Index FM 44-100-2 AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY REFERENCE HANDBOOK
FINAL DRAFT - 31 March 2000



CHAPTER 6

TRAINING DEVICES AND AERIAL TARGETS

This chapter discusses training devices and aerial targets available to support Air Defense Artillery systems. The best weapon system in the world is useless without highly trained operators and maintainers. Training devices promote and maintain operator, maintainer, and gunner skills and proficiency while shortening training time and saving resources. Training devices are in the form of simulators, interactive mockups, static equipment maintenance trainers, and aerial targets. Aerial targets are used to train gunners during live firing of weapon systems.

SHORT RANGE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS

      1. The systems comprising Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) include the MANPADS Stinger, Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV), Linebacker, Avenger, Sentinel and FAAD C3I.
      2. STINGER TRAINING DEVICES

      3. A number of training devices has been developed for Stinger gunners. Described in the following paragraphs are:

Stinger Field Handling Trainer

      1. The Stinger Field Handling Trainer (FHT) is used at the unit level and service schools to train entry-level Stinger gunners in missile handling procedures. The Stinger gunner uses the FHT to practice manual skills of weapon handling, operations, sighting and ranging. The FHT can be used to visually track live aircraft or radio controlled miniature aerial targets (RCMATS). It allows the gunner to practice mating and removal of the gripstock, and insertion and removal of the battery coolant unit (BCU). The FHT is the same size, weight, and appearance as the Stinger weapon round. However, audio indications of target acquisition are not a feature of the FHT (figure 6-1).

      2. Figure 6-1. Stinger Field Handling Trainer (FHT)

        Stinger Tracking Head Trainer Set

      3. The Stinger Tracking Head Trainer (THT) has the same seeker and general appearance as the weapon round except for the performance indicator assembly. The performance indicator assembly makes the gunner follow the proper engagement sequence and gives an audible indication if the target is not successfully engaged. The THT is used to train gunners in tasks required for engagement of aircraft. It is used at the unit level for sustainment training and at service schools to train entry-level personnel. A benefit of the THT is quality training for operators and the reduction of ammunition expenditures (figure 6-2).

      4. Figure 6-2. Stinger Tracking Head Trainer Set (THT)

        Stinger Troop Proficiency Trainer

      5. The Stinger Troop Proficiency Trainer (STPT) is a computer-based device that generates digitized targets and background onto the weapon system's optics. The STPT is used for realistic training of both active and reserve component Stinger gunners in a simulated wartime environment. It eliminates the need for live aircraft, aerial targets, firing ranges, and missile expenditures. The STPT is used for training entry-level personnel and for sustaining training of engagement skills at the unit (figure 6-3).
      6. Figure 6-3. Stinger Troop Proficiency Trainer

        Stinger Improved Moving Target Simulator

      7. The Improved Moving Target Simulator (IMTS), AN/FSQ-187, is a computer-driven indoor training facility. The IMTS projects battlefield background scenes and moving aircraft targets on a 360į, 40-foot diameter hemispherical dome screen to create a realistic battlefield environment. Stinger gunnersí sustainment training can be conducted using all three versions of Stinger:

      1. An instructor console located in the dome controls all scenario selections for video IR projections, sound generation, target maneuvers, and countermeasures. Up to three Stinger gunners can be trained simultaneously. Student performance evaluations are possible during training exercises, using the instructor console. The IMTS is used to train Stinger gunners in target acquisition and engagement skills at the unit level, service schools and overseas commands (figure 6-4).
      2. Figure 6-4. Stinger improved moving target simulator

        Stinger Force on Force Trainer

      3. The Stinger Force on Force Trainer (FOFT) will establish Stinger compatibility with the Simulated Area Weapons Effects/ Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (SAWE/MILES) used at the Combat Training Centers. (CTC). The FOFT will address CTC unique requirements and will interface with the Air Ground Engagement Simulator (AGES II), Air Combat Maneuver Instrumentation (ACMI) and the Air Warrior/Measurement and Debriefing System (AW/MDS).
      4. Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle/LINEBACKER TRAINING DEVICES

      5. The following training devices are described:

BSFV Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer

      1. The BSFV Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer (ICOFT) is used strictly in the institutional training environment. The system has four crew stations controlled by a single computer system, and allows training of BSFV gunners and commanders. The ICOFT provides computer-generated scenarios of realistic battlefield video, with sound for simulated target engagements using the BSFV capabilities. The computer also provides communication with the gunner during scenarios.
      2. BSFV Unit Conduct of Fire Trainer

      3. The BSFV Unit Conduct of Fire Trainer (UCOFT) is the main device for initial and sustainment training of BSFV gunnery skills at the unit level in CONUS and OCONUS units. It is a modular computer-based gunnery trainer for the BSFV commander and gunner. The UCOFT provides computer-generated battlefield video scenarios with sound effects for simulated target engagements used for training and evaluation (figure 6-5).
      4. Figure 6-5. BSFV unit conduct of fire trainer

        M55 Laser Gunnery Trainer

      5. The M55 Laser Gunnery Trainer is used to teach the basics of gun lay, target acquisition and tracking and is used in conjunction with the Sub-Caliber devices. It is used in pre-gunnery and basic gunnery tables. The device is used in both the institution and unit environment.
      6. Through Sight Video Camera

      7. The Through Sight Video Camera (TSVC) is a vehicle appended system that provides a video and sound recording of gunnery or tactical engagement exercises in real time. It is used in the institution and field environment for gunnery training to provide an evaluation and critique of actual engagement sequences. It provides immediate playback through use of an onboard monitor.
      8. Precision Gunnery System

      9. The Precision Gunnery System (PGS) is a vehicle mounted training device that helps improve proficiency in precision gunnery without using ammunition. It can be used in the institution, on full-scale ranges and during tactical training exercises to train both normal and degraded modes of gunnery. It displays ballistic information for each round fired, is fully compatible with MILES and provides a review of engagements during After Action Reviews (AAR).
      10. Bradley Missile Simulation Round

      11. The Bradley Missile Simulation Round (MSR) is used to train Bradley crews in non-fire TOW tasks. It is the same size and weight as a real TOW missile. It is used to practice uploading, unloading, removing misfires and storing TOW.
      12. Force on Force Trainer

      13. The Force on Force Trainer (FOFT) is a training device for the Linebacker. It will be used to replicate Stinger engagements in MILES FOFT exercises. It will provide simulation of missile firings, weapon effects, signature simulation and real time target assessment. The FOFT will be used for realistic training in combat training center exercises for gunners in a simulated wartime environment.
      14. Embedded Troop Proficiency Trainer

      15. The Embedded Troop Proficiency Trainer (ETPT) is a projected training device that will provide real time, free play and Distributive Interactive Simulation (DIS) of operations during initial and sustainment training. The ETPT will be used whenever the Linebacker is deployed.
      16. Conduct of Fire Trainer Stand Alone Device

      17. The Conduct of Fire Trainer (COFT) is a projected training device for Linebacker that will provide instructor controlled scenarios with multiple student stations. These stations will replicate the gunner station, simulating both Stinger and gun engagement, allowing the direct transfer of trained skills to the actual system. A turret mock-up will be a consideration to fulfill this requirement for initial and sustainment training.
      18. Crew Station Trainer

      19. The Crew Station Trainer (CST) is a projected training device scheduled for FY 2001. It will replicate the voice and digital communications systems of the Bradley. It will be used to train battalion commanders, S3, company commanders, platoon leaders and crews in battlefield awareness in a classroom environment.
      20.  

        AVENGER TRAINING DEVICES

      21. The following Avenger training devices are described:

Avenger Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer

      1. The Avenger Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer (ICOFT) is a computer-based device that generates digitized battlefield scenarios on video display terminals for the Avenger weapons system. The ICOFT will provide full training of all identified operator tasks. Each device has an instructor station and six student stations. The ICOFT is be used for realistic training of both active component and reserve component crewmembers in a simulated wartime environment. The device will be used to train entry level and transition personnel.
      2. Avenger Captive Flight Trainer

      3. The Avenger Captive Flight Trainer (CFT) is a simulated Stinger missile guidance assembly in a launch tube. The CFT will be used to provide operator training in target acquisition tracking, engagement, loading and unloading at the service school and sustain these tasks in the unit. See Figure 6-6.
      4. Figure 6-6. Avenger captive flight trainer.

         

        Avenger Force-On-Force Trainer

      5. The Avenger Force-On-Force Trainer (FOFT) is an integrated laser engagement simulator used in the MILES FOFT exercises. It provides simulation of missile firings, weapons effects, signature simulation, and real time target assessment. The FOFT is used for realistic training in combat training center exercises for gunners in a simulated wartime environment.
      6.  

        Avenger Table Top Trainer

      7. The Avenger Table Top Trainer (TTT) is an interactive graphics trainer with the principle features of the Avenger turret/gunner station. A 17-inch monitor presents the out-of-window (canopy) view and the gunnerís FLIR display. In addition, a FLIR field-of-view (FOV) footswitch and a tactical gunner handstation provide the gunner-machine interface.
      8. Avenger Troop Proficiency Trainer

      9. The Avenger Troop Proficiency Trainer (TPT) is currently a projected training device that will replace the TTT. It will provide real time, free-play, and interactive simulation of stationary and remote operations. The TPT will be used in conjunction with tactical equipment at unit level to train and sustain crewmember engagement skills. The TPT will be used for realistic training of both AC and RC Avenger gunners in a simulated wartime environment. This device will be used to train entry level personnel at the institution and for sustainment training of engagement skills at the unit.
      10. Avenger Launcher and Sensor Mockup

      11. The Avenger Launcher and Sensor Mockup (LSMU) trainer is a projected training device that will replicate the left and right sides of the Avenger turret. It will be used to train Avenger crewmembers on missile and machine gun loading and unloading procedures. Additionally, removal and replacement tasks can be accomplished. The LSMU will be used to train entry level and transition personnel at the ADA service school.
      12. SENTINEL TRAINING DEVICES

      13. Sentinel training devices described are:

Sentinel Troop Proficiency Trainer

      1. The Sentinel Troop Proficiency Trainer (TPT) is embedded into and used with the actual Sentinel equipment. The TPT will display incoming and outgoing information that will stimulate operator procedural actions. This will provide real time, free play interactive simulation that is representative of initialization, BIT/BITE, operations and the evaluation of data/error messages. The TPT will provide reports of operator actions and summary reports used to determine operator performance to standard.
      2. Sentinel Institutional Maintenance Trainer

      3. The Sentinel Institutional Maintenance Trainer (SIMT) is a 3D trainer used for maintenance training. It is an institutional trainer consisting of an instructor console and four student stations. The instructor console will be able to initialize, control and monitor any combination of training stations. The SIMT is capable of training at least 100 different maintenance tasks.
      4. Sentinel Training System

      5. The Sentinel Training System (STS) is capable of training students to operate the Sentinel system. The STS simulates the functional, physical operations and characteristics of the system. The Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) has the capability to interface with and control up to eight student stations to provide personnel training in the operator tasks associated with the Sentinel system. The IOS has the capability to monitor any selected student station.
      6. FAAD C3 I TRAINING DEVICES

      7. SHORAD is a complex system of new technologies and C3I is the glue that binds these weapons systems together. C3I provides the ADA commander information about force operations as well as engagement operations. The FAAD C3I training devices will serve to promote C3I operatorsí efficiency in the battalion tactical operations center (BTOC), A2C2, sensor C2, and battery command post nodes. The training devices described are:

Institutional Conduct of Operations Trainer

      1. The FAADS C3I Institutional Conduct of Operations Trainer (ICOT) is a scheduled future computer-based training device. It will simulate all software operations of the C3I nodes (A2C2 BTOC, battery CP, Sensor C2 nodes) such as air tracks, symbology, range and bearing data, weapon control orders, statusís, ADW, fault simulation, BIT operations and continuous operations. Each ICOT will consist of six student stations and one instructor station. The ICOT will be used for realistic training for all C3I operators and ADA officers. This device will train initial entry and transition personnel at the institution.
      2. C3 I Troop Proficiency Trainer

      3. The C3I Troop Proficiency Trainer (TPT) is an embedded device within the system that supports a stand-alone capability to train operators to initiate and monitor critical actions. The TPT allows the operator to sustain operational skills in garrison or in the field without external training devices.
      4. Joint Radio Operator and Maintenance Procedures Simulator

      5. The joint radio operator and maintenance procedures simulator (JROMPS) was developed as a cheap and versatile training device for operators and maintainers of the JTIDS radio. It emulates all functions of JTIDS through a computer link to a JTIDS mockup. JROMPS can effectively train personnel on the initialization of JTIDS, the parameters necessary for data entry, operational procedures/scenarios, automatic diagnostics and corrective maintenance.
      6. AERIAL TARGETS FOR TRAINING

      7. Normally, all ADA live-fire training is conducted using high performance unmanned aerial targets. These targets must be capable of simulating combat aircraft characteristics and will require the ADA weapon system to use its maximum capability. Numerous types of aerial targets, operated by troop units or furnished and operated by contract personnel, are available for ADA service practice.
      8. The aerial targets described are:

Ballistic Aerial Target System

      1. The Ballistic Aerial Target System (BATS) is a low-cost, one-flight, expendable target for ADA training and service practice. It is soldier-operated. BATS are used in support of Stinger, Avenger and Linebacker training (figure 6-7).
      2. Variable Speed Training Target

      3. The Variable Speed Training Target (VSTT) MQM-1O7 (Streaker) provides the altitude, speed, and maneuver capability required for supporting annual service practice (ASP) for Patriot, Avenger and Bradley BSFV/Linebacker units. It is air-transportable.
      4. The VSTT MQM 107 (Streaker) can be fitted with devices which provide simulated radar and infrared signatures of actual aircraft and missiles. It can be configured to tow a 2 x l2-foot banner for aerial gunnery practice for Avenger and BSFV/Linebacker. A scoring device accomplishes scoring (figure 6-8).

      5. Figure 6-7. Ballistic Aerial Target System (BATS)

        MQM-34D

      6. The MQM-34D Firebee is a mid-wing, high-speed, remotely controlled target missile. A turbojet engine propels the missile. During flight it can execute all normal flight maneuvers, and is recoverable by a parachute recovery system. The mission of the MQM-34D is to support training and evaluation of ADA personnel at White Sands Missile Range (figure 6-9).

      7. Figure 6-8. Variable Speed Training Target (Streaker)

        Radio Controlled Miniature Aerial Target

      8. The Radio - Controlled Miniature Aerial Target (RCMAT) Russian MiG-27 target, complete with guidance and support package, is currently in production and is extensively employed by units of the US Army and National Guard. As a complement to the MIG, a 1/9th scale F-16 Fighting Falcon is also in production for use in friend-or-foe recognition scenarios. They operate through a full range of threat patterns experienced by a unit under fire, exposing student gunners to the same tracking and computation challenges they encounter when confronted by full-size aggressor aircraft. Hit and kill feedback can be instantaneous, intensifying trainee concentration. See Table 6-1 for characteristics.


Figure 6-9. MQM-34D Firebee

Table 6-1. RCMAT characteristics

Air Speed

Minimum 29 MPH; Maximum 46 MPH

Flight Duration

15 minutes at full throttle

Radio Range

3 kilometers from point of operation

Service Ceiling

10,000 feet

Roll Rate

180 degrees per second

Pitch Rate

60 degrees per second

Launch Method

hand launch in winds from 0 to 25 knots

Survivability

Recoverable with minimal structural damage when operating from sandy or grassy terrain common to training areas and firing ranges.

Target airframe can sustain a number of perforations up to 20 mm in diameter without significant degradation of performance as long as critical components are not hit.

 

Remotely Piloted Vehicle Target System

  1. The Remotely Piloted Vehicle Target System (RPVTS) consists two individual 1/5th scale Russian aircraft, the SU-25 Frogfoot and the M-24 BM-D Gyrocopter. The RPVTS are powered by a two-cycle reciprocating engine. Specifications for the SU-25 and the HIND-D are given in Table 6-2. The RPVTS are highly maneuverable aircraft capable of executing attack profiles in a live fire environment. Both aircraft are capable of carrying a twenty-pound payload for duration of 30 minutes and are controllable at a distance of three kilometers.
  2. Aircraft can attain speeds of 40 to 101 mph (SU-25) or 80 MPH (HIND-D forward speed). A mechanical, pneumatically operated launcher, capable of being towed by a government vehicle, is used for launch.
  3. The RPVT can accommodate multiple-integrated laser engagement systems and air-to-ground engagement systems (MILES and AGES) surrogate equipment, including a laser device system with a hit-kill visual smoke signal and a shoot-back device air-to-ground engagement system. The RPVTS are capable of carrying an IR source for missile system acquisition.
  4. Both aircraft are currently being provided as a training aid for units rotating through the National Training Center (NTC), at Fort Irwin, CA, and support AD training for several weapon systems to include BSFV and Stinger. Both configurations are used to support Stinger, Avenger and Linebacker live fire training missions.
  5. The 1/5th scale RPVTS currently in use are being provided to support Army training under a contractor owned, contractor operated, flight service program. One-fifth scale targets are used to support live fire engagements at both CONUS and OCONUS training sites. See Table 6-2 and Figure 6-10.
  6. Table 6-2. RPVTS

     

    SU-25 FROGFOOT

    Mi-24 HIND-D

    SCALE

    1/5

    1/5

    SPAN

    126 Inches

    70 Inches

    WEIGHT

    41 Pounds

    40 Pounds

    FUEL

    Gas/Oil

    Gas/Oil

    TANK CAPACITY

    32 Ounces (STD)

    32 Ounces (STD)

    ENDURANCE AT MAX SPEED

    30 Minutes

    30 Minutes

    SPEED

    40 to 101 MPH

    80 MPH (Forward)

    PAYLOAD

    25 Pounds

    20 Pounds

    RANGE

    3 KM

    3 KM

     

     

    Figure 6-10. Su-25 Frogfoot and Mi-24 Hind-D Gyrocopter (1/5 scale targets)

    Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System-AD

  7. The Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) is an additional ADA aerial target gunnery-training device. It is an expanded basic MILES which, when attached to aerial targets, provides for real-time means of objectively assessing enemy and friendly aerial target engagements. The MILES-AD provides sustainment training of marksmanship using SHORAD weapons systems (BSFV, Linebacker, Avenger and Stinger) in conjunction with the RCMAT and RPVTS. The MILES-AD training device is used for institutional training of officer advance course (OAC), officer basic course (OBC), and basic noncommissioned officer course (BNCOC) as well as for annual training for National Guard units.
  8. Coherent Doppler Scorer

  9. The Coherent Doppler Scorer (CDOPS) is a low cost radar scorer designed for use with a variety of targets. The system consists of a transmitter, receiver and self-telemetry antennas housed in a single package ready for installation on a target. CDOPS automatically telemeters the scoring data to the receiving station for processing and display. CDOPS can be used on towed banner and sleeve target systems, the BATS, several versions of the 1/5 scale RPVTS and 1/9 scale RCMAT. This system can detect and score projectiles from 5.56 mm to 120 mm and larger and can also provide miss distance for any missile firing. This equipment is government owned and contractor operated. Units desiring to utilize this scoring system should make a request to Army Missile Command, Target Management Office, in Huntsville, AL. Telephone: DSN 746-1336, Commercial 205-876-1336.
  10. HIGH TO MEDIUM ALTITUDE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    PATRIOT TRAINING DEVICES

  11. Patriot training devices serve to train initial entry personnel and sustain unit operator and maintainer efficiency in fighting the Air Defense battle and maintaining the Patriot system's operational readiness. The training devices described are:

Patriot Organizational Maintenance Trainer

      1. The Patriot Organizational Maintenance Trainer (POMT) provides a realistic static mockup of:

      1. The POMT consists of the active maintenance trainer simulator and the parts task trainer. It is used to train maintenance personnel in the use of Display Aided Maintenance (DAM), non-display aided maintenance (non-DAM), and BITE indicator procedures to diagnose, fault locate, remove and replace defective components, and use software routines for the RS, the ECS, and ICC.
      2. Patriot Conduct of Fire Trainer

      3. The Patriot Conduct of Fire Trainer (PCOFT) is an institutional training device for Patriot. It is a computer-driven battlefield system training device used at the USAADASCH and OCONUS. The PCOFT allows running Patriot tactical TPT software using four enhanced weapons control computer operator tactical trainers. The PCOFT has eight student consoles that are reproductions of the Patriot ECS and ICC tactical system operator consoles. One instructor station is used for controlling and monitoring the student consoles. The PCOFT is used to train battalion Tactical Directors, Tactical Director Assistants, and firing battery Tactical Control Officers and Tactical Control Assistants. Training is conducted on initialization procedures and AD battles, individually or paired Fire Unit (FU), paired battalion or netted FU, and battalion. One PCOFT can simulate up to four battalions.
      4. Patriot Radar Set March Order and Emplacement Trainer

      5. The Patriot Radar Set March Order and Emplacement Trainer (RS MO&E) trainer is an institutional training device. The MO&E trainer will be a mock-up of the Patriot RS physical characteristics as applied to MO&E tasks. The trainer consists of an RS trailer with electrical power, a rotating platform with antenna face, a shelter and outriggers.
      6. The MO&E trainer will be used to train Patriot missile crew members, operators and system mechanics, system maintenance technicians, and AD officers in MO&E tasks. All MO&E tasks can be trained using this device instead of the tactical systems.
      7. Patriot Communications System Task Trainer

      8. The communication system task trainer consists of two tactical UHF radio stacks, a patch panel, an antenna control unit, three communications systems controls and a power distribution panel to provide hands-on training in initialization, operation, and maintenance of the communications systems. In addition to the initialization, operation, and maintenance task, the following emplacement procedures can be performed on the communications trainer:

 

Patriot Data Link Upgrade Task Trainer

      1. The Patriot Data Link Upgrade (DLU) task trainer consists of a rack of tactical DLU equipment to provide hands-on training in operation of the DLU system. Although the same basic classroom configuration as the data link terminal (DLT) used for the DLU modified DLT on the ECS, the assemblies comprising the trainer will be different. The DLU modification will add the SINCGARS radio AN/VRC-9O as the over-the-air communications link. A fiber optics unit will not be included due to its cost. Instead, the radio transmitters will need to be loaded (dummy load) the same as the unmodified DLT. A signal will be picked up, and the signal connected to the other DLU receiver via hardwire. The DLU task trainer enables the student to perform the following emplacement tasks:

Patriot Radar Frequency Comparator Task Trainer

      1. The Patriot Radar Frequency (RF) Comparator task trainer is a mock-up of the tactical radar RF Comparator and consists of tactical and mock-up Battery Replaceable units (BRU). The following is a list of the removal and replacement tasks that can be taught with the RF Comparator task trainer.

Patriot Cooling Liquid Electron Tube Removal and Replacement Task Trainer

      1. The Patriot Cooling Liquid Electron Tube Removal and Replacement (CLET) (R&R) task trainer is a mockup of the right rear of the RS shelter, a simulated CLET rear door, and all associated hardware to perform R&R procedures. The CLET mockup includes four coolant hoses and two electrical cables.
      2. Patriot Antenna Element Task Trainer

      3. The antenna element task trainer is a task training device used to train the removal and insertion of the individual elements in the Patriot phased array radar antenna. The radar antenna systems group diagnostics are performed using either the ECS or the POMT. Identifying particular faulty elements will be accomplished using full-scale silk screen drawings, partial scale photographs, or overhead projections of line drawing or photographs. Using one of these media in lieu of tactical equipment better fills requirements of student and instructor safety and convenience, and off-loads time from tactical equipment to training devices.
      4. Patriot Embedded Trainers

      5. Patriot Embedded Trainers (ET) are troop proficiency trainers (TPT) with software programs that are built into the tactical system and provide training in simulated AD battle scenarios. Tactical Directors (TD), Tactical Control Officers (TCO), Tactical Director Assistants (TDA), and Tactical Control Assistants (TCA) receive sustainment training and collective training in detection, acquisition, identification, and engagement in ECM environments.
      6. Troop Netted Trainer

      7. The Troop Netted Trainer (TNT) allows the Patriot ICC to act in the stand alone or netted configuration. In the stand-alone or brigade role, the ICC serves as a master battalion. In the netted configuration the software will support simulated air battles with up to 12 directly interfacing FU.
      8.  

        Troop Subordinate Trainer

      9. The Troop Subordinate Trainer (TST) allows an ICC to operate a simulated ADA air battle in a netted mode as a Subordinate ICC (SICC) to the Master ICC (MICC) at brigade level. This feature allows the capability for ICCs (without FU) to communicate with each other in a brigade-level operation with one MICC.
      10. On-Line-Training Mode

      11. The on-line-training mode is used with TPT software and allows the Patriot battalion to create its own AD battle training scenarios with a full compliment of Patriot FU.
      12. Live Air Trainer

      13. The Live Air Trainer (LAT) is a version of TPT tactical software, modified to allow radar tracking of actual live targets and simulate target engagements. This training feature enables the Patriot battalion, and all of its major end items to track and simulate the engagement of live targets in a practice battalion AD mission.
      14. Patriot Empty Round Trainer

      15. The Patriot Empty Round Trainer (ERT) canister is a reworked expended Patriot missile round canister with appropriate markings. The ERT is used in both the institution and unit to train Patriot missile crewmembers in transporting, handling, and unloading procedures of expended round canisters.
      16. Patriot Missile Round Trainer

      17. The Patriot Missile Round Trainer (MRT) emulates a Patriot ready-round missile in size, weight, shape, and electrical connections. The MRT is used in both institution and unit to teach Patriot missile crewmembers handling, loading, and electrical checks without using a ready round.
      18. Patriot Intermediate Maintenance Instructional Trainer

      19. The Patriot Intermediate Maintenance Instructional Trainer (PIMIT) is a training device used to provide intermediate maintenance level training to students in the use of diagnostic programs, adjustments and calibration procedures, use of Test, Measuring and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE), parts location, and troubleshooting of system malfunctions.
      20. Patriot Explosive Ordnance Disposal Trainer

      21. This device is used to train Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel in the recognition of the inherent hazards associated with the components of the tactical missile.
      22. THAAD TRAINING DEVICES

      23. THAAD training devices are used to support New Equipment Training (NET), institutional training, and unit training. THAAD system embedded training (ET) capabilities will be used to the maximum extent possible. The following devices are described in detail in the THAAD Operational Requirements Document (ORD):

THAAD Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer (ICOFT)

      1. The purpose of the ICOFT is to train THAAD personnel in the operation of system integration, hardware and software. The ICOFT will consist of three nodes, BMC3I, Radar, and Launcher (figure 6-11). The ICOFT Control Console will control the nodes. This training device will provide realistic institutional training for BM/C4I, Radar, and Launcher operators/crewman, and commanders and staff. The device will simulate system hardware interfaces and provides institutional training of operational functions. It will be used to train operator/maintainers on the hardware and software of the three systems segments independently, simultaneously, or collectively as an integrated system. Each of the three nodes will run tactical software (embedded training, Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM), and help aids) and replicate tactical system operations. The ICOFT nodes can be configured in all THAAD system configurations so skills learned on the ICOFT will be directly transferable to the actual system. The ICOFT also includes Part Task Trainers (PTT) to teach initial switch settings and operator/maintainer removal and replacement functions.

      2. Figure 6-11. THAAD Institutional Conduct of Fire Trainer

        THAAD Institutional Maintenance Trainer (IMT)

      3. The IMT will provide performance Ė oriented maintenance/repair training. This device is designed to train critical tasks associated with diagnosis and fault isolation of the THAAD weapon system. This feature is required in order to assess the maintainerís performance. The IMT must replicate the tactical system in 3-D fidelity to train all critical tasks selected by the proponent school for the device, identified to maintain the THAAD system. This device provides realistic training without, the need for large quantities of costly tactical equipment. Skills learned on this devise must be directly transferable to the tactical equipment. The IMT consists of BM/C3I, radar and launcher PTT, 3-D mock-ups of the radar Cooling Equipment Unit (CEU), and instructor stations that are interchangeable between the PTT and CEU. The IMT emulates the THAAD system by responding in the same manner and having the same performance fidelity as the objective system.
      4. THAAD Missile Round Trainers

      5. The Missile Round Trainer consist of two separate configurations, the Missile Round Pallet Trainer (MRPT) and the Missile Round Trainer (MRT). The purpose of the Missile Round Pallet Trainer (MRPT) and the Missile Round Trainer (MRT) is to train operators in the handling of the THAAD missile at the institution and unit. Both configurations are used in conjunction with the THAAD launcher for training. The MRPT and MRT will simulate the weight, balance and physical characteristics of the THAAD missile and will be used to train load/reload, hangfire and misfire procedures, and to practice missile handling and transporting procedures. The MRT will have an electrical capability to provide operators a missile ready response that includes a missile count display and illustrates launch decrements during training periods.
      6. THAAD Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Trainers

      7. The purpose of this device is to train Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel to recognize inherent hazards associated with the components of the missile and practice EOD handling procedures. There are two (2) separate EOD trainers. They are the Practical Explosive Ordnance Disposal System Trainer (PEST) and the Classroom Explosive Ordnance Disposal System Trainer (CEST).

THAAD March Order and Emplacement Trainer (MOET)

      1. The purpose of this device is to train THAAD personnel to march order and emplace the THAAD radar. It is used in conjunction with the HEMTT tractor for training. The MOET consist of the Antenna Element (AE), Prime Power Unit (PPU), Cooling Equipment Unit (CEU), and Electronics Equipment Unit (EEU). These components are described in the following paragraphs.
      2. Antenna Element (AE)

      3. The trainer will replicate the appearance and size of the AE. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, march order and emplacement procedures. It will be used to train the soldiers in the proper connection of the electrical and cooling lines to the CEU, and signal data lines to the EEU.
      4. Prime Power Unit (PPU)

      5. The trainer will replicate the appearance and size of the PPU. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, march order, and emplacement procedures. The PPU will also train the soldiers in proper connection of the electrical lines to the CEU.
      6. Cooling Equipment Unit (CEU)

      7. The trainer will replicate the appearance and size of the CEU. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, march order, and emplacement procedures. It will train soldiers in the proper connection of the electrical and cooling lines to the AE.
      8. Electronics Equipment Unit (EEU)

      9. The trainer will replicate the appearance and size of the EEU. The simulator will be used to train soldiers in the actual road march, march order, and emplacement procedures. It will train soldiers in the proper connection of the electrical, signal and data lines to the AE.
      10. Embedded Training (ET)

      11. Unit sustainment training will be accomplished through the use of an embedded Troop Proficiency Trainer (TPT) capability in the THAAD system software that simulates operational tactical battlefield information and provides training to support both Engagement Operations (EO) and Force Operations (FO). The TPT will allow operators, commanders, and staff to maintain proficiency in tactical decision making procedures and console operations. During embedded training operators will interact with the system in the same manner as they would under actual combat conditions. Training may be conducted within a single battery or battalion or concurrently with other THAAD batteries and battalions to support joint and combined training.