSDIS platoon normally operates in general support to the division in defensive situations. LSDIS will be positioned and coordinated by the LSDIS platoon leader under the staff supervision of the ADA battalion S2/S3.
    2. Pairs of LSDIS may be allocated to the battery supporting the main attack in offensive situations. If more than one battery is supporting the brigade making the main attack, the ADA battalion may control the LSDIS movement.
    3. SENTINEL

    4. The Sentinel is an ADA battalion asset organic to heavy divisions and displaces LSDIS in light and special divisions. Sentinel is designed to operate in all types of weather, severe ECM environments and survive anti-radiation missile (ARM) attacks. The mission of the Sentinel is to alert and or cue Avenger, the Bradley Linebacker, the Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle, and dismounted MANPADS Stinger teams of hostile and unknown aircraft (FW and RW), cruise missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It also protects friendly forces from fratricide and provides air situational data to command and control centers (figure 5-14).

    5. Figure 5-14. Sentinel System

    6. Sentinel track data is broadcast to SHORAD weapons and Command Posts through the FAAD C2 system or, in the event a sensor node is not available, directly to the fire units over EPLRS or SINCGARS. The method of transmission is operator-selectable from the RCT during initialization.
    7. The Sentinel system consists of an Antenna-Transceiver Group (ATG) mounted on a high-mobility trailer, and a HMMWV Group consisting of a M1097A1 HMMWV, a MEP-813A 10 kW 400 Hz generator, power conditioning equipment and communications equipment. The system is march-ordered and emplaced by two soldiers and operated by a single soldier. It incorporates automatic fault detection and built in test equipment (BITE). The Sentinel is transportable by aircraft (to include helicopters), rail, or ship.
    8. Sentinel Radar

    9. The Sentinel radar is a mobile, compact, modular, multifunction, phased-array radar. It consists of a radar antenna unit mounted on top of the transceiver unit. The radar antenna unit also includes an IFF interrogator, an IFF antenna, and an auxiliary ECCM antenna mounted on a single pedestal that rotates during operation. The antenna unit is lowered by hand crank to the stowed position for road march (figure 5-14).

    TABLE 5-4. SENTINEL RADAR UNIT CHARACTERISTICS

    DIMENSIONS

    Height

    Antenna erected

    Antenna stowed

    Width (mirrors folded)

    Length

    Length (w HMMWV)

    Weight

    Weight (w HMMWV)

    131.7 in

    94.8 in

    85 in

    167.26 in

    312 in

    3,740 lb.

    13,740 lb.

    ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Temperature

    Operating

    Non-operating

    Altitude

    Operating

    Non-operating

    Wind

    Operating

    Non-operating

    Rain

    -50 to 125° F (-46 to 52° C)

    -70 to 160° F (-57 to 71° C)

    Up to 10,000 ft

    Up to 50,000 ft

    52 MPH with gusts to 75 MPH

    65 MPH with gusts to 100 MPH

    5 in per hour with winds to 52 MPH

    ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

    Voltage

    Power

    208 VAC + 10% 3-phase

    120 VAC + 10%

    10 kilowatt, 400 hertz

    MOBILITY

    Transport Speeds

    Level Highway

    Graded Gravel Road

    Cross country terrain

    Grades

    Side Slope

    Longitudinal Slope

    Fording

    2 Soldiers

    40 MPH

    30 MPH

    8 MPH

    20 Percent

    32 Percent

    Water up to 30 inches deep

    March Order 10 minutes or less

    Emplace 15 minutes or less

    MANPRINT

    Remote Control Unit (RCU)

    Maintenance/Training

    Remote up to 200 meters

    Provides Built-in-Test (BIT) and embedded Troop Proficiency Trainer (TPT)


    TABLE 5-5. SENTINEL RADAR OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

    RADAR SEARCH

    Elevation

    Azimuth

    Search Perimeter

    20° to 25° scan, selectable between -15° and +55°

    360° CW or CCW scan

    > 40 km

    RADAR TRACK

    Elevation

    Azimuth

    Beam Width

    Track Perimeter

    -10 through +55°

    360° CW or CCW scan

    2 x 2° pencil beam

    40 km instrumented range

    RADAR REPORT

    Target Track

    Azimuth, elevation, and heading in degrees or mils

    Range in miles or kilometers

    Altitude in feet or meters

    Velocity in feet per second or meters per second

    Target Discrimination

    Fixed wing or helicopter

    Unknown, designated unknown, or known/friendly

    Jammer Discrimination

    Azimuth and elevation in degrees or mils

    Report Reference

    Respective to DLRP or site MGRS/MSL coordinates

    Report Capabilities

    FAAD C2I Data Link: track report, IFF/SIF report, and ECM intercept messages

     

    EPLRS Radio Link: Track report messages

     

    SINCGARS Radio Link: Track report messages

    RADAR TYPE TARGET TYPE

    X Band

    3-dimensional Pencil Beam

    Range-gated, Pulse Doppler

    30 RPM rotation (2-second update)

    Fixed Wing

    Rotary Wing

    Cruise Missile/UAV

    SURVEILLANCE

    360 Degree Surveillance Volume

    Range

    Altitude

    40 kilometer (software instrumented)

    0-4 kilometer; -10 degrees to +55 degrees

    FAAD DATA LINK INTERFACES

    SINCGARS VRC-92A

    Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS)

    PJHI Hardwire to C2

    ECCM

    Extremely Low Sidelobes

    Wide Band Frequency Agile

    Sector Blank

    Track on jam strobe

    Variable Pulse Repetition Rate (PRF)

    IFF

    Modes

    Range

    Beam width

    1, 2, 3A, and 4

    >72 km

    18° Azimuth, 40° Elevation

    Remote Control Terminal

  1. The Remote Control Terminal (RCT) is a display and control input device used with the Sentinel radar. It is a rugged, compact minicomputer with graphic display screen and multifunction control input keyboard. The Sentinel operator controls the operation of the radar with the keyboard.
  2. The RCT provides a real-time tactical air picture on a graphic display screen at remote locations. Sentinel radar target tracks are displayed to the operator in target symbology and the following data:

Employment

    1. Three common methods of employment are:

    1. The AD battalion commander must consider certain deployment factors to determine which method to use. These factors include but are not limited to:

    1. If the Sentinel C 2 node becomes non-operational then the sensor unit can go into the Continue Operations mode. In this mode of operation, track data may be passed directly to the fire units by using the radios on the HMMWV.
    2. Tactical situations determine the type of employment selected for Sentinel assets. However, centralized control of Sentinel assets provides an integrated early warning (EW) network throughout the SHORAD battalion's AO.
    3. JOINT TACTICAL GROUND STATION (JTAGS)

    4. JTAGS is an autonomous, transportable ground system that acquires data from the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite constellation, processes this data, and provides near-real-time warning, alerting and cueing information on TBMs and other IR events. Functional TMD components use this data for active defense, passive defense, attack operations, and battle management and command, control, communication, and computers (BM/C4). JTAGS uses in-place theater networks to distribute launch point and time, predicted ground impact point and time, and state vector to support TMD operations.
    5. Major Subsystems

    6. JTAGS is made up of seven major subsystems:

Antenna

    1. The antenna subsystem accepts a DSP down link data stream and converts the data stream from S-band radio frequency (RF) to immediate frequency. It also provides radio frequency filtering and controls antenna switching, positioning and signal combining.
    2.  

      Receiver and Decryptor

    3. The receiver and decryptor subsystem decodes and decrypts DSP data streams and distributes data and timing signals for DSP links 1 and 2 from up to three DSP satellites (DSP-1 and sensor evolutionary development (SED). The JTAGS receiver allows global positioning of JTAGS without regard to DSP satellite type or degraded mode of performance. Input from the GPS provides accurate Greenwich Mean Time, and determines the JTAGS unit location and initial antenna pointing reference.
    4. Processor

    5. The data processing subsystem includes the data processing hardware and the operational software. The data processing hardware (computer and peripherals) and operational software detects and reports targets from the DSP data.
    6. Power Subsystem

    7. The JTAGS power subsystem consists of the PU-805 standard military tactical quiet generator and an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). When power is interrupted, the UPS will provide emergency power to assure a controlled shutdown of all computers and equipment to prevent damage. The UPS provides emergency power to the system for approximately 15 minutes. UPS batteries are continually charged by either commercial power or by the PU-805 generator.
    8. Shelter

    9. The shelter is an international standard organization S280 shelter, 20 feet long by 8 feet wide by 8 feet high, and weighs approximately 13,000 pounds. It encompasses the environmental control unit, NBC protection equipment, grounding, lighting, and alarms; an ergonomic work place; and electromagnetic pulse shielding, and environmental protection. The shelter is weather-tight, RFI-shielded, and has both a personnel access door and an escape hatch.
    10. Roles and Missions of JTAGS Sections

    11. The JTAGS sections will transmit warning, alerting and possible, cueing reports on launched, hostile ballistic missiles. JTAGS will perform near-real-time tactical event reporting on TBMs and other infrared events using specialized processing of data obtained from DSP satellites. JTAGS will access and interface with theater communications networks. JTAGS will also have the capability to support operations from an adjacent theater, given the appropriate communication connectivity:

JTAGS Communications Nets

    1. Flexibility to operate in multiple networks and communications systems is key to JTAGS. JTAGS will transmit and receive data and voice over multiple secure means. JTAGS will be reliant upon host command communications facilities, capabilities, and interfaces for connection to other theater and long haul communications systems, such as:

Allocation and Deployment

    1. A warfighting commander in chief (CINC) will request allocation and deployment of JTAGS resources based on consideration of the assessed capabilities and intentions of the threat along with the probability of tactical missile employment. The JTAGS systems will be strategically deployable in order to be easily airlifted to a theater. The JTAGS system deployment will be preplanned and prioritized in the time-phased force deployment list (TPFDL). The in-theater deployment location of a JTAGS unit will be chosen according to the theater CINC's needs. Generally, the selection of a location will be influenced by security requirements, logistics needs, and communications support considerations.
    2. Employment

    3. JTAGS sections are normally deployed as a detachment. Two JTAGS sections and associated headquarters personnel constitute a single detachment. Each of the two JTAGS will be capable of independent operations at separate (either nearby or remote) locations within the theater. Both JTAGS could receive DSP data and process the data; however, only a single JTAGS will be tasked to broadcast information. Actual mission profiles will be situational dependent. Redundant system components and multiple employment options will provide for a high degree of operational availability.
    4. Processing DSP

    5. JTAGS will be employed in the theater to receive and process DSP IR data streams from one or more DSP satellites. The DSP IR data will be processed to identify TBMs during missile boost phase and to identify other IR events of interest.
    6. Classification and Broadcasting

    7. The JTAGS system will classify DSP data as TBM launches or other IR events. TBM launch reports will be broadcast immediately as an initial warning message announcing TBMs in flight. The initial message will include estimated launch point, time of launch and, if sufficient data is available, predicted ground impact point and time. This message will go out over all communications means available to, and designated for, JTAGS distribution of TBM information. JTAGS will continue to receive IR data throughout the TBM boost phase. Based upon this information, JTAGS will refine, update, and broadcast changed information. Broadcast of updated information will be according to reporting rules established by the theater CINC.
    8. Messages and Reports

    9. Upon conclusion of receipt of IR data on TBMs, messages containing final predicted ground impact points, predicted impact time, and state vectors will be produced and broadcast. According to theater reporting rules JTAGS will provide updated messages at periodic intervals of projected data (for example, track location) based on the last available IR returns from a tactical event. The purpose of the updated message will be to provide positional information for cueing sensor systems and potential correlation of JTAGS trajectory prediction with tracking sensors. Repetitive broadcasts are to provide for increased probability of message receipt, to alert newly tuned-in listeners on the net and allow for the addition of track amplifying information from other reporting sources. Users of JTAGS data will perform necessary track data fusion, correlation and trajectory extrapolations. Fusion and correlation of JTAGS data with data from other sensors will not be a JTAGS capability initially. Future system improvements are expected to incorporate fusion to improve accuracy.
    10. JTAGS Modes of Operation

    11. The operators use the JTAGS operational software and the operator workstations to set up and control the three JTAGS modes of operations:

Operational Mode

    1. During the operational mode, the operators initialize the system, set control variables such as area of interest (AOI) definition BM/C4 modes, communications interfaces, and automatic and manual report releases. The operators then control the real-time manual and automatic operations of JTAGS. The operator's key objective is to validate the IR target detection in the designated AOI as TBM launches, slow walkers, or special events and theater reporting procedures. The operators also manage the data recording for future analysis.
    2. Analysis, Test, and Training Mode

    3. During the analysis, training, and test mode the operator can either train using the JTAGS embedded trainer, or play back recorded or simulated data for analysis, future training, and or operator proficiency testing.
    4. Embedded training allows the operator to operate and generate reports using the JTAGS system with data recorded on tape for training purpose. To operate the system in the training mode, a live AO must be identified and activated. Any current live operations must be terminated. When the training scenario is started and a launch is detected, data is collected automatically. Procedures are available to collect this data manually. At the end of the scenario, pop-up data appears for the operator to analyze the event. The training scenario can then be terminated and live operations can continue.
    5. Maintenance Mode

    6. The maintenance mode includes both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. When unscheduled maintenance is required due to a fault, the operator or maintainer uses diagnostic procedures and the JTAGS BIT/BITE capability to isolate the faults to the line replaceable unit (LRU). Scheduled maintenance is performed according to the procedures in the Operation and Maintenance Technical Manual.