FM 44-100 Chapter 8 Operations Other Than War

Index FM 44-100 US ARMY AIR DEFENSE OPERATIONS 15 June 1995



CHAPTER 8

OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR

This chapter describes operations other than war. It also addresses the possible contributions to these efforts by ADA units.

ENVIRONMENT

In preparing to fight our nation's wars, the Army also develops the leadership, organizations, equipment, discipline, and skills useful for a variety of operations other than war (OOTW). Doctrine for war complements that for OOTW. Some of the same principles apply to both environments, though modified to accommodate different situations. Properly applied to the situation at hand, these principles balance the Army's response to challenges and confrontations in war and OOTW.

OOTW are described as activities. The following paragraphs present the reader with an assessment of which activities ADA units support and the extent of participation. However, there are no absolutes and ADA units may be called to participate in other activities not addressed. ADA units must be capable of participating in OOTW as required.

The armed forces of the United States are performing OOTW activities on a global scale. ADA units, as contributors of purely defensive capabilities, have become the units of choice for several types of OOTW missions in support of national interests. As regional conflicts and instability increase around the world, the armed forces and specifically Army air defense artillery must remain prepared to perform the entire spectrum of global missions when and where required.

Activities during OOTW occur unilaterally or in conjunction with other military operations. These actions take place at different times or simultaneously in different places. ADA units perform the planning and support function for conducting all types of OOTW in coordination with the force commander. The civil affairs officer, if authorized, is trained in the special actions to support local US and foreign governments.

Each specific activity has different requirements. Some basic planning questions which apply to each operation are as follows:

PRINCIPLES

OOTW that involve our forces in direct combat adhere to the well-established principles of war. Some, such as the principles of objective and security, apply equally to noncombat operations. Unity of command requires modification as described below. The Army has supplemented the principles of objective, security, and unity of command with the principles of legitimacy, perseverance, and restraint, which are more suited to noncombat operations.

The relative application of each principle will vary depending on the specific operation. ADA commanders must balance these principles against the specific requirements of their mission and the nature of the operation.

OBJECTIVE

Each separate operation must be integrated with every other to contribute to the ultimate strategic aim. Leaders of ADA units must understand the strategic aims, set appropriate objectives, and ensure that they contribute to unity of effort with other agencies.

SECURITY

ADA commanders must protect their forces at all times. They should never be lulled into believing that the nonhostile intent of their mission does not put their forces at risk. ADA commanders should never be misled about risks to their forces. The inherent right of self-defense always applies.

UNITY OF EFFORT

In OOTW, other government agencies will often have the lead. ADA commanders may answer to a civilian chief, such as an ambassador, or may themselves employ the resources of a civilian agency. Command arrangements may often be only loosely defined, causing commanders to seek an atmosphere of cooperation. ADA commanders consider how their actions contribute to initiatives that are also political, economic, and psychological in nature.

LEGITIMACY

Committed ADA forces must sustain the acceptance of the operation and of the host government. Legitimacy derives from the perception that authority is genuine, effective, and employs appropriate means. ADA commanders must realize that their actions solve near-term problems and also support long-term strategic aims and legitimacy of the government.

PERSEVERANCE

OOTW may be short or long in duration. Peacetime operations may require years to achieve the objectives. ADA commanders assess quick-reaction options against their long-term contributions. They still take decisive military action but must make a careful, informed analysis to choose the right time and place for such action. ADA commanders balance attainment of short-term objectives with a sensitivity for the long-term strategic aims and the restraints placed on operations.

RESTRAINT

The actions of ADA units and soldiers are framed by the disciplined application of force. In OOTW, rules of engagement will be more restrictive, detailed, and sensitive to political concerns than in war. These rules may change frequently. Restraints on weapons, tactics, and lethality typify the situation. Understanding of the rules of engagement throughout all units requires follow-through and rehearsals.

NONCOMBATANT EVACUATION OPERATIONS

Noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO) relocate threatened civilian noncombatants from locations in a foreign country to regions of safety. These operations may involve US citizens abroad whose lives are in danger. It could also include selected host nation citizens, third country nationals, or members of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) who may be conducting operations in the area. NEO normally occurs in a peaceful, orderly fashion but may require forcible means. The Army may conduct NEO in the environments of OOTW or war.

ADA will support NEO by providing protection of collection points, evacuation routes, and embarkation ports. ADA also may be tasked to perform ground transportation of noncombatants using organic vehicles.

ARMS CONTROL

Arms control focuses on promoting strategic military stability. It encompasses any plan, arrangement, process regarding control over the number, types, and performance characteristics of weapon systems. This extends not only to weapons themselves, but also to battle command, logistics support, and intelligence-gathering mechanisms. Selected Army units provide assistance in monitoring the proliferation of weapons and technology, in verifying the status of arms control agreements, and in demilitarizing munitions and hardware.

ADA units do not normally play a role in this type of operation. However, ADA soldiers may be selected to serve on arms control teams.

SUPPORT TO DOMESTIC CIVIL AUTHORITIES

When the appropriate government authority directs the armed forces to assist in domestic emergencies in the US, the Army has primary responsibility. Army units support disaster relief, humanitarian assistance, and similar operations. Federal law also authorizes the domestic use of military force to suppress domestic violence or insurrection, but the Constitution and federal law impose restrictions on the use of the military in this manner.

HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF

Humanitarian assistance operations provide emergency relief to victims of natural or man-made disasters when initiated in response to domestic, foreign government, or international agency requests for immediate help and rehabilitation. Disaster relief operations include activities such as refugee assistance, food distribution, medical treatment and care, restoration of law and order, damage and capabilities assessment, and damage control (to include environmental cleanup or other programs such as firefighting). The Army can provide logistics support to move supplies to remote areas, extract or evacuate victims, establish emergency communications, conduct direct medical support operations, and render emergency repairs to vital facilities. The Army also can provide manpower for civil relief or assist civil authorities with public safety.

Army elements involved in international disaster relief operations are often responsible for supporting the implementation of assistance programs developed by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance within the Department of State. Domestic disaster relief efforts are generally under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, although immediate response is permitted to prevent loss of life and property. The Army's global reach, its ability to rapidly deploy, and its capability to operate in the most austere environments make it ideally suited for these missions.

ADA units may be tasked to participate in this type of operation; however, they are not particularly suited to perform these tasks due to specialization of authorized equipment. However, some examples of an ADA unit providing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief are the firefighting teams provided by 1-3 ADA and 1-52 ADA during the Yellowstone fires in 1988 and the use of transportation assets of 3-62 ADA during Hurricane Andrew relief.

SECURITY ASSISTANCE

Security assistance consists of the group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act, the Arms Export Act, and other related statutes. Through security assistance programs, the United States provides materiel, military training, and defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales to further its national policies and objectives. A predominant interface of the US Army with host nations occurs through the Security Assistance Training Program. This program has two primary subcomponents--the International Military Education and Training Program and the Foreign Military Sales Program.

INTERNATIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM

This program is designed to enhance the proficiency, professional performance, and readiness of foreign armed forces. The US Army conducts international education and training in CONUS as well as in the host nation. This typically takes the form of formal courses, orientation tours, and on-the-job training.

The Air Defense Artillery School plays a major role in training allied soldiers on the use of ADA systems. Allied soldiers learn how to use, employ, and maintain the equipment. ADA units may be tasked to provide on-the-job training.

FOREIGN MILITARY SALES PROGRAM

This program allows designated governments to purchase military equipment, services, and training. The sale of defense items may require training on the operation and maintenance of military equipment. Mobile training teams, resident instruction in US Army schools, and similar methods are used to conduct this training. The ADA School participates in the program; however, ADA units do not participate.

NATION ASSISTANCE

Nation assistance supports a host nation's efforts to promote development--ideally through the use of host nation resources. The interagency orchestration of all the elements of national power is essential for success. It must be supportive of both the ambassador's country plan and the CINC's regional plans. The goals of nation assistance are to--

These can only be accomplished through education and the transfer of essential skills to the host nation, which will enable it to meet its own needs independent of external support. Nation assistance missions may occur in any environment.

Air defense artillery units usually do not participate in nation assistance activities. However, due to the general nature of tasks and the versatility of ADA units, participation on a limited basis in non-ADA areas is a possibility.

SUPPORT TO COUNTERDRUG OPERATIONS

Military efforts support and complement, rather than replace, the counterdrug efforts of other US agencies, the states, and cooperating foreign governments. Army support can occur in any or all phases of a combined and synchronized effort to attack the flow of illegal drugs at the source, in transit, and during distribution. Army participation in counterdrug operations will normally be in support of law enforcement agencies.

Support to host nations includes assistance to their forces to destroy drug production facilities; collaboration with host nation armed forces to prevent export of illegal drugs; and nation assistance to help develop economic alternatives to production, exportation, and distribution of drugs. Support to interdiction efforts centers on monitoring and detecting illegal drugs in transit as well as integrating command, control, communications, and intelligence systems. US forces may well assist host nation forces at war while they are in an OOTW posture.

Support for domestic counterdrug operations includes military planning and training assistance for domestic law enforcement agencies, participation by the National Guard, equipment loans and transfers, use of military facilities, and other assistance as requested and authorized. This support may expand as national policy and legal prohibitions evolve.

ADA sensor surveillance will be the primary role for ADA units. ADA sensors are ideally suited to provide surveillance support to this type of operation. Although new sensors are being fielded to FAAD battalions, this type of tasking typically is given to HIMAD units. This support will normally be provided to US Customs and Border Patrol organizations along the US border. An example of this support is the border surveillance provided by 2-1 ADA to Joint Task Force Six.

COMBATING TERRORISM

The Department of State is the lead US agency in combating terrorism overseas or on the high seas. The Department of Justice (the Federal Bureau of Investigation) has this responsibility within the US. The Department of Transportation (Federal Aviation Administration) combats terrorism related to aircraft in flight within the territories of the US. The Department of Defense supports each of these agencies in these activities.

Combating terrorism has two major subcomponents--antiterrorism and counterterrorism. During peacetime, the Army combats terrorism primarily through antiterrorism--passive defensive measures taken to minimize vulnerability to terrorism. Antiterrorism is a form of force protection and, thus, the responsibility of Army commanders at all levels. Antiterrorism complements counterterrorism, which is the full range of offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. Army elements, such as special operations forces, assist in this interagency effort by applying specialized capabilities to preclude, preempt, and resolve terrorist incidents abroad. Counterterrorism occurs in conflict and war; antiterrorism occurs across the continuum.

Since ADA units may face a terrorist threat during OOTW, they must be prepared to implement antiterrorism measures. In addition, if terrorists or other hostile regional powers possess the means to conduct terrorist activities using aircraft or missiles, ADA units may be deployed to protect US or host nation forces and facilities.

PEACE OPERATIONS

Peace operations encompass three types of activities: support to diplomacy, peacekeeping operations, and peace enforcement. The environment of peace operations and related concepts, principles, and fundamentals are described in FM 100 23.

SUPPORT TO DIPLOMACY

The components to support to diplomacy include peacemaking, peace building, and preventive diplomacy. Support to diplomacy takes place in peace or conflict and is conducted to prevent conflict. Military actions contribute to, and are subordinate to, the diplomatic peacemaking process. Many of these actions are the typical, day-to-day operations conducted by the military as part of its peacetime mission.

Peacemaking

Peacemaking is a process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement that end disputes and resolve the issues that led to conflict. Military activities that support peacemaking include military-to-military relations and security assistance operations. Other military activities, such as exercises and peacetime deployment, may enhance the diplomatic process by demonstrating the engagement of the US abroad.

Peace Building

Peace building consists of postconflict actions, primarily diplomatic, that strengthen and rebuild civil infrastructures and institutions in order to avoid a return to conflict. It also includes mechanisms that advance a sense of confidence and well-being and support economic reconstruction. Military, as well as civilian, involvement is normally required. Peace building activities include restoring civil authority, rebuilding physical infrastructures, and reestablishing commerce, schools, and medical facilities.

Preventive Diplomacy

Preventive diplomacy involves diplomatic actions taken in advance of a predictable crisis to prevent or limit violence. In more tense situations, military activities may support preventive diplomacy. Such support may include preventive deployments of Patriot, other shows of force, or higher levels of readiness. The objective is to demonstrate resolve and commitment to a peaceful resolution while underlining the readiness and ability of the US to use force if required.

PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

Peacekeeping operations support diplomatic efforts to maintain peace in areas of potential conflict. They stabilize conflict between two or more belligerent nations, and as such, require the consent of all parties involved in the dispute.

The US may participate in peacekeeping operations when requested by the United Nations, with a regional affiliation of nations, with other unaffiliated countries, or unilaterally. US personnel may function as impartial observers, as part of an internal peacekeeping force, or in a supervisory and assistance role.

Peacekeeping often involves ambiguous situations requiring the peacekeeping force to deal with extreme tension and violence without becoming a participant. These operations follow diplomatic negotiations that establish the mandate for the peacekeeping force. The mandate describes the scope of the peacekeeping operation in detail. It typically determines the size and type of force each participating nation will contribute. It also specifies the terms or conditions the host nation intends to impose on the presence of the force or mission and a clear statement of the functions the peacekeeping force is to perform.

The peacekeeping force deters violent acts by its physical presence at violence-prone locations. It collects information through means such as observation posts, patrols, and aerial reconnaissance.

ADA may play a major role in this operation. ADA units will be used to deter the threat from using missiles, aircraft, and UAVs. HIMAD units will be key systems in support of this operation, especially considering the proliferation of offensive missiles. Historical examples of this type of operation are the support to NATO and the Republic of Korea. The continuing presence of Patriot units in southwest Asia provides a current example of peacekeeping operations. Special rules of engagement apply to this type of operation and are usually very restrictive.

ADA provides capabilities which are critical for other types of peacekeeping operations as well. HIMAD units are integrated into the joint counterair campaign to enforce no-fly zones and safe havens established by the United Nations. In these types of operations, the establishment ROE, air defense procedures and measures, and a fully capable BM/C4I system is critical. Of major concern in peacekeeping air defense operations, is the identification of friendly aircraft operating in the no-fly zone or safe haven. Participation in these operations by nations with different types of aircraft with diverse IFF and communications capabilities, makes discrimination of friendly aircraft difficult.

PEACE ENFORCEMENT

Peace enforcement operations are military operations in support of diplomatic efforts to restore peace between hostile factions which may not be consenting to intervention and may be engaged in combat activities. Peace enforcement implies the use of force or its threat to coerce hostile factions to cease and desist from violent actions. Units conducting peace enforcement, therefore, cannot maintain their objective neutrality in every instance. They must be prepared at all times to apply elements of combat power to restore order, separate warring factions, and return the environment to conditions more conducive to civil order and discipline.

ADA units may play a major role in providing force protection and protection of geopolitical assets from missile or air attack. By denying one of the warring parties the advantage of air power, peace may be established quicker. An area where ADA may see increasing participation is the enforcement of no-fly zones.

SHOW OF FORCE

A show of force is a mission carried out to demonstrate US resolve in which US forces deploy to defuse a situation that may be detrimental to US interests or national objectives. Shows of force lend credibility to the nation's commitments, increase regional influence, and demonstrate resolve. These operations can influence other governments or politico-military organizations to respect US interests and international law. They can take the form of combined training exercises, rehearsals, forward deployment of military forces, or introduction and buildup of military forces in a region. The appearance of a credible military force can underscore national policy interests and commitment, improve host-nation military readiness and morale, and provide an insight into US values.

ADA units are ideally suited for this role. ADA provides purely defensive weapons, so the introduction of ADA forces does not lead to further escalation of tensions. A belligerent nation will not consider deployment of an ADA unit as threatening as the deployment of a unit with offensive capabilities. Early deployment of ADA shows US national resolve. It positions the unit in-country to support follow-on force-projection operations. ADA will provide a forward presence and defend APODs and SPODs which support protecting the force in the deployment phase of a contingency operation. Patriot batteries deployed to Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain after the Persian Gulf War are examples of shows of force.

SUPPORT FOR INSURGENCIES AND COUNTERINSURGENCIES

At the direction of the National Command Authority, US military forces may assist either insurgent movements or host nation governments opposing the insurgency. In both instances, the military instrument of US national power predominantly supports political, economic, and informational objectives.

The US will use its military resources to provide support to a host nation's counterinsurgency operations in the context of foreign internal defense (FID) through logistical and training support. FID is the participation by civilian and military agencies in any of the action programs another government takes to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. The US ambassador, through the country team, provides the focal point for interagency coordination and supervision of FID. Military support to FID is provided through the unified CINC.

Depending on the threat, all types of ADA units may support this type of operation. However, it is most probable that light ADA units such as Stinger and Avenger will play a major role.

ATTACKS AND RAIDS

The Army conducts attacks and raids to create situations that permit seizing and maintaining political and military initiative. Normally, the US executes attacks and raids to achieve specific objectives other than gaining or holding terrain. Attacks by conventional ground, air, or special operations forces acting independently or in concert are used to damage or destroy high-value targets or to demonstrate US capability and resolve to achieve a favorable result. Raids are usually small-scale operations involving swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, temporarily seize an objective, or destroy a target. Raids are followed by a rapid, preplanned withdrawal. These operations also occur in war. Stinger units are ideally suited to this type of operation. ADA provides force protection and defense of critical assets which support the deployment of the raiding or attack party. Just Cause and Desert One are two historical examples of this type of operation. In each operation, Stinger units were used. However, Avenger might be used if the threat is significant and sufficient lift assets are available.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

The ADA commander manages the resources in the command. These resources consist of personnel, equipment, funds, and time.

PERSONNEL

The personnel assigned to ADA organizations have very complex, specific skills. Some of these skills can be directly applied to OOTW. Some personnel may be requested for liaison, although this places a burden on each unit. The number of people or manpower available to the ADA commander is fixed by the applicable modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE).

EQUIPMENT

The equipment assigned to ADA organizations has very specific purposes. Some of this equipment can be used to support OOTW. The number and types of equipment available to the ADA commander are also fixed by the applicable MTOE. Special equipment and logistics support requirements to support OOTW will have to be identified, received, made operational, and trained upon by the personnel.

FUNDS

The funding for OOTW will be made available to support these activities. This funding should be provided to preselected organizations and units. This would allow for the personnel of these units to train for a specific mission or set of missions to support OOTW. It would reduce costs in purchasing special equipment for all ADA units by selecting certain units to handle one or more of the OOTW activities. Expenditures of funds in this manner would provide cost benefits for manpower and personnel use, special OOTW equipment requirements, and better use of time.

TIME

The proper use of time to service tactical mission requirements and OOTW activities will result in clearer focus of resources. The assignments of the specific units to OOTW activities will result in a better use of time by not requiring all units to train and equip for all OOTW activities. It would allow for a more equitable use of time to train for the tactical missions to include force-protection operations.