Index FM 44-100, Air And Missile Defense Operations



 

Chapter 5

Army Air Defense Artillery Battle Command

This chapter provides doctrine for Army ADA battle command. It addresses the responsibilities of the commander and some aspects of command and control as it relates to battle management. It also addresses the command systems capabilities necessary to help the commander to integrate and coordinate functions and execute successful operations. Battle command is a vital factor in executing the tenets of Army operations, surviving, and winning quickly and decisively on future battlefields or in stability and support operations.

BATTLE COMMAND CONCEPT

5-1. Battle command is the art of battle decision making, and leading and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish missions at least cost to soldiers. Battle command includes visualizing the current and desired future states of friendly and enemy forces and then deciding how to get from one to the other at least cost. The commander assigns missions and tasks, prioritizes and allocates resources, selects the critical time and place to act, and knows how and when to make adjustments during the fight. In addition to deciding, battle command includes leading and motivating units toward the desired results. This leadership must be up front. Leaders must be with soldiers. They must feel the pain and pride then decide on the best course of action to accomplish the mission at least cost to soldiers.

5-2. Commanders assess; conduct risk assessment and risk management; and see, hear, and understand the needs of subordinates and seniors. Commanders go where they can best influence the battle, where their moral and physical presence can be felt, and where their will to achieve victory can best be expressed, understood, and acted upon.

THE ELEMENTS OF BATTLE COMMAND

5-3. Battle command has two vital components: decision making and leadership. Both components demand skill, wisdom, experience, and courage. As such, command is more an art than a science. In battle, it is often guided by intuition and feel gained from years of practice and study. The two elements of battle command are tightly interwoven. They integrate leading, guiding and motivating with the knowledge to establish and define the limits of control throughout the course of a mission.

Decision Making

5-4. Decision-making is recognizing that a decision is needed, then when and what to decide. Decision-making brings with it the cost of committing resources, foreclosing options, incurring risk, and revealing intentions to the enemy. Commanders anticipate the activities that will be put into motion once a decision is made. They know how irreversible some commitments will be once execution begins. Uncertainty and chance will always complicate decision-making.

5-5. A commander cannot know everything. However, he must know that which is important. The battle command system must provide him a solid base of information from which he can pick and choose what he needs. The commander must glean the information he knows to be vital from what is available and provided by others. He bears personal responsibility for defining the critical information, friendly or enemy, he must have. The commander cannot be a prisoner of a command post. He must retain access to the information he needs to command from wherever he is on the battlefield.

5-6. Battle command demands that leaders position themselves where they can best command without depriving them of the ability to respond to changing situations. The commander must be able to go where he can best assess the operation and risks and make the necessary adjustments.

5-7. Battle command demands that the commander retain his objectivity when making decisions and not be swayed by the passions of the moment. The successful commander requires a balanced detachment from the unimportant, with an instinctive recognition of what is important and what requires his direct involvement. The commander cannot attempt to address personally every action. Knowing what requires his attention and what his staff and subordinate commanders can handle is key to time management and a decentralized command environment.

Leadership

5-8. Leadership is taking responsibility for actions of the command and the decisions that cause those actions. Commanders will be compelled to act without all the relevant information and must be prepared to deal with the consequences thereof. The lack of available information does not invalidate the responsibility of command. Forces, when put in motion, are not easily reversed. After forces have been put in motion, the commander must provide the strength and will to follow through with the choices, and the wisdom to know when they must be changed and further decisions made.

5-9. A commander's strength of character and ability to motivate are among the most vital components of successful command. The commander serves as a role model. He promotes the proper ethical perspectives, sustains a positive and progressive command climate, and fosters a sense of organizational unity and cohesion. Commanders are technically and tactically proficient and possess the moral toughness that provides soldiers the will to fight.

COMMAND

5-10. Command is the art of motivating and directing soldiers and organizations to accomplish a mission and must be supported by the means to regulate the forces to achieve the commander's intent. Command, and the decision-making and problem solving that are part of it, is not done in isolation. The commander's staff and subordinates assist in developing, modifying, and improving the initial versions of courses of action and in developing future courses of action for events that likely are not yet totally clear.

5-11. Battle commanders must be flexible enough to respond to changing situations and to anticipate the demands of, and solutions to, future operations. They must train themselves, their staffs, soldiers and units so that they are prepared for whatever missions they are assigned. Commanders must be able to visualize the future, formulate concepts, allocate means, and direct the necessary missions required for achieving victory.

5-12. Commanders make estimates of future operations and assessments of the current situation to determine their own intent and formulate the concept of the operation. The prioritization of actions and considerations of the acceptable degree of risk guides the commander in determining the amount of control he can, and should, delegate to others to synchronize actions across the area of operations. Command without freedom of action to subordinates denies their initiative and lessens the ability of the battle commander to employ all of his resources to their fullest potential.

CONTROL

5-13. Control is inherent in battle command. Control is more scientific than command. A commander commands while the headquarters and staffs coordinate and make necessary adjustments consistent with the commander's intent. Control monitors the status of organizational activities, identifies deviations from the commander's intent, and regulates the forces and means toward an intended aim.

5-14. Control provides the commander freedom to operate, to delegate authority, and lead from any position on the battlefield, while synchronizing actions vertically and horizontally throughout the AO. Control derives from understanding the commander's intent, implementing good SOPs, training units and soldiers prior to battle, rehearsing, using graphic control measures specific to the situation, and maintaining continuous dialogue between commanders at all levels. Proper control ensures all operations are synchronized and sustained throughout their duration. The process of controlling an organization is directed towards ensuring that the efforts of all elements are synchronized, adjusting as the situation dictates. However, focus must be maintained on the intended end state and purpose as expressed in the commander's intent. Skilled staffs work within the commander's intent to direct and control units and allocate the means to support that intent.

5-15. A staff’s role is defined and focused by the commander. The staff and subordinates assist the commander in developing, modifying, and improving the initial versions of courses of action based on their expertise.

5-16. The staff performs the fact-filtering and development work. But when completed, it is the commander who makes the judgment-informed decisions. It is through the staff and battle command systems that the commander exercises control. Staffs compute requirements, allocate means, and integrate efforts. They monitor the status of organizations, identify variance, correct deviations, and push analyzed information to the commander. Staffs acquire and apply means to carry out the commander's intent and develop specific instructions from general guidance.

5-17. Control provides the means to regulate, to synchronize, and to monitor forces and functions through collection, fusion, assessment, and dissemination of information and data. Control is associated with functional areas and depends upon data and information systems. It allows the commander through the staff to monitor the status and efforts of the command and adjacent units and to maintain situation awareness throughout the battlespace. Responsive control means (communications, computers, and sensors) allow the commander to manage and direct the process.

5-18. The communications segment of the battle command and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems must provide information quickly and with reasonable security, to whomever needs it. Information transfer between sensors and weapon systems or forces is necessary in every type and level of battle management. Information-age technology can provide the commander an abundance of near-real-time information that can, if properly presented, reduce uncertainty and confusion. However, if improperly managed, it could burden the commander.

5-19. Speed of operations has quickened because of advances in the rate of intelligence and information flow. The ability to gather, manage, process, and circulate near-real-time information among sensors, weapons, and highly mobile forces give operational and tactical commanders the means to set battle tempo. Tempo is a function of speed of operations within time to accomplish missions based on the commander's plan and available resources.

5-20. Tempo requires both mental and physical agility by leaders and organizations. Commanders must understand these relationships and manage them effectively. Commanders must possess the mental agility and discipline to make timely decisions to modify the tempo to their advantage, deny the enemy the initiative, and decisively defeat it at the selected time and place.

BATTLE COMMAND SYSTEMS

5-21. The battle command system must support the ability of the commander to adjust plans for future operations while focusing on the current fight. The battle command system for air defense is grouped into two categories, engagement operations (EO) and force operations (FO). EO and FO functions are closely related. There is a real-time interaction that takes place between many of the EO and FO functions during battle. This interaction results in continued force optimization as the battle progresses. The related tools for implementing command decisions include communications and computers.

5-22. Reliable communications are imperative to battle command and control. Effective battle command requires reliable signal support systems to enable the commander to conduct operations at varying tempos over extended distances. Good signal planning increases the commander's options to exploit success and facilitate future operations. The battle command style of the commander dictates the structure of his supporting communications system. The commander is able to move freely about the battlefield and is electronically linked with the command post to access time-sensitive data and to influence the battle. Space-based systems provide commanders with communications, reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, navigation and positioning information, early warning, and weather, terrain, and environmental monitoring (WTEM) that greatly facilitate battle command. Satellite communications support all battlefield operating systems. These space-based systems significantly enhance the speed and accuracy of information that commanders exchange with subordinates. For more details on space operations, see appendix C.

Engagement Operations

5-23. EO includes those functions required to execute the air, missile, and counter-surveillance battles. The air surveillance function establishes a correlated air picture with target types and identification. The mission control function processes commands from higher echelon units, evaluates the threat, optimizes engagement performance, monitors the outcome of engagements, and manages the employment of sensors and decoys. The attack operations support function determines the location of enemy air and missile launch sites and provides it to attack systems. The data distribution function distributes the air picture and track data.

Force Operations

5-24. Force Operations include functions that are required for planning, coordinating, preparing, and sustaining the total ADA mission. The situation analysis function continuously collects and evaluates all available information on friendly and hostile forces, including the intelligence tasks of continuous IPB and situation development. The defense planning function develops and assesses various options and produces a preferred course of action.

5-25. The coordination function implements the coordination and cooperation actions required to develop, distribute, and execute the plan. The directives and orders function promulgates the plan in a timely manner. The monitoring and controlling function observes and records activities taken in response to orders issued and performs alerting based on the situation. The routine staff function supports the overall battle command process. Predictive EO algorithms will use FO information from the situation analysis function as the basis for recommending or directing EO activities.

COMMANDER'S RESPONSIBILITIES

5-26. Key to the planning conducted at each level of command is the role of the commander. The commander does not merely participate in the processes--the commander drives them! From initial intelligence preparation of the battlefield through course of action development to the actual issue of orders and directives, the personal involvement of the commander is critical.

 

COMMANDER

5-27. The commander is the key to concept formulation, planning, and executing at each level of command. The commander's personal responsibility is formulating a single unifying vision and expressing it in the commander’s intent. Commanders must understand the intent of the commander two levels up and understand the intent and concept of operation of the immediate senior commander. Commanders must also understand the battle from the perspective of adjacent units and subordinate commanders who must execute the decisions. The commander's estimate and assessment process helps decide how to accomplish the assigned mission.

5-28. Commanders must determine and specify the commander's critical information requirements (CCIR) that are needed to understand the battlefield and the flow of operations. CCIR consists of three types of information: priority intelligence requirements (PIR), friendly force information requirements (FFIR), and essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). The commander must focus the organization and battle command systems to give the information needed to conduct the estimate and refine the assessment driven by time or event. The commander must, however, still be prepared to make decisions and accept risk without complete information, recognizing that waiting for complete information may result in lost opportunities to act. Too much information can paralyze a force as quickly as too little data if the commander is hesitant to act in ambiguous situations. The commander must tell the staff what information is important to collect. Whatever factors are present, the commander is personally responsible for establishment of the commander's critical information requirements.

5-29. Once the commander has the necessary information, he must possess the creativity and intuition to visualize the flow of events toward a future state. The commander formulates a concise expression of how elements of the command will operate together to accomplish their operational responsibilities and missions.

5-30. Commanders must be able to convey to subordinates a clear, concise statement of the commander’s intent for future operations, which includes the purpose; what tasks and when they want those tasks accomplished; and the desired end-state. Their concept of the operation must include an overall scheme of operations, the necessary interfaces and coordination, the sequence from one phase to another, and the priorities and risks the commander is willing to take. Connectivity must exist between current operations and the branches and sequels of the future plan. While a portion of this future state may be directed by a higher level commander's intent, the commander must possess the ability to envision the organization's future state within its battle space.

5-31. Techniques and procedures may vary, but planning and executing operations are continuous and concurrent activities. Commanders must master time-space-resource-purpose relationships and understand the ways they affect friendly and enemy capabilities to achieve success in battle. They must be able to orchestrate all functions affecting their battle space: intelligence, fires, forces positioning, resources, deception, and timing. In addition, they must have a personal awareness of the battle to influence the tempo and impact of the operation. Commanders make necessary adjustments to current operations and possible modifications of future operations through interactions with other commanders and staffs as well as their own staffs.

5-32. Decision-making and problem solving are not done in isolation. However, the commander must determine which decisions designated subordinates may make. Typical decisions retained by commanders are for changes in intent, mission, concept of operations, priorities (main effort, air or missile defense), or major reallocation of resources.

ADA COMMAND FUNCTIONS

5-33. The ADA commander is the proponent for the air defense combat function at each echelon. The ADA commander has total responsibility for active AD planning within the Army component, and possibly for the entire land force. These responsibilities include recommending air defense missions for other members of the combined arms team, and integration with the AADC and other components. The ADA commander ensures that organic, assigned, and supporting ADA units accomplish AD objectives in support of the ground commander's concept of operations. The AAMDC commander, EAC and corps ADA brigade commanders, and divisional ADA battalion commanders develop counterair and theater missile defense plans for protection of their supported commander's air and missile defense priorities. They also prepare the air defense annexes to division and corps OPLANs and the Army Forces Commander or the JFLCC's operations plan.

5-34. Corps and divisional ADA units accomplish the majority of tactical air and missile defense missions. The corps ADA brigade and the divisional ADA battalion, respectively, are the corps and division commanders' primary air and missile defense resources (figure 5-1, page 5-8). The corps commander's requirement to provide air and missile defense resources to forces is no different from the requirement to provide maneuver and fire support resources. The corps commander must ensure that forces at all levels have air defense protection and must reinforce those defenses when necessary. Of particular importance is the corps commander's requirement to provide high–to–medium altitude (HIMAD) ADA protection to divisions, with specific emphasis on giving support to offensive operations. The division commanders require corps support for high–to–medium altitude (HIMAD) air defense and any additional SHORAD weapons needed for mission accomplishment.

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COORDINATOR FUNCTIONS

5-35. The AMDCOORD is responsible for planning air and missile defense operations to support the force commander's concept of the operation. The AMDCOORD is an integral member of the maneuver commander's staff planning team. The AMDCOORD, with input from the G2, assesses the air and missile threat and the commander's intent in order to develop TMD, OCA, and DCA priorities. The AMDCOORD assists the fire support coordinator in integrating OCA and TMD attack operations priorities into the force's targeting process. The AMDCOORD recommends active, passive, and other combined arms air and missile defense measures in the air defense estimate. After staff coordination and approval of the air defense estimate, the AMDCOORD develops the air defense annex to the operation plan. Appendix B provides a more detailed description of the air defense estimate and annex.

5-36. The AMDCOORD also coordinates with ADA elements at higher and lower echelons, as well as with adjacent units. Coordination ensures vertical and horizontal integration of ADA coverage throughout the battlefield. For example, the corps AMDCOORD integrates corps ADA with theater, division, and adjacent corps ADA forces. In force-projection operations, this will include integration with joint or multinational counterair and theater missile defense participants. The division AMDCOORD ensures the air defense plan interfaces with the corps and adjacent division air defense plans.

THEATER ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COORDINATOR

5-37. The Theater Army Air Defense Coordinator (TAAMDCOORD) performs several functions. He is the Army air and missile defense coordinator to the Army forces commander, JFLCC (if designated), JFACC, and AADC. The TAAMDCOORD ensures that the Army is an integral part of joint counterair and active missile defense operations and planning at the theater level. The TAAMDCOORD, as a special staff officer to the Army forces commander and JFLCC participates in the J3/J5 cells and assists in developing Army OCA and DCA input to the air operations plan. He participates in the integration of Army TMD operations. The TAAMDCOORD also participates in the AADC's DCA planning as AMDCOORD and Army AD representative to the JFACC. In addition, the TAAMDCOORD ensures that corps air and missile defense requirements are integrated into joint counterair and TMD planning.

5-38. The TAAMDCOORD contributes the majority of the joint force surface-to-air missile forces as the commander of the highest echelon AD command in the theater. He deploys resources in the combat and communications zones and influences tactical operations by shifting the ADA force between these two areas based on the concept of the operation (figure 5-2).

DEPUTY AREA AIR DEFENSE COMMANDER

5-39. Based on the factors of METT-TC (mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, time available and civil considerations) the joint force commander (JFC) and area air defense commander (AADC) will determine whether a deputy area air defense commander (DAADC) should be designated. Normally, the commander of the Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) assumes the role of the DAADC because the AAMDC has the necessary personnel and equipment to support the DAADC mission. This designation formalizes the relationship between the land-based AD assets dedicated to theater level missions and the AADC and also ensures fully integrated and synchronized counterair and TMD operations.

5-40. The DAADC, combined with a robust AAMDC liaison team to support the AADC/DAADC relationship, provides the following support to the AADC:

5-41. Although the AAMDC commander may serve as a "deputy" AADC, it is not envisioned that the DAADC would assume the role of the AADC if the AADC were incapacitated. The DAADC is not a true deputy commander in that sense. The DAADC's primary responsibilities are to assist the AADC in planning, coordinating, integrating, and synchronizing land-based AD and TMD systems. Neither the AAMDC commander nor his staff has the tactical, technical, or procedural expertise and capability to perform all of the DCA functions of an AADC in a joint environment.

ROLE OF THE AAMDC

5-42. The Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) performs critical theater level air and missile defense planning, integration, coordination, and execution functions for the Army forces (ARFOR) commander and the Joint Forces Land Component Commander (JFLCC) if designated (AAMDC does not conduct engagement operations). The AAMDC integrates the four operational elements of TMD: active missile defense, attack operations, passive missile defense, and command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) to protect contingency, forward deployed, and reinforcing forces as well as designated assets from the CINC's defended asset list (DAL). The AAMDC consists of intelligence, fire support, aviation, chemical, air defense artillery, special forces, and signal personnel melded into an effective TMD team. The Commanding General (CG) of the AAMDC performs three critical roles. The CG commands the AAMDC and its subordinate echelons above corps (EAC) ADA brigades, performs the functions of the TAAMDCOORD for the COMARFOR (or JFLCC if designated), and performs the functions of the DAADC for the AADC. The AAMDC normally locates with the ARFOR headquarters; however, the location of the commander and the role he is performing is dependent on METT-TC.

ROLE OF THE EAC ADA BRIGADE

5-43. The EAC ADA brigade missions at this level may have operational significance, for example, theater level sustaining bases, military or political headquarters, or ports of debarkation. The EAC ADA commander is responsible for the planning and execution of ADA plans and missions at the tactical level. He ensures that the EAC ADA brigade is integrated and synchronized with adjacent, higher and lower ADA operations within his AO. The EAC ADA brigade commander may also function as the AMDCOORD.

5-44. EAC brigades will deploy early into the theater to protect APODs, SPODs, early arriving forces and critical supplies. As entry forces move into tactical assembly areas (TAA) for expansion operations, ADA forces maneuver and reposition to provide optimized forces protection. As the lodgment is expanded ADA forces conduct combat operations to protect critical political, communications, transportation, and military forces. As deployment operations conclude, EAC ADA brigades and multinational forces will form a cohesive integrated defense from which to conduct military operations.

5-45. Units conducting active defense at theater level normally consist of one or more EAC ADA brigades that provides command and control over assigned forces. The brigade commander task organizes active defense forces to protect selected priority assets, designated by the AAMDC commander, from the DAL.

ROLE OF THE CORP ADA BRIGADE

5-46. The Corps ADA brigade commander is the corps air defense officer and serves as the corps commander’s air and missile defense coordinator (AMDCOORD). Since the corps can operate at the strategic, operational and tactical levels of war, the brigade commander has a unique role in the planning of air and missile defense operations. His responsibilities include the following:

BATTLE COMMAND ORGANIZATIONS

5-47. ADA commanders and leaders organize their personnel and equipment to command and control their units. There are three types of command and control organizations that are standard in ADA units: command posts (CP), tactical operations centers (TOC), and fire direction centers (FDC).

COMMAND POSTS

5-48. The principal facility employed by the commander to control operations is a CP. The commander is located anywhere on the battlefield where he can best command the force and is only present at the CP when necessary. A CP consists of facilities for the commander, coordinating staff, and special staff. The organization of the CP reflects the commander's needs. CPs can be organized by echelon, for example, a tactical CP, main CP, and rear CP. The commander may form an alternate or assault CP. ADA units from AAMDC to platoon level form CPs tailored to their needs.

5-49. Command posts must support the commander wherever he is. They must provide assured access to timely, accurate, and relevant information through integrated, interoperable digitized links with all echelons, other services, other government agencies, and multinational forces. Command posts must also provide the commander with the ability to respond to changing circumstances from any point within or outside the battlespace while moving or stationary.

5-50. Command posts are organized to perform the following functions:

TACTICAL OPERATIONS CENTERS

5-51. A TOC is a sub-element of a headquarters CP with staffing elements (AAMDC, brigades, and battalions). A TOC consists of a physical grouping of the staff elements concerned with current and future tactical operations and tactical support. A key standardized, digitized element of equipment in the AAMDC and brigade TOCs is the Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System. At the battalion TOC level, the key standard, digitized equipment is the Air and Missile Defense workstation, which is completely compatible with the AAMDC and brigade equipment.

FIRE DIRECTION CENTERS

5-52. A fire direction center is that sub-element of brigade and battalion TOCs, and battery CPs, where the commander exercises engagement operations. The FDC receives digitized target intelligence and fire control orders and translates them into units appropriate fire directions and fire distribution. Multiple systems are used in ADA for FDCs based on the type and level of the ADA unit.

COMMUNICATIONS

5-53. Tactical information must be communicated among commanders, staffs, and weapon systems. The commander must be able to communicate his intent while moving freely about the battlefield. Electronically linked with his command post, the commander must be able to access time-sensitive operational and intelligence information to assess and influence the battle at the critical time and place. A seamless, secure communications network that provides horizontal and vertical integration of voice, data graphics, imagery, and video information is essential. This network must support integrated combat operations, and the focus must be on the war-fighting commander. Implied in these requirements are streamlined communications procedures, global connectivity of extended-range assets, and integrated communications among the various joint and multinational forces, operations, intelligence, logistics, and administrative functions. These communications networks must provide entry at key points in the force to facilitate data exchange through automated routing and filtering of information.

COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS

5-54. The Joint Force Commander, component commander, and corps/division/brigade/battalion/battery commander establishes command and support relationships for ADA units in accordance with joint and army doctrine. As discussed in Chapter 3, ADA forces assigned to corps and lower maneuver elements are under the operational control of the echelon commander. At echelons above corps, ADA forces are under the operational control of the component commander.

COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

5-55. Placing an ADA unit under another unit using one of the following can form command relationships: attachment, operational control (OPCON), or tactical control (TACON). Command responsibilities, responsibilities for service support, and authority to organize or reassign component elements of a supporting force remain with the higher headquarters or parent unit unless the authorizing commander specifies otherwise. The command relationships and inherent responsibilities are depicted in table 5-1, page 5-14.

Attachment

5-56. Attachment is the placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. Subject to the limitations imposed by the attachment order, the commander of the formation, unit, or organization receiving the attachment has the responsibility to provide the attached units with sustainment support above its organic capability. However, the responsibility for transfer, promotion of personnel, nonjudicial punishment, courts martial, and administrative actions, such as SIDPERS transactions and unit strength reporting, are normally retained by the parent formation, unit, or organization.

Table 5-1. Command Relationships

Inherent Responsibilities

Relationship with:

Task organized by:

Receives logistics from:

Positioned by:

Provides liaison:

Maintains commo with:

Priorities established by:

Gaining unit can further impose:

Attached

Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

Per Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

Attached, OPCON, TACON, GS, GSR, R, DS

OPCON

Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit (see note)

Parent Unit

Gaining Unit

Per Gaining Unit

Parent unit and Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

OPCON, TACON, GS, GSR, R, DS

TACON

Gaining Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Gaining Unit (maneuver)

Per Gaining Unit

Parent unit and Gaining Unit

Gaining Unit

GS, GSR, R, DS

 

NOTE: Except when involving Multinational forces in NATO, then Parent Unit.

Operational Control

5-57. Command authority that may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command is operational control (OPCON). Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Operational control may be delegated and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Operational control includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Operational control should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and service and/or functional component commanders. Operational control provides full authority to organize commands and forces and to employ those forces, as the commander in operational control considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control does not, in and of itself, include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training.

Tactical Control

5-58. Tactical control (TACON) is the command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Tactical control is inherent in operational control. Tactical control may be delegated to, and exercised at any level at or below the level of combatant command. Tactical control allows commanders below combatant command level to apply force and direct the tactical use of logistics assets but does not provide authority to change organizational structure or direct administrative and logistical support.

SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS

5-59. Support relationships define specific relationships and responsibilities between supporting and supported units. Support relationships are established routinely as general support (GS), general support reinforcing (GSR), reinforcing (R), and direct support (DS). The support relationships and inherent responsibilities are depicted in table 5-2.

Table 5-2. Support Relationships

Inherent Responsibilities

Relationship with:

Task organized by:

Receives logistics from:

Positioned by:

Provides liaison:

Maintains commo with:

Priorities established by:

Gaining unit can further impose:

GS

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Per Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

NA

GS-R

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Per Parent Unit and reinforced unit

Parent Unit and reinforced unit

1. Parent unit

2.Reinforced unit

NA

R

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Reinforced unit

Reinforced unit

Parent Unit and reinforced unit

1. Reinforced unit

2. Parent Unit

NA

DS

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Parent Unit

Supported Unit

Supported Unit

Parent Unit and Supported Unit

Supported unit

NA

Direct support

5-60. In Direct Support (DS), the supporting unit provides dedicated support to a specific unit. A DS ADA unit provides dedicated air and missile defense for a specific element of the force, which has no organic air and missile defense. The supporting ADA unit coordinates its movement and positioning with the supported unit. A SHORAD platoon, for example, may provide DS to a mechanized task force. The platoon will provide dedicated support to the task force and the platoon leader will position the platoon in conjunction with the task force commander's concept of the operation.

General support

5-61. An ADA unit in General Support (GS) provides support for the force as a whole. It is not committed to any specific element of the supported force. It does not support a specific unit within the larger unit's area of operations. An ADA unit in GS remains under the control of its higher ADA commander, and is positioned by its ADA commander. GS is commonly used to protect EAC, corps, or division level assets.

Reinforcing

5-62. A reinforcing (R) ADA unit augments the coverage of another ADA unit and strengthens the air and missile defense capabilities of the force. A reinforcing ADA unit is positioned to protect one or more of the reinforced unit's priorities as specified by the supported ADA unit commander. For example, a corps high- to medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) battalion could reinforce the limitations of the SHORAD ADA battalion assigned to the division.

General support reinforcing

5-63. An ADA unit with a General Support Reinforcing (GS-R) mission provides support for the force as a whole and secondarily augments the support provided by another ADA unit. ADA units with a GS-R mission have a primary responsibility to provide support to the force as a whole within a specific area, but must coordinate with the supported ADA unit to reinforce the coverage of assets in the AO.

COORDINATION AND LIAISON

5-64. Automation and digitization are becoming bigger factors in battle command, but the combat functions still require personal involvement. Since the commander cannot be at all places at all times, the staff and liaison teams support command intent and information needs.

COORDINATION LINKAGES

5-65. Staff coordination is a function of the organization of the staff, command post configuration, doctrine, and local SOP. The AMDCOORD must have a representative in the staff cells to plan and execute deep, close, and rear operations.

5-66. This representation provides horizontal and vertical coordination to the various elements of the joint force. These staff elements include intelligence, fire support, EW, Air Force staff, Army aviation, Navy and or USMC air control systems, maneuver, and the Army airspace command and control (A2C2) cell at all echelons of command. Staff coordination is possible due to the battle command structure that integrates the combat functions. The combat functions provide an interface among all staff elements at each level of command. The result is a vertical and horizontal integration of staff activity that serves to unify the effort of the force at all echelons.

LIAISON

5-67. Liaison is essential in multinational, joint, interagency, and combined arms operations. Robust liaison facilitates understanding, coordination, and mission accomplishment. Liaison personnel must be familiar with the staff and operational organizations, doctrine, and procedures of the force with which they will work as well as being subject matter experts on the air defense combat function. Liaison requirements and manning should be fulfilled through the use of new information technology systems as they are fielded and implemented in units.

5-68. The AAMDC provides the staff and equipment to plan, coordinate, deconflict, and monitor the execution of theater air and missile defense during joint and multinational operations. The AAMDC has dedicated liaison teams that can deploy to all major theater and ARFOR elements to integrate ARFOR air defense and TMD operations. Elements that the AAMDC deploys liaison teams to include the following:

5-69. The AAMDC normally deploys a robust liaison team to the AADC location to support the DAADC and the AADC. The liaison team is lead by an ADA Colonel (O6) when the DAADC is not present and may consist of active defense, attack operations, and intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) experienced personnel to execute 24-hour AMD operations.

5-70. If the AAMDC is not in theater, the senior ADA organization in the theater is responsible to provide liaison to the land component commander, the battlefield coordination detachment, and the area air defense commander. It may also find it necessary to send liaison teams to the air operations headquarters of other services or multinational forces. In addition, liaison teams may also be required at other combat function locations, for logistics or intelligence, for example.

5-71. Corps ADA brigade commanders may provide liaison to the CRC and all CPs of the corps and to selected major subordinate commands. In some cases, it may even be necessary to send liaison teams to divisions to supplement the divisional AMDCOORD.

5-72. ADA battalion commanders provide liaison to the supported forces or to the headquarters of the force in whose area they are operating. Dedicated liaison teams are provided to each committed and defended maneuver brigade task force or equivalent level force. ADA commanders as AMDCOORD may supplement or replace liaison teams. At battalion task force level and below, liaison teams are not provided on a dedicated basis. ADA leaders perform duties as AMDCOORD, ADA commander, and AD staff officer. Liaison manning should be adjusted as new information systems are implemented and liaison requirements change.

ADA FIRE CONTROL OFFICER

5-73. The air defense artillery fire control officer (ADAFCO) is a liaison between AADC DCA operations and land-based ADA systems for engagement operations. The ADAFCO works with either the regional air defense commander (RADC) or sector air defense commander (SADC). He provides a single Army point of contact between land-based AMD fire direction centers and the controlling authority. The ADAFCO operates a console and, as required, assigns hostile targets to the tactical director at the FDC. It is a highly efficient arrangement for air defense operations because the ADAFCO normally is a Patriot officer and is more tactically proficient at controlling land-based air defense fires.

Integrated Combat Airspace Command and Control

5-74. Airspace control provides increased operational effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Airspace control permits greater flexibility of operations. Airspace control consists of the coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace with defined dimensions. Within a joint force AO, the JFC assigns overall responsibility and authority for airspace control to one component commander. The mission of the airspace control authority is to coordinate and integrate the use of airspace within the joint AO. Because of the close relationship between airspace control and air and missile defense, the airspace control authority (ACA) is normally the AADC. Subject to the authority of the joint force commander, the ACA establishes the broad policies and procedures for airspace control operations and coordination among units operating in the airspace control area.

5-75. Airspace control measures afford the ACA the means to procedurally or positively control all airspace users. Airspace control measures are rules to reserve airspace for specific users, restrict actions of airspace users, control actions of specific airspace users, or require airspace users to accomplish specific actions. The ACA implements the airspace control measures through the theater airspace control plan and specific directives. The AMDCOORD and A2C2 element at each echelon provide Army requirements to the battlefield coordination detachment (BCD) at the joint air operations center for incorporation into the airspace control plan.

5-76. Identification is an important function of airspace control in air and missile defense operations. Hostile and friendly identification ensures timely engagement of targets and reduces the potential for fratricide. The tactical situation, electronic interference, or equipment malfunction may preclude positive friendly identification, but airspace control measures provide a procedural backup. From an ADA perspective, many airspace control measures provide a means of probable friendly identification and default hostile identification. These measures allow friendly forces optimum use of airspace while minimizing the risk of engagement by friendly air defense. Examples are minimum risk routes and standard-use Army aircraft flight routes and air corridors.

5-77. For TMD, capabilities dictate that ADA units engage enemy TMs based on classification, not identification. This enables ADA units that can classify targets as ASM or ballistic missiles to engage those threatening targets based on classification.

5-78. Airspace control measures afford commanders the means to control airspace use, protect ground operations or facilities, and control other users of the airspace. High-density airspace control zones and restricted operations zones are examples of supplemental fire control measures. Joint Pub 3-52, FM 100-103, and FM 100-103-1 provide further details.

Positive Control

5-79. Positive control relies upon near-real-time data from sensors, IFF, computers, digital data links, and communications equipment to provide airspace and air defense control. Positive control is desirable but not always possible due to battlefield conditions and inherent system vulnerabilities. Facilities for positive control are subject to direct attack, sabotage, or jamming. Line-of-sight requirements and limited communications can also restrict the availability of data from facilities that are operational.

Procedural Control

5-80. Procedural control overcomes positive control and identification shortcomings. Procedural control relies upon techniques such as segmenting airspace by volume, time, and using weapon control statuses. Procedural techniques are usually more restrictive than positive techniques but are less vulnerable to degradation from electronic or physical attack. Procedural control enhances the continuity of operations under the adverse conditions expected on the battlefield. For example, it provides an immediate backup system should degradation of positive control occur. Additionally, procedural techniques provide a management means for air defense systems that do not have near-real-time data transmission capabilities.

Mix of Positive and Procedural Control

5-81. An optimum method of controlling air defense operations is a mix of positive and procedural techniques. Commanders charged with air battle management consider the factors of METT-TC in their analysis. They specifically focus on mission, AO, and the threat expected.

5-82. For positive management, commanders consider the numbers and types of electronic means available. This will vary according to the depth of the battlefield. As operations move farther forward, available means for positive control decrease, necessitating additional procedural management.

5-83. Air traffic behind the division generally moves in ways that are normally well suited for positive control. Air defense is usually in a critical or static asset defense role in this area. In this area of the battlefield, positive control is easier to effect and is usually the preferred method.

5-84. Forward of the corps, the generally high volume of aircraft and friendly missiles can make positive control extremely difficult. Flexible and varying missions can also necessitate more reliance on procedural control.

5-85. The nature of the theater may also dictate what type of control is used. Mature theaters have elaborate and tested electronic management facilities in place. Contingency theaters may have no such systems in place and will rely more heavily on procedural control. As the lodgment area expands and additional assets arrive in the theater, a transition to positive control may take place.

ENGAGEMENT OPERATIONS PRINCIPLES

5-86. Effective battle command enables air defense forces to successfully perform combat missions and support overall force objectives. The following fundamental principles form the basis for air defense engagement operations:

Centralized Control with Decentralized Execution

5-87. Centralized control with decentralized execution permits the full exploitation of the combat effectiveness of air defense operations at each level of command. Centralized control ensures unity of effort. Decentralized execution gives subordinate commanders the flexibility that is essential to achieve the tenet of agility.

5-88. Centralized control is essential to ensure integration and control of all air defense assets from the ADA brigade down to the ADA fire unit to maximize their collective effect on the battlefield. Centralized control also facilitates the synchronization of offensive and defensive operations within the Army and among all the participants in joint or multinational operations. In the case of Army ADA, centralized control is executed through compliance with theater ROE and AMD weapon control procedures and measures. Data integration and operational control complete the synchronization.

5-89. Decentralized execution is necessary because the number of activities associated with air defense operations prevents any one commander from effectively controlling all air defense forces and actions. Decentralized execution also enables air defense assets to maximize their individual capabilities and meet the extreme engagement time lines of air and missile threats. Thorough planning and coordination link centralized control and decentralized execution.

Air Battle Management

5-90. Airspace control and AMD engagement operations are coordinated through the principle of air battle management. Air battle management maximizes the effectiveness of both offensive and defensive operations.

5-91. Air battle management is essential in an air environment that has large quantities of both enemy and friendly air users. Current weapon systems, although highly sophisticated, do not possess infallible identification technology. Therefore, the goal of air battle management is to control the engagement of air targets, ensuring the destruction of enemy aircraft and missiles while preventing fratricide and unnecessary multiple engagements.

5-92. Coordination is necessary to prevent interference among all airspace users. As a participant in air battle management, the AMDCOORD at each level of command ensures close coordination among all airspace users. Management of the air battle employs a mix of positive and procedural control measures.

Management By Exception

5-93. The principle of management by exception reinforces the theme that no one commander can direct the overall air defense battle on a real-time basis. If a unit is operating in the decentralized mode of control for engagement operations, a higher echelon monitoring the air battle may make direct target assignments to that unit on a management by exception basis. This would be done when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution, to prevent engagement of friendly air platforms, or to prevent simultaneous engagements of hostile air targets.

ENGAGEMENT OPERATIONS PROCEDURES

5-94. Engagement operations procedures facilitate the integration of air and missile defense into both the force commander concept of the operation and the battle for air superiority. The AADC establishes and promulgates JFC approved ROE for air and missile defense.

5-95. Warning procedures and alert statuses alert, prepare, or cause units to build up for combat action. Most warning procedures and alert statuses have specific application for air and missile defense forces.

Defense Readiness Conditions

5-96. Defense readiness conditions (DEFCON) describe progressive alert postures primarily for use between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders of unified commands. Defense readiness conditions are graduated to match situations of varying military severity, and are numbered 5,4,3,2, and 1 as appropriate. Defense readiness conditions are most applicable to national missile defense.

Weapons Alert Designators

5-97. Weapons alert designators (WAD) describe a progressive system of alert postures. They are used by the AD commander to specify minimum percentages of ADA fire units within parent organizations that are required to be at given states of readiness. ADA commanders use weapons alert designators to meet the threat, provide maintenance, and allow crew rest. An example WAD system is illustrated in tables 5-3 and 5-4, page 5-22.

States of Readiness and States of Emissions Control

5-98. States of readiness (SOR) describe the degree of readiness of ADA fire units and sensors expressed in minutes from time of alert notification to time of weapon firing or sensor in operation. States of readiness can also be modified to include emission control and system configuration considerations and are then called states of emission (SOE) control. SOR and SOE are based on the WAD and air defense warning. ADA battalion commanders for their subordinate batteries, platoons, and fire units normally designate them. Additionally, SOR and SOE can be used to specify personnel manning requirements. ADA commanders use WAD, SOR, and SOE to ready the force in a logical way for action against the enemy while retaining the ability to stand down units for rest or maintenance. Table 5-5 and table 5-6, page 5-23, is an example of a sample SOR/SOE system. Actual timelines and manning requirements will be determined by theater plans or the unit TACSOP and assigned mission while taking into account the factors of METT-TC.

Table 5-3. HIMAD Weapons Alert Designators

WAD

RTF

5 min

1 hr

3 hr

6 hr

RTM

A

ALL

         

B

60%

20%

20%

     

C

40%

20%

20%

20%

   

D

30%

20%

20%

20%

10%

 

E

30%

20%

   

30%

20%

F

60%

     

20%

20%

G

50%

20%

   

30%

 

H

30%

20%

 

20%

 

30%

NOTE: x% = % of fire units. RTF = Ready to Fire. RTM = Ready to Move.

Table 5-4. SHORAD Weapons Alert Designators

WAD

RTF

5 min

15 min

30 min

1 (or more)

A

ALL

       

B

80%

10%

10%

   

C

60%

10%

20%

10%

 

D

40%

20%

 

20%

20%

E

30%

     

70%

NOTE: x% = % of fire unit at each readiness condition. RTF = Ready to Fire.

Air Defense Warnings

5-99. Air defense warnings (ADW) represent the commander's evaluation of the probability of air and/or missile attack within the AO. ADW are routinely issued by area, region, or sector AD commanders. Any commander can issue them. In no case can a commander lower ADW issued by the AD area, region, or sector commander. The issuance of an ADW is not tied to any other warning procedure or alert status. Therefore, a commander may issue an ADW irrespective of DEFCON or WAD.

5-100. ADA commanders do not change the readiness posture of their units by changing the ADW, but instead raise or lower the WAD or SOR and SOE. The three ADW are as follows:

Table 5-5. HIMAD SOR/SOE Definition

SOE 1

BS, ABT (air breathing threat)

SOE 2

BS, BM (ballistic missile)

SOE 3

Battle Passive

SOR 4

5 min

SOR 5

1 hour

SOR 6

3 hours to assume SOE 1/2/3

SOR 7

6 hours to assume SOE 1/2/3

SOR 8

Non-Mission capable status

SOR 9

Unit moving, in transition, or reduced readiness battery (RRB) status

SOR 0

Destroyed

Table 5-6. SHORAD SOR/SOE Definition

SOR 1

The team is prepared to engage targets.

SOR 2

The team is capable of engaging targets within 5 minutes.

SOR 3

The team is capable of engaging targets within 15 minutes.

SOR 4

The team is capable of engaging targets within 30 minutes.

SOR 5

The team is capable of engaging targets within 1 hour or more.

 

SOE 1

Radiating and sensor broadcast net (SBN) broadcasting.

SOE 2

Prepared to radiate (radar operating but not emitting), SBN broadcasting.

SOE 3

Prepared to radiate within 15 minutes, SBN broadcasting.

SOE 4

Prepared to radiate within 30 minutes, SBN broadcasting.

SOE 5

Prepared to radiate within 1 hour or more, SBN broadcasting.

Air Defense Emergency

5-101. Air defense emergency (ADE) is an emergency condition, declared by the Commander in Chief, North American Aerospace Defense Command. It indicates that attack upon the continental United States, Canada, or US installations in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place.

Local Air Defense Warnings

5-102. Local air defense warnings (LADW) allow the local commander to alert his force to air and/or missile attack without changing the ADW. LADW are designed to alert a particular unit, several units, or an area of the battlefield. LADW parallel ADW and reflect the local air and missile threat. Response to the LADW is METT-TC dependent. The three LADW are as follows:

Rules of Engagement

5-103. Rules of engagement (ROE) are the positive and procedural management directives that specify the circumstances and limitations under which forces will initiate or continue combat engagement with encountered forces. The JFC approves the theater ROE. These established ROE enable the AADC to retain control of the air battle by prescribing the exact conditions under which engagements may take place. ROE apply to all warfare participants in the theater and are disseminated to all echelons of air, land, and sea forces. There are seven ROE categories. The first three ROE are applicable to all air defense contributors. The others are primarily for ADA forces. The seven categories of ROE are as follows:

Right of Self Defense

5-104. Commanders at all echelons have the responsibility to take whatever action is necessary to protect their forces and equipment against air or missile attack. When under attack, the right of self-defense takes precedence over any other established rules and procedures that normally govern engagements. Self-defense operations allow friendly units to defend themselves against direct attacks or threats of attack through the use of organic weapons and systems. The right of self-defense is inherent in all ROE and weapon control procedures.

Hostile Criteria

5-105. Hostile criteria are basic rules that assist in the identification of friendly or hostile air platforms (FW/RW aircraft, CMs, UAVs). These rules are promulgated by the commanders of unified commands and by other appropriate commanders when so authorized. The commander who establishes hostile criteria parameters may consider the factors of speed, altitude, and heading or other requirements within specified volumes of airspace. The commander may also consider specific threat characteristics or hostile acts. Echelons having identification authority use hostile criteria to determine the identification of detected air targets. The highest echelon capable of managing engagement operations normally retains identification authority. Upon target detection, fire units with near-real-time data transmission capability assist the controlling authority by forwarding target information. The controlling authority makes final target identification and will delegate engagement authority. Delegation of the controlling and identification authority to lower echelons is normal for ADA and non-ADA units that do not have near-real-time transmission capability for identification data. Such units have both identification and engagement authority. Capabilities dictate that ADA units engage threatening ballistic missiles and ASMs based on classification, not identification.

Weapon Control Status

5-106. Weapon control statuses (weapons free, weapons tight, weapons hold) describe the relative degree of control of air defense fires. Weapon control statuses apply to weapon systems, volumes of airspace, or types of air platforms. The degree or extent of control varies depending on the tactical situation. Establishment of separate weapon control statuses for fixed and rotary wing aircraft, UAV and for missiles is normal. Air and missile defense forces must have the ability to receive and disseminate weapon control statuses for all classes of air platforms.

5-107. Weapons Free. Weapons can fire at any air target not positively identified as friendly. This is the least restrictive weapon control status.

5-108. Weapons Tight. Fire only at air targets that are identified as hostile according to the prevailing hostile criteria. Identification can be effected by a number of means to include visual identification (aided or unaided), electronic, or procedural means. Capabilities dictate that ADA units engage threatening ballistic missiles and ASMs based on classification, not identification.

5-109. Weapons Hold. Do not fire except in self-defense or in response to a formal order. This is the most restrictive weapon control status.

5-110. There is no difference between weapons free and weapons tight for theater missile targets. Normally, ADA units will use weapons tight to allow theater missile engagements and do not use weapons free with respect to theater missile targets.

Level of Control

5-111. Level of control describes the AD echelon at which positive management of the air battle is being conducted. This can be an AADC, RADC, SADC, ADA brigade FDC, battalion FDC, or the individual fire unit. This is the level that has engagement authority. This may be a different level for fixed-wing aircraft, rotary-wing aircraft, UAVs, and theater missiles. The AADC will specify the level of control in the air defense plan and this may change over the course of an operation.

5-112. Engagement authority is delegated to the lowest level in SHORAD fire units. HIMAD fire units normally have engagement authority for theater missile engagements; however, the engagement authority for aircraft is normally at SADC or higher.

Modes of Control

5-113. Two modes of control are centralized and decentralized. The mode of control selected will depend upon the capabilities of the C4I system, the weapon systems being employed, and both the friendly and enemy air situations. The AADC's air defense plan will specify the modes of control, trigger events when they should be changed, and who has the authority to change them.

5-114. Centralized Control Mode. This mode is when a higher echelon authorizes target engagements to fire units. Permission to engage each track must be requested by the fire unit from that higher AD echelon. Centralized control is used to minimize the likelihood of engaging friendly aircraft while permitting engagements of hostile aircraft and missiles only when specific orders are issued to initiate the engagement. Normally, centralized control is used for HIMAD aircraft engagements.

5-115. Decentralized Control. This mode is the normal wartime mode of control for air and missile defense. A higher echelon monitors unit actions, making direct target assignments on a management by exception basis to units only when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution, to prevent engagement of friendly air platforms, and to prevent simultaneous engagements of hostile air targets. Decentralized control is used to increase the likelihood that a hostile aircraft or missile will be engaged as soon as it comes within range of an ADA weapon system. Normally, SHORAD engagements are decentralized. Normally, HIMAD theater missile engagements are decentralized.

5-116. Simultaneous Use of Both Modes. Control of engagement operations during the air battle may be centralized at a higher headquarters FDC or decentralized to a subordinate FDC. Centralized control and decentralized control can be executed simultaneously. For instance, in a situation where battle management has been decentralized to the ADA brigade FDC, the ADA brigade commander exercises centralized control of subordinate units. At the same time, however, higher control echelons are continuously monitoring the actions of the brigade. These higher echelons are exercising decentralized control while the brigade commander exercises centralized control. Thus, centralized control and decentralized control are conducted simultaneously.

Autonomous Operations

5-117. Autonomous is the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons. The unit commander assumes full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets. Normally, the rules of engagement and supplemental fire control measures in effect at the time of communications loss remain in effect until communications are regained. Promulgated changes to rules of engagement and supplemental fire control measures, with effective times after communications are lost, will be implemented as scheduled.

Fire Control Orders

5-118. Fire control orders are commands that are used to control engagements on a case-by-case basis, regardless of the prevailing weapon control status. Higher control echelons when monitoring the decentralized operations of subordinate units most often use these commands. Fire control orders can be transmitted electronically or verbally; however, not all of the fire control orders shown below can or will be used by every type of ADA unit. Examples of fire control orders are explained in the following paragraphs.

5-119. Engage is used to order a unit to fire on a specific target. This order cancels any previous fire control order that may have been given on that target.

5-120. Cease engagement is used to stop tactical action against a specified target and is always followed by an engage command. This order may be used to change an ongoing engagement of one target to another of higher priority. Missiles in flight are allowed to continue to intercept. In NATO, this order may also be used to preclude simultaneous engagement of a target by more than one weapon system (does not apply to Patriot, see cease-fire).

5-121. Hold fire is an emergency fire control order used to stop firing. Missiles already in flight must be prevented from intercepting, if technically possible. This order may be used to protect friendly aircraft.

5-122. Cease-fire is given to ADA units to refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne object. Missiles in flight are allowed to continue to intercept. This command is used to prevent simultaneous target engagement by manned fighters and ADA units, or multiple ADA units.

5-123. Cover is used to order a fire unit to assume a posture that will allow engagement of a target if directed. For radar-directed systems, this means achieving a radar lock on a specified target. This order can be used for targets that are presently being engaged by another fire unit or for targets that have yet to become a significant threat. Units that receive this command report tracking, lock on, and ready to fire to higher echelons (does not apply to Patriot configuration-2; applies to Patriot configuration-3).

5-124. Engage hold (HIMAD only) is used to temporarily restrain a fire unit from automatically engaging a target. If the fire unit has not fired, target tracking continues. Missiles in flight are allowed to continue to intercept.

5-125. Stop fire is an emergency order to temporarily halt the engagement sequence due to internally unsafe fire unit conditions. It is seldom transmitted outside the fire unit. This command can by given by anyone in the fire unit who detects an unsafe condition. The engagement continues after the unsafe condition has been corrected.

Supplemental fire Control Measures

5-126. Supplemental fire control measures are procedural management measures issued by competent military authority which delineate or modify hostile criteria, delegate identification authority, or which serve strictly as aids in fire distribution or airspace control. Army commanders request the establishment of supplemental fire control measures through the A2C2 system. The approval authority is normally the ACA, who promulgates the measures in the airspace control order (ACO) and special instructions (SPINS). Supplemental fire control measures are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Air Defense Operations Area

5-127. Air defense operations area (ADOA) is an area and the airspace above it within which procedures are established to minimize mutual interference between air and missile defense and other operations. It can include designation of one or more of the following areas or zones.

5-128. Air Defense Action Area. This is an area and the airspace above it within which friendly aircraft or ADA weapons are normally given precedence in operations except under specified conditions. This type of ADOA is primarily used to minimize mutual interference between friendly aircraft and ADA weapon systems. ADOA which have been prioritized for ADA weapons are similar to restricted operations areas for aircraft, except that ADOA are normally in effect for longer periods of time.

5-129. Air Defense Area. This is a specifically defined airspace for which air and missile defense must be planned and provided. This type of ADOA is primarily used for airspace control, but may also be used to define any area within which ADA units are operating.

5-130. Air Defense Identification Zone. The air defense identification zone (ADIZ) is the airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. This type of area is normally used only for airspace control. Areas within an ADIZ will normally be characterized by extremely stringent hostile criteria and weapon control statuses.

Weapon Engagement Zone

5-131. Weapon engagement zone (WEZ) identifies a volume of defined airspace within which a specific type of AD weapon is preferred for use in an engagement. Use of WEZ does not preclude engagement of high-priority targets by more than one type of weapon system if centralized control of each weapon system involved is available. The activation of a WEZ can be used to delegate identification and engagement authority. The WEZ can be used for specific threats. For example, a manned aircraft WEZ can be established for fighters and ADA would still be able to engage missiles and UAVs.

5-132. ADA engagements within an activated WEZ can be conducted by the following regardless of the level of control, weapon control status, or hostile criteria in effect outside the activated WEZ:

5-133. Thus, an activated WEZ supplements ADA hostile criteria and is used by FDCs and fire units to make target assignments and engagement decisions. Commonly used WEZ are discussed in the following paragraphs.

5-134. Fighter Engagement Zone (FEZ). Established in an area where no effective surface-to-air capability is employed. The responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with fighter aircraft.

5-135. Missile Engagement Zone (MEZ). Volume of airspace which establishes control over engagements by HIMAD. A MEZ defines the volume of airspace within which these weapons can conduct engagements without specific direction from the authority establishing the WEZ.

5-136. Short-range Air Defense Engagement Zone (SHORADEZ). Area of SHORAD deployment that may fall within a MEZ. It is also possible that SHORAD assets may solely defend some areas. A SHORADEZ can be established to define the airspace within which these assets will operate. Because centralized control over short-range air defense weapons may not be possible, these areas must be clearly defined and promulgated so that friendly aircraft can avoid them.

5-137. Joint Engagement Zone (JEZ). Airspace of specified dimensions within which multiple air defense weapon systems (surface to air missiles and fighters) of one or more service components are simultaneously employed and operated.

High-Density Airspace Control Zone

5-138. A high-density airspace control zone (HIDACZ) is airspace of defined dimensions in which there is a concentrated employment of numerous and varied airspace users. These can include aircraft; artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire; local AD weapons; UAVs; and surface-to-surface missiles. HIDACZ are established by the ACA upon request of ground commanders. A high-density airspace control zone is established when the level and intensity of airspace operations dictate the need for special airspace control measures. The number of such zones will vary depending on the combat situation and the complexities of airspace control in conjunction with fire support coordination. The establishment of a HIDACZ normally will increase temporary airspace restrictions within the volume of defined airspace. Additionally, establishment of a HIDACZ within a maneuver area will normally give that maneuver unit commander complete weapon control status authority within the activated HIDACZ.

Weapons Free Zones

5-139. An air defense zone established for the protection of key assets. Units are at WEAPONS FREE and can fire at any air target not positively identified as friendly.

Temporary Airspace Restrictions

5-140. Temporary airspace restrictions can be imposed on segments of airspace of defined dimensions in response to specific situations and requirements. These can include close air support (CAS) operations, air-refueling areas, and concentrated interdiction areas. The promulgation of such restrictions will include the following:

5-141. Four common temporary airspace restrictions are: restricted operations areas, minimum risk routes, standard-use Army aircraft flight routes and air corridors, and sectors of fire and primary target lines. They are discussed in the following paragraphs.

5-142. Restricted Operations Area. Identifies airspace of defined dimensions within which the operation of one or more airspace users is restricted, generally for a short time. The airspace control authority establishes these areas in response to the requests of ground force commanders. Consequently, the maneuver unit commander will normally have complete weapon control status authority within an activated restricted operations area.

5-143. Restricted operations areas for air and missiles can be established to maximize ADA effectiveness. In such cases, the normal ADA weapon control status will be WEAPONS FREE.

5-144. Restricted operations areas for ADA can be established to maximize air effectiveness. In such cases, the normal ADA weapons control status will be WEAPONS HOLD.

5-145. Minimum Risk Route (MRR). Temporary corridor of defined dimensions passing in either direction through ADA defenses, a HIDACZ, or through a restricted operations area. It is designated to reduce risk to high-speed aircraft transiting the tactical operations area at low altitudes. The weapon control status for MRR will normally be maintained at WEAPONS TIGHT. Such circumstances will exist where there is inadequate timely control capability to permit a more flexible method of air defense. In such eases where friendly air does not use MRR, it is recognized that established AD procedures will apply. Low-level transit routes are the NATO equivalent of MRR.

5-146. The weapon control status for ADA fire units whose engagement ranges intercept an activated MRR remains at WEAPONS TIGHT for that part of the route. Should it become necessary to change to WEAPONS FREE, the commander who established it will close that particular route.

5-147. Standard-use Army Aircraft Flight Routes. Temporary air corridors of defined dimensions established below the coordinating altitude to allow the Army commander to safely route movement of aviation assets performing combat support and combat service support missions. They normally are located in the corps through brigade rear areas but may be extended to support logistics missions. Air corridors are restricted routes of travel specified for use by friendly Army aircraft and established to prevent friendly forces from firing on friendly aircraft.

5-148. The weapon control status for ADA fire units whose engagement ranges intercept an activated standard-use Army aircraft route or air corridor remains at WEAPONS TIGHT for that part of the route or corridor. Should it become necessary to change to WEAPONS FREE, the commander who established it will close that particular route. Procedures for deconfliction of friendly surface-to-surface missile firings and UAV operations can be found in Joint Pub 3-55.1 and FM 100-103-1.

5-149. Sectors of Fire and Primary Target Lines (PTL). PTLs are established to assist in the distribution of ADA fires. Sectors of fire for HIMAD are normally designated at battalion after review of radar coverage diagrams. The battery commander or platoon leader normally designates sectors of fire or PTLs for SHORAD. These limits must be clearly defined by right and left azimuths. Those ADA units with automated tactical data systems must know whether they are to assign and engage air targets within or beyond the stated sector boundaries.