Index FM 44-100 US ARMY AIR DEFENSE OPERATIONS 15 June 1995



CHAPTER 7

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

This chapter provides doctrine for sustainment of air defense operations. Combat service support (CSS) is the process of planning and executing the sustainment of forces in support of military operations. It includes the functions of supply, transportation, field services, maintenance, health service support, personnel, and facilities.

Inadequate logistics place all Army operations at risk; but air defense units are especially vulnerable to logistics deficiencies. Shortcomings in maintenance, repair parts supply, or ammunition resupply can disable fire units, and expose critical friendly forces and assets to air and missile attack for extended periods of time. To ensure air defense operations succeed, commanders must plan and resource combat service support with the same care and emphasis given combat operations. "Before the fighting proper, the battle is fought and decided by the quartermasters," Field Marshall Erwin Rommel.

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT FUNDAMENTALS

The objective of combat service support is to ensure that operations succeed. In modern warfare and in operations other than war, operations and logistics are totally interdependent. Current and future ADA systems require well-trained, motivated soldiers to operate them, and a flexible, responsive logistics system to sustain them. Combat service support, from the strategic and operational levels of war to the tactical level, provides the commander the means to initiate and sustain operations.

STRATEGIC LOGISTICS

Strategic logistics links the national industrial base with the nation's joint forces in the theater. It deals with mobilization, acquisition, force projection, strategic mobility, and the strategic concentration of logistics in the theater support base and COMMZ. The strategic logistics system includes activities under Department of the Army control and the national inventory control points (NICPs), national maintenance points, and the depots, arsenals, data banks, plants, and factories associated with United States Army Materiel Command (AMC). Other organizations which provide strategic support include the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), and the General Services Administration (GSA).

DLA, GSA, and AMC receive and fill requisitions from force projection, forward presence, and CONUS-based forces. However, forward presence and force-projection forces receive priority of support. All classes of supply are delivered to the theater through intertheater lines of communications (LOCs). Most materiel is moved by ship over sea LOCs; while personnel and high-priority materiel may be moved by US Air Force, Civil Reserve Air Fleet, and commercial aircraft over air LOCs.

ADA units have greater contact with the strategic logistics system than most tactical organizations. Logistics assistance representatives (LARs) from the US Army Missile Command (MICOM), a subordinate command of AMC, are assigned to most ADA battalions and brigades. They serve as technical advisors on maintenance and supply, and provide a direct link to the AMC support base. ADA units also can expect to have direct contact with contractors on select systems to expedite maintenance, for repair part identification, and for resupply.

OPERATIONAL CSS

Operational CSS encompasses those support activities required to sustain campaigns and major operations. It enables success at the tactical level of war by linking strategic logistics to tactical CSS operations within the combat zone. It focuses on force reception, infrastructure development, establishment and maintenance of LOCs, and the positioning of supply, maintenance, field service, and health service support activities. Assured logistics communications with depots and the national industrial base provides total asset visibility of critical materiel both in transit and within the theater. The use of DOD civilians, contractors, and host nation support is an integral part of operational CSS.

Normally, echelons-above-corps elements conduct operational activities. Commanders at the operational level establish and coordinate support functions to allow tactical commanders to focus on battles and engagements. The TAADCOORD exercises operational CSS responsibilities by recommending priorities for allocation of logistics functions to all ADA units in the theater. He plans and coordinates the theaterwide CSS support for ADA units, and ensures missiles and repair parts are allocated to the corps and EAC ADA brigades according to the JFLCC's priorities.

TACTICAL CSS

Tactical CSS sustain the tactical commander's ability to fight battles and engagements. The objective of tactical CSS is to provide the right support at the right time and place. The focus of tactical logisticians is on manning and arming tactical units, fixing and fueling their equipment, moving soldiers and materiel, and sustaining soldiers and their systems.

CSS CHARACTERISTICS

Successful CSS must be both effective and efficient. CSS operations are not successful unless they provide effective support. Scarce resources require CSS operations to be efficient. Effectiveness, however, cannot be handicapped by efficiency. These two aspects of CSS are balanced to provide the foundation of successful CSS operations. Five characteristics facilitate effective and efficient operations and enable operational success. These are: anticipation, integration, continuity, responsiveness, and improvisation.

Anticipation

Anticipation is identifying, accumulating, and maintaining the assets and information necessary to support future operations. The ability to estimate future CSS demands as accurately as possible ensures operations receive the right support at the right time and place. Accurate anticipation of requirements enhances the agility of the force and enhances the ability to seize and retain the initiative. Anticipation also means developing CSS capabilities that are versatile and mobile enough to accommodate likely operational or tactical events. Strategic and operational commanders and logisticians visualize the entire course of a major operation or campaign while planning in detail for the current phase.

CSS planners anticipate requirements to push forward the right support. This minimizes the need for improvisation. Anticipation requires constant coordination between the operations and CSS staffs.

Integration

Tactical and operational success depends on fully integrated concepts of CSS and operations. Integration during planning ensures support of operations during execution. CSS capabilities often affect the feasibility of a course of action. Based on the theater strategic and operational concept, logisticians develop a CSS concept that gives commanders the greatest possible freedom of action and enhances the agility and versatility of an operation. Even deception plans should incorporate CSS activities. The Army seeks opportunities for such integration throughout the planning and execution of operations by determining who can best provide support.

Continuity

Any interruption in CSS operations diminishes the combat power of a force. During operations, committed forces require continuous supply and service support to sustain their fighting strength and agility. Continuity of support is the lifeblood of combat operations at all levels.

While both combat operations and support operations can vary in intensity, combat operations may enter periods of relative inactivity but CSS operations do not. Commanders use every opportunity to increase sustaining capabilities. When the pace of combat activity diminishes, units reconstitute their capabilities. Continuity of support with a responsive CSS system increases the probability of operational success.

Responsiveness

The CSS system must react rapidly in crises. Seldom will all support requirements be known in advance. ADA commanders and staffs must adapt units to unanticipated requirements, often on short notice. ADA units will frequently be task-organized for force-projection operations. CSS requirements will be difficult to forecast with complete accuracy. Training CSS units to respond on short notice and surge their support for brief periods develops the ability to react quickly to increased demands. The mental and physical ability to cope with such requirements and the discipline to refocus in a crisis are built into the CSS system by effective organization, careful planning, solid training, and strong leadership. Supply discipline includes adhering to movement tables, declaring and distributing excess materials, and observing senior commander's CSS priorities. Supply discipline contributes to responsive logistics.

Improvisation

Improvisation is the ability to make, invent, arrange, or fabricate what is needed out of what is on hand. Successful CSS operations adapt to changing situations. Plans that are disrupted may require improvisation.

Commanders and planners continually review planning factors and consumption rates, maintain intransit asset visibility, and revise CSS planning estimates. The use of contracted services, and coalition or host nation assets to overcome CSS shortcomings can allow ADA units to continue operations in spite of austere CSS support. Logistical improvisation will often spell the difference between success and failure of operations.

THEATER SUPPORT STRUCTURE

The CSS needs of the force determine the CSS structure (see the Theater Organization illustration 7-1 on the next page). In war, as in peacetime and conflict, the JFC may designate a joint rear area (JRA). It is designated to facilitate protection and operation of installations and forces that provide logistics support to combat operations. The JFC may additionally organize the theater into a theater base, a COMMZ, and a CZ. The CZ is an area required by the combat forces to conduct operations. It normally extends forward from the corps rear boundary. The COMMZ constitutes the rear portion of the theater and extends back to the CONUS base. It includes air and sea ports of debarkation (APOD and SPOD) that support the flow of materiel and forces into the theater. The COMMZ is usually contiguous to the CZ but may be separate-linked only by tenuous air, land, or sea LOCs.

The Army service component commander (ASCC) provides necessary CSS support capabilities for Army forces assigned to the joint force. The Army support structure is designed to provide flexibility through tailoring the support structure based upon METT-T, strategic lift, pre-positioned assets, and host nation support. Support "building blocks" or modules are assembled and tailored to meet the support requirements of the force. As the deployed force grows, the support structure expands accordingly.

Corps and below bring their own dedicated support structure to the theater. When support requirements exceed their capabilities, the ASCC augments them with selected operational-level CSS organizations. He may further organize these operational CSS organizations into an operational-level support command. It uses a materiel management center (MMC) to manage supply and maintenance and a movement control agency to provide theater-level movement management.

During most contingencies, the ASCC will establish a theater logistics base within the COMMZ. Normally at the junction of intratheater and intertheater LOCs, it contains APOD and SPOD and the CSS facilities required to support operations within the theater. Protection of the theater logistics base is usually a high priority for the EAC ADA brigades.

Within the COMMZ, the operational-level support command provides support to units within or passing through the AO on an area basis using area support groups (ASGs). In addition to other types of support, the ASG provides repair parts and GS maintenance support to the DS maintenance companies attached to each HIMAD battalion. Maintenance and supply management for the ASGs is provided by the operational-level CSS MMC.

CSS in the early part of a force-projection operation will be packaged into the force itself. CSS for operations other than war also require CSS packages integral to the ADA force.

In the corps area, the corps support command (COSCOM) provides corpswide CSS support. Corps support groups provide CSS support on an area basis to units located in the corps rear area, and to non-divisional units operating in the division area. COSCOM units also provide GS and backup DS to divisional units. A COSCOM MMC supports each corps. The missile division of the MMC manages system peculiar maintenance and supply for ADA systems.

The division support command (DISCOM) is tasked to provide logistical support to all organic elements of the division. It may also provide support to non-divisional units operating in the division area. A main support battalion (MSB) provides logistics support in the division support area (DSA). Forward support battalions (FSBs) support each maneuver brigade.

These elements provide logistical support for units in the division rear and forward areas.

Figure 7-1. THEATER ORGANIZATION

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

CSS planning is conducted as an integral part of operational planning. The G4 or S4 and G1 or S1 participate in all phases of the command estimate and order and plan development as detailed in Appendix B . Logistics preparation of the battlefield is just as important as IPB.

Logisticians anticipate support requirements through development of a CSS estimate. The G4 or S4 and G1 or S1 must be aware of the significant differences between the current logistics status and the anticipated logistics status at the time the operation begins. Current and projected status can be identified using CSS estimates of higher headquarters.

The G4 or S4 and G1 or S1 gather data throughout the planning process to help anticipate the CSS requirements they will need to sustain the force for the next mission. The focus must remain on--

MANNING

The G1 or S1 is involved with courses of action analysis and operational planning during all phases of an operation. The G1 or S1 focuses on all personnel service support functions and actions required to ensure support during predeployment, deployment, and redeployment for war and operations other than war.

The focus during planning is personnel readiness and maintenance of unit strength. The G3 or S3 provides the G1 or S1 OPORD, OPLAN, and FRAGOs that stipulate task organization information necessary for identifying command and control relationships. This information is used to--

The G1 or S1 consistently seeks personnel readiness information from subordinate units, maneuver brigade S1s, aid stations, higher headquarters special staff, and personnel systems reports. The G1 or S1 analyzes all available data and information and provides the commander a personnel estimate reflecting the unit's current combat capabilities, projected future capabilities, and requirements in terms of personnel service support. It starts with the comparison of an organization's personnel strength against its requirements or authorizations and ends with a personnel readiness assessment and appropriate recommendations to the commander. It must consider the impacts of present personnel strength; any critical military occupational specialty and skill level shortages; projected casualties; morale of soldiers; unique circumstances impacting on personnel readiness that may not be captured in data; and impact of commander's transportation or communications priorities. Personnel service support cannot be provided without transportation and communications.

ARMING

Arming is providing the right mix and quantity of ammunition to the right place and time. Weapon systems must be armed as close to the point of employment as the tactical situation permits. During periods of intense combat, arming the force is extensive and time-sensitive. It begins with peacetime planning and covers all phases of force-projection operations. Arming the force requires detailed planning and coordination among the combat users and the ammunition and transportation logisticians at all levels. Modern warfare consumes large amounts of ammunition. The key to arming soldiers in the field is planning for a flexible CSS distribution system. One of the significant challenges in arming ADA units is resupply of missiles. Organic transportation is not available, therefore, the S4 or G4 must coordinate with theater or corps.

AMC, through MICOM, provides ADA missiles to the theater according to production and stockage constraints, threat assessment, and priorities established by the theater commander. ADA units are authorized basic loads of ammunition, expressed in rounds per weapon, or numbers of missiles, to sustain them in combat until they can be resupplied. The ASCC normally establishes a unit's basic load based on mission, the types and numbers of weapon systems, transport capability, and the time necessary to effect resupply. The standing operating procedure should describe distribution of the basic load.

To determine the requirement for a specific operation, units develop a required supply rate (RSR) for each type of ammunition. The operations officer (G3 or S3) prepares the RSR during preparation of the command estimate. The RSR, expressed in rounds per weapon per day, or missiles per day, may be derived from experience or from planning factor reference manuals.

Missile RSRs are forwarded, reviewed, and consolidated at each level in the ADA unit's chain of command, and also provided to the TAADCOORD in the theater. He develops a theaterwide RSR for each type of ADA missile and provides that information to the ASCC headquarters. At ASCC headquarters level, the G3, G4, and the commander review the requirements and availability of ammunition. Based on this review, the commander establishes the controlled supply rate (CSR) which is the actual authorized rate for resupply. Once the theater commander establishes the CSR, it is forwarded to the TAADCOORD. The TAADCOORD, after consulting with the G3 and G4, allocates the CSR to the corps and EAC ADA brigades based upon the JFC's priorities. Those ammunition items for which the CSR is less than the RSR will normally be identified in the appropriate CSS annex.

FUELING

Fueling is a critical sustainment function that keeps the force on the move. Clear priorities for fueling, estimating fuel consumption, and economizing assets whenever possible, contribute to ensuring adequate support of operations.

Initial allocation of fuel is based on estimates prepared and submitted by the ADA unit G4 or S4 using experience and standard planning factors. These estimates must consider special factors that include terrain, weather, and the unit's mission. The estimates are forwarded to the higher headquarters where they are refined, consolidated, and forwarded to the next higher headquarters. At corps ADA brigade or division level, they are forwarded to a COSCOM/DISCOM, while at EAC, they are forwarded to the operational CSS MMC.

FIXING

Maintenance preparation for future operations includes preexecution actions to maximize readiness, and planning for maintenance and repair parts support throughout all phases of the operation. While developing the maintenance plan, the logistician must consider the current and projected status of the unit's equipment, repair parts stockage, and the availability of key maintenance personnel.

During the period preceding the planned operation, maintenance efforts to repair nonoperational ADA systems are the focus of commanders and logisticians at all levels. Battalions and brigades monitor repair activities of batteries and provide assistance as appropriate. Battalion and brigade commanders augment battery maintenance personnel by providing maintenance staff officers, contractor personnel, LARs, and DS or GS contact teams to assist with repair operations.

Logisticians maintain visibility of repair parts throughout the theater, and cross-level parts routinely to repair nonoperational systems. In addition, LARs can assist in providing status of high-priority parts requisitions which have been passed to the NICP, and can coordinate to have the parts expeditiously shipped to the theater by ALOC. When maintenance personnel are unable to repair ADA systems expeditiously, commanders consider the use of operational readiness floats (ORF) to replace the faulty equipment. As a last resort, controlled substitution of parts and major assemblies can be used when authorized by the commander.

MOVING

Movement is inherent in all battlefield operations and is not purely a CSS function. Therefore, movement planning and execution must be coordinated and synchronized between operations and CSS staffs. The G3 controls maneuver and tactical movement. Movement control units and staffs at each echelon coordinate movement over the air, land, and sea LOC. ADA units are primarily concerned with movement on land LOC, the MSR in their area of operations.

Components of transportation involve the physical modes of transportation; the process of planning, allocating, and controlling movement; and the operation of terminals. All units that require external transportation support must know their source of transportation support in the area they operate. In the division, it is the DISCOM movement control officer. In the corps and COMMZ, the source of support is a movement control team (MCT) collocated with a port, terminal, CSG, or ASG. They coordinate transportation mode support to ADA units, and obtain clearance for the move.

ADA units must evaluate their transportation posture on a continuous basis. Plans should identify requirements for external transportation and must be coordinated with the MCO or MCT in their geographical area. Movement officers must be proficient in planning their support requirements and completing the necessary transportation support requests and movement bids. FM 55-10 provides detailed guidance on procedures for obtaining transportation support and conducting movement planning.

SUSTAINING SOLDIERS AND THEIR SYSTEMS

The five elements of sustaining soldiers and their systems are personnel services, health services, field services, quality of life, and general supply support. During planning for future operations, the logistician identifies all the CSS organizations tasked to support subordinate units during the operation. Provisions should be made for buildup of medical and general supplies needed to sustain the force throughout the operation.

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT OPERATIONS

CSS operations are planned and monitored by the G1 or S1 and G4 or S4 in the logistics readiness center (LRC). The LRC, which operates around the clock as a part of battalion and brigade TOCs, is jointly manned by the S1 and S4. Within the LRC, CSS status of the force is maintained, as are the locations of all subordinate units and their supporting CSS units. Requisition and maintenance activities for critical materiel are closely monitored.

The S4 is the logistics officer. He maintains equipment status and coordinates with direct support units for contact team assistance and equipment repair or replacement. The logistics officer works closely with the battalion or brigade maintenance officer to coordinate maintenance of both system and conventional equipment. The S4 is also responsible for brigade or battalion supply actions. The logistics officer maintains status of all areas of supply, but focuses on the adequacy of missiles, ammunition, fuel, food, water, and repair parts.

MANNING

Personnel readiness management (PRM), personnel accounting and strength reporting (PASR), casualty operations management (COM), and replacement management are all critical personnel systems and functions which focus on manning. The mission of the PRM system is to distribute soldiers and Army civilians to subordinate commands based on documented manpower requirements or authorization and the commander's priorities. Personnel readiness describes a state of wartime preparedness. PRM is a process for achieving and maintaining that state.

The S1 must ensure expeditious and accurate casualty and strength reporting continues and personnel replacements are processed quickly and efficiently. He must also ensure all soldiers receive mail, postal and financial services, and MWR services, regardless of the unit dispersion and complex support relationships inherent to air defense artillery units.

The Army's PASR system accounts for soldiers and civilians; reports other strength-related information; and updates command data bases at all levels. Information gained throughout PASR provides readiness managers the details necessary to analyze personnel strength as a component of combat power. This information is also used by other personnel system managers to plan and provide their support.

The casualty system focuses on recording, reporting, verifying, processing casualty information from unit level to HQDA, notifying appropriate individuals, and providing casualty assistance to next of kin. Casualty operations include casualty reporting, casualty notification, casualty assistance, line-of-duty determination, reporting status of remains, and casualty mail coordination.

The replacement management system moves personnel from designated points of origin to ultimate destinations and coordinates individual training at each replacement center, company, or section as determined by METT-T. Replacement management is the physical reception, accounting, processing, support, reequipping, training, and delivery of military and civilian personnel. This includes replacement and return-to-duty (RTD) soldiers. It does not include the decision-making process associated with determining distribution and PRM. For the first 60 days of a contingency deployment, HQDA may push replacements to the theater based upon the strength of the deployed force and projected casualties. As ADA replacements arrive at the POD, the ASCC personnel operations center, with recommendations from an ADA personnel liaison team from the TAADCOORD, assigns them to either an EAC ADA brigade or to one of the corps for assignment to an ADA brigade or divisional ADA battalion. The replacements then move from a theater personnel replacement company to the appropriate personnel replacement company in the corps area for further processing and movement to the division replacement section and eventually to the appropriate ADA S1 section.

ARMING

ADA units begin operations with their unit basic load of both conventional and missile ammunition. Based upon projected ammunition expenditures, the battalion S4 may requisition additional ammunition prior to the actual expenditure of any rounds. The amount of ammunition received as resupply may not exceed the CSR. Commanders at all levels may reallocate their CSR among ADA units assigned to their command if tactical conditions so warrant. The method of ammunition resupply varies depending upon the ADA battalion echelon of assignment.

In a divisional ADA battalion, the S4 submits a requisition, using DA Form 581, to the division ammunition officer (DAO). The DAO consolidates resupply requirements, and passes them to the corps MMC (CMMC). Corps ADA battalions submit their DA Forms 581 through the brigade S4 to the CMMC. The CMMC then directs the issue of the required ammunition from a supporting corps storage area (CSA) or ammunition supply point (ASP). The battalion S4 dispatches vehicles to the CSA or ASP to pick up the ammunition. Unit distribution is used by the S4 to resupply the batteries.

In EAC battalions, the S4 submits the DA Forms 581 to the brigade S4. Requests are consolidated by brigade and forwarded to the operational-level support command MMC. The MMC then directs issue of the required ammunition by a supporting theater storage area (TSA). As in the corps area, supply point distribution from the TSA using organic ADA battalion vehicles is the normal method of supply. Firing batteries are resupplied by battalion using unit distribution. ADA units must plan for ammunition transfer points within the immediate vicinity of current and proposed unit positions.

In an emergency, the CMMC or operational-level support command MMC can coordinate direct throughput of ammunition from the TSA or CSA to the firing battery using theater or corps aviation or truck transport. The brigade or battalion commander may also direct cross-leveling of ammunition between subordinate units to quickly resupply a battery which has unexpectedly expended its basic load.

FUELING

The fuel distribution system is an automatic resupply system based upon fuel forecasts and status reports. It relies on the routine rapid push of bulk fuel, with distribution both lateral and forward. Requirements flow from MMCs and Class III supply points. S4s forecast requirements for the the next 72-hour period. They base their forecasts on projected consumption data for the probable level of activity. The frequency of forecast submission varies, depending upon the intensity of operations.

The ASCC petroleum group and its subordinate units ship bulk fuel, either by pipeline or bulk carriers, to corps and EAC petroleum supply companies (GS). Medium truck companies (petroleum) then transport bulk fuel to ASG, corps support group (CSG), or divisional supply companies (DS), which provide fuel on an area basis.

Issue of bulk fuel to battalions and batteries is normally on a supply point distribution basis. Unit fuel tankers receive fuel from the nearest Class III supply point established by the ASG, CSG, or MSB/FSB. In case of an emergency, the MMC can direct that fuel be throughput directly to the requesting battery using aviation or petroleum transportation assets.

FIXING

Fixing is the function of sustaining materiel and equipment in an operational status, restoring it to serviceable condition, and upgrading its functional abilities through modification. These functions are performed at unit, DS, GS, and depot levels. The objective of maintenance is to repair equipment quickly and as close as possible to the point of failure or damage.

Maintenance in ADA units begins with the operator and supervisor. Opertors perform preventive maintenance checks and services and monitor equipment status during operations. When faults are discovered, operators use embedded self-diagnostic aids to isolate the fault. Operators and organizational maintainers perform replacement of line replaceable units (LRU) or printed circuit boards, and perform adjustments as authorized by the equipment's maintenance allocation chart.

When the operators or organizational maintainers identify an LRU or circuit board as unserviceable, they obtain a replacement from the unit prescribed load list and install it into the major end item. They then perform diagnostic or operational checks to ensure proper system operation. Unserviceable LRUs and circuit boards are evacuated to the supporting DS maintenance company's repairable exchange activity. The supply support activity of the DS maintenance company provides repair parts supply support using supply point distribution.

A maintenance company (DS) may be attached to HIMAD battalions to provide dedicated conventional and missile maintenance and supply support. A missile system DS and GS maintenance section will either be organic to the DS maintenance company, or will be attached from a DS and GS missile maintenance company assigned to the ASG or COSCOM. FAAD batteries receive conventional DS maintenance and supply support from a DS maintenance company assigned to the ASG, CSG, or DISCOM. DS and GS missile maintenance and supply support are provided by a missile support company attached to the ASG, CSG, or MSB.

The ADA battalion LRC monitors equipment status and repair actions. It coordinates cross-leveling of repair parts and tracks the status of high-priority repair parts requisitions. When battery maintainers are unable to isolate an equipment fault, or when higher echelon maintenance is called for, the LRC coordinates for DS or GS, LAR, or contractor support. When projected equipment downtime is excessive due to lack of repair pans or the need to evacuate the equipment for higher echelon maintenance, the LRC recommends the use of ORF, controlled substitution, or cross-leveling to restore operational capability. The decision to use any of these three measures must be made by the commander.

MOVING

Organic transportation is generally sufficient to move ADA units and their support throughout the theater. As stated earlier, there is, however, a shortfall for moving missiles for resupply. When external movement support is required, the LRC submits a request for transportation to the supporting MCT. The MCT issues a transportation movements release to the ASG, CSG, or transportation unit tasked to support the move.

Motor transport is normally the primary transportation means used to support the force. However, airlift can be an important mode of transportation for emergency resupply of fuel and ammunition, and movement of high-priority repair parts or maintenance teams. Within the corps, immediate requests for air movement are passed through command channels to the division or corps G3. At EAC, requests are forwarded to the operational-level support command G3, which passes them to the ASCC movement control center.

SUSTAINING SOLDIERS AND THEIR SYSTEMS

Sustaining soldiers and their systems includes personnel service support, health services support, field services support, quality of life, and general supply support. The brigade and battalion S1 and S4 are responsible for coordinating these five elements in the LRC.

Personnel Service Support

Personnel service support (PSS) is the management and execution of personnel services, resource management, finance services, chaplaincy activities, command information services, and legal service support. These functions in war and operations other than war are usually within the purview of the ADA brigade and battalion S1, although the higher the echelon the more they are represented by different staff officers and unit commanders.

Personnel services. The brigade and battalion S1 are the commander's principle staff officers for coordinating all aspects of personnel services. Personnel services include personnel readiness management; personnel accounting and strength reporting; casualty operations management; replacement management; personnel information management; postal operations management; morale, welfare, and recreation and community support, and essential personnel services. Essential personnel services are awards and decorations, noncommissioned officer and officer evaluations, enlisted promotions and reductions, officer promotions, enlisted and officer transfers and discharges, identification documents, leaves and passes, line of duty investigations, officer procurement, retention, recruiting, and reclassification. Doctrinal requirements, principles of support, and responsibilities and standards are addressed in FM 12-6.

The success of personnel services is impacted mostly by the commander's transportation and communications priorities. The brigade and battalion S1 must closely coordinate transportation for mail, replacements, chaplain activities, medical evacuation, and essential personnel services with the S4 and higher echelons. Transportation support is METT-T dependent. ADA soldiers are often task-organized in complex command and control relationships. The movement of replacements, mail, and soldiers for essential services may require daily coordination between the ADA brigade and battalion S1 or S4, supported maneuver brigade and battalion S1 or S4, and higher echelon transportation support.

Chaplain activities. A unit ministry team is assigned to each brigade and battalion. The team serves the spiritual needs of soldiers, provides personal counseling, and advises the commander on issues of religion, morals, morale, and ethics. Chaplain activities include providing worship services, and other religious sacraments, rites, and ordinances. The chaplain coordinates programs with the S1 and keeps the supervising chaplain informed about unit ministry issues.

Legal services. Legal service support is coordinated by the EAC, corps, division, or brigade staff judge advocate (SJA). The SJA supports the unit and its soldiers with legal assistance and provides advice to the commander on all matters of military, civil, and international law. The SJA also provides the command with assets to dispose of courts-martial and other adversarial proceedings against a soldier.

Public affairs. Good public affairs operations can be a great combat multiplier. While the ADA brigade and division public affairs officers provide information support for soldiers and commanders, active command emphasis on public affairs will produce motivated soldiers and a supportive public.

Public affairs officers plan and conduct proactive command information programs to keep soldiers informed of events in their AO as well as at home. PAOs also plan and conduct aggressive media relations which help tell the Army story and build public support for Army operations.

Finance services. Finance support teams (FSTs) provide military pay support--pay inquiries, pay change input, casual pay, and check cashing. They also support local procurement by providing cash for Class A agents and imprest fund cashiers.

Combat Health Support

Combat health support (CHS) at the battalion level is provided by the battalion surgeon and the medical section. The battalion aid station (BAS) provides echelon I (unit level) HSS. The BAS performs triage, treats, stabilizes, and evacuates injured, ill, or wounded soldiers. Combat medics perform emergency medical treatment and arrange evacuation of casualties at battery level.

Echelon II care is provided by area support medical companies in the corps and EAC. Care at this level consists of evaluation of patients' status and establishment of priority for continued evacuation. Emergency care, to include resuscitation, is continued, and additional emergency treatment is initiated, if necessary.

Echelon III care is provided by combat support hospitals in the corps. These hospitals are staffed and equipped to provide resuscitation, initial wound surgery, and postoperative treatment.

Echelon IV care is provided by general and field hospitals at EAC. These hospitals are staffed and equipped for general and specialized medical and surgical care and reconditioning rehabilitation to quickly return soldiers to duty.

Field Services

Field services are provided on an area support basis by the ASG or CSG. The battalion and brigade LRC coordinates for field services as required, when the tactical situation allows. Field services serve to preserve the health, morale, and welfare of the soldier. They include food preparation, water purification, clothing and light textile repair, laundry and shower, post exchange sales, aerial delivery, and mortuary affairs.

Quality of Life

Maintaining quality of life is a command responsibility. Quality of life operations include effective, efficient personnel and health services for the soldier, and proper family support for dependents.

General Supply Support

General supply support encompasses the provisioning of food, clothing, water, barrier material, and major end items. The battalion requests, receives, and distributes these supplies through supply point distribution from the supporting supply company of the ASG, CSG, or DISCOM.

RECONSTITUTION OPERATIONS

Reconstitution consists of the reorganization or regeneration of people and equipment to restore combat capability. Reconstitution planning and preparation cannot be reactive. A reconstitution plan must exist which can then be adapted to the situation. Timely execution of the reconstitution plan maintains momentum.

Reconstitution plans must take into account the situation, degraded units' conditions and missions, and the expected intensity of future operations. Reconstitution plans should cover--

REORGANIZATION

Reorganization is restoring combat effectiveness by cross-leveling assets within a unit or by forming a composite (smaller) unit. For example, an attrited battalion could be reorganized into a headquarters and two full-strength batteries. Reorganization provides a means to maintain a level of continuous combat effectiveness.

Commanders continually assess the ability of their unit to perform assigned missions. Their staff officers keep the commander and their next higher level of command informed on--

Normally, the commander one echelon above approves reorganization. Brigade commanders approve the reorganization of their battalions. Subordinate battalion commanders approve the reorganization of their batteries. If the battle command of the unit undergoing reorganization remains viable, command lines remain the same.

REGENERATION

Regeneration transcends normal day-to-day CSS support actions. It consists of the extraordinary actions planned to restore units to a desired level of combat or mission effectiveness. Regeneration is the rebuilding of a unit in which the mission capability has been reduced or degraded. Normally, the headquarters two levels higher is responsible for regeneration. It is accomplished through replacement of personnel and equipment, reestablishment of effective battle command, and conduct of essential training. During regeneration, consideration should be given to maintaining the integrity of the remaining effective squads, teams, or crews. Regenerated units need training before being reintroduced into combat.