Index FM 44-100 Air and Missile Defense Operations
PRELIMINARY DRAFT May 1999



APPENDIX B

ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE PLANNING

This appendix describes planning for air and missile defense operations. Battle command and staff procedures contained in FM 101-5 are the basis for ADA procedures. This chapter highlights the specific requirements of the AD estimate and annex. The estimate process assists the force commander in decision making. The ADA commander prepares the air and missile defense estimate. Planning begins with the receipt of a warning order. After the force commander approves a course of action, a warning order is sent out and the air and missile defense planning process continues. The end result of this process is the air and missile defense annex detailing air and missile defense support for the concept of the operation.

PREPARING THE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE

The military decision-making process (MDMP) is the Army's analytical approach to problem solving. The MDMP is a tool that assists the commander and staff in developing estimates and a plan. Figure B-1 shows the MDMP. The military decision-making process has seven steps that all begin with inputs built upon previous steps. Each step has outputs that drive subsequent steps. The decision-making process begins with the receipt or anticipation of a new mission. This can come from orders issued by higher headquarters or derived from an ongoing operation. Estimates go on continuously to provide input for the MDMP. Estimates are revised when important new information is received or when the situation changes significantly. Figure B-2 shows an example of the integrated staff planning process. Estimates are evaluations of how factors in each field of interest will influence the courses of action the commander considers. Although the estimate of the situation lies first and foremost in the commander's mind, staff estimates help the commander determine feasible, suitable, and acceptable courses of action. Staff estimates help the commander gather, update, analyze, evaluate, and validate critical facts, assumptions, and events. The estimate also allows the commander to formulate conclusions based on each staff's estimate.

Estimates provide the basis for logically and analytically developing solutions to situations (both in planning future operations and fighting current operations). The staff recommends how the commander can employ the command's available assets. The commander uses this information to reach decisions.

Once a mission is received, the estimate process begins. The ADA commander develops the air and missile defense estimate in concert with the force S3 or G3. The ADA commander uses the IPB during the estimate process. The ADA commander gathers and analyzes facts and makes assumptions. He will use these facts and assumptions to develop logical courses of action. The commander then chooses the course of action that best supports the mission.

Figure B-1. The Military Decision-making Process

After the force commander selects a course of action, the air and missile defense planning process continues. The result of this process is the air and missile defense annex detailing air and missile defense support for the concept of the operation.

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE

The air and missile defense estimate follows the basic staff estimate format. The air and missile defense estimate provides information regarding the air and missile defense supportability of proposed courses of action. It also provides recommended air and missile defense priorities and an air and missile defense scheme of maneuver. This information forms a basis for the air and missile defense plan and is presented in the air and missile defense annex.

The estimate must be constantly reevaluated to keep it current. The factors of METT-TC, OCOKA, and other considerations guide the ADA commander and staff during the estimate and subsequent planning. The degree of detail presented in the estimate depends on the planning time available. However, all elements of the estimate must be considered to make valid recommendations. The Air and Missile Defense Estimate Situation Overview illustration shows the relationship among troop-leading procedures, decision making, estimate of the situation, and IPB. The Estimate of the Air and Missile Defense Situation illustration shows a supporting commander's or operations estimate. The Air and missile defense Estimate provided is in accordance with FM 101-5.

INTEGRATED STAFF PLANNING PROCESS

DIVISION

ADA BN

BRIGADE

BATTERY

NEW MISSION

ADCOORD NOTIFIES BN CDR

   
       

WARNING ORDER

WARNING ORDER

WARNING ORDER

WARNING ORDER

       

MISSION ANALYSIS/

UNDERSTAND DIV CDR’S

   

DIVISION CDR’S GUIDE

INTENT

 

BATTERIES PROVIDE

     

AD TO BDES IF

STAFF ESTIMATE

1. GATHER INFO

POSTURE FOR

MOVEMENT TO NEW

DEVELOP COAs

2. ADCOORD DEVELOPS

NEW MISSION

LOCATIONS OCCURS (AAs

 

ABBREVIATED ADA EST

 

CONVOYS, ET CETERA)

 

3. BN CDR ISSUES INTENT

   
 

4. DEVELOP DST

   
       

WAR-GAME COAs

INITIATE DSM (LESS ADA)

   
       
 

CDR/BN STAFF/ADCOORD

   
 

WAR-GAME

   
       
 

REFINE DST

   
       


DECIDE ON COA

ALLOCATE ADA (BN CDR)

 

BATTERY LINKS UP

     

WITH SUPPORTED BDES

 

ADCOORD WRITES ADA

   
 

ANNEX

LEADER RECON

 
   

-- INTENT

 
 

FINALIZE DSM

-- TASKO

 
       


ISSUE/BRIEF DSM TO

 

PROVIDES TO BCs

 

BTRY CDRs/SENSOR

 

AND STAFF:

 

PLT/STAFF

 

--AIR IPB

     

--AAAD TGTS

 

ADCOORD RECOMMENDS/

 

--A2C2 PLAN

 

COORDINATES PIRs WITH

 

-- LOG SPT PLAN

 

DIV STAFF

 

-- ADA CONCEPT

       

PUBLISH ORDER

 

STAFF ESTIMATES

 
       

DIV REHEARSE

REHEARSE WITH DIV

BDE COA DECISION

STAFF COORD

   

RECOM COA

     

DST DEVEL

     

LINK UP COMPLETE

       
   

OPORD REHEARSAL

 
       
   

BDE REHEARSAL

REHEARSE WITH BDE

   

UPDATE DST





ADA BN REHEARSAL

 
     
   

REFINE DST

BATTERY REHEARSAL

       

EXECUTE

EXECUTE

EXECUTE

EXECUTE

       

Figure B-2. INTEGRATED STAFF PLANNING PROCESS

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE FORMAT

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE

(Classification)

Headquarters

Place

Date, time, and zone

Message reference number

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____

References: Maps, charts, or other documents.

Time Zone Used Throughout the Estimate:

1. MISSION

When the estimate's purpose is to support the force level commander's operation, use the force level commander's mission statement. As the commander or operations officer, use the unit's mission statement when the estimate's purpose is to determine which course of action best accomplishes the support mission.

(Classification)

ESTIMATE OF THE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE SITUATION (Continued)

(Classification)

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____

2. SITUATION AND CONSIDERATIONS

This paragraph describes the conditions under which the unit will perform its mission and the possible courses of action of the supported force.

  1. Characteristics of area of operation. For this paragraph, determine those factors of the situation which influence friendly and enemy actions and which, therefore, may influence the choice of a course of action. In the absence of facts, use logical assumptions that might directly affect the mission. Includes analysis of the effects of pertinent characteristics on conducting air and missile defense operations

  1. Weather. Put the analysis of data from predicted weather and light conditions for the period in this paragraph. Assess how the weather affects friendly operations. Also include the evaluation of how weather and light conditions might affect the use of enemy UAVs; missiles; aircraft, both fixed and rotary-wing; and airborne or air assault operations. Try to determine or predict when the enemy will probably use those assets due to the weather.
  2. Terrain. Analyze the effects of terrain, including effects on observation and fire; cover and concealment; movement (surface and air); employment of friendly and enemy NBC weapons; communications, electronic warfare and combat surveillance; unconventional warfare; psychological operations; and other aspects of military operations. Determine key terrain and air avenues of approach. Also discuss terrain features that limit air vehicle detection or target acquisition and terrain that might canalize or force air targets to fly a particular profile. Try to determine where the enemy will most probably use air assets.
  3. Other pertinent factors. List analysis of political, economic, sociological, psychological, and other factors (such as hydrography, environment, communications, science, technology, materiel, transportation, safety and accident prevention, and manpower). Include deduction about their effects on friendly and enemy operations.

(b) Enemy Forces. A threat evaluation discusses enemy capabilities that are or may be a threat to the operation.

    1. Disposition. List locations of enemy forces that will participate in air or missile operations or that threaten friendly air and missile defense operations. Determine combinations of air platforms that the enemy may use when conducting a particular type of operation.
    2. Composition. The enemy organization for combat includes identity of units, types of air platforms and missiles, and armament. Also address how many sorties and missiles are expected to be flown per day, and possible composition of those sorties.
    3. (Classification)

      ESTIMATE OF THE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE SITUATION (Continued)

      (Classification)

      AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____

    4. Strength. Numbers and sizes of committed and reinforcing units. Consider the location of the enemy, enemy doctrine, and the unit's mission. Identify air and missile assets and air support units that could or may affect the operation. When, where, and how many air platforms will the enemy fly during this operation?
    5. Other considerations. Enemy forces not discussed above.
    6. Recent and present significant activities. Summary of recent enemy activities that were both successful and unsuccessful. Highlight any enemy air activity to include number, type of air platforms, and locations.
    7. Peculiarities and weaknesses. Indicate enemy peculiarities and weaknesses that might influence combat effectiveness, including vulnerability to deception.
    8. Enemy Courses of Action. A compilation of available information from which to draw conclusions about possible enemy air courses of action and how they relate to the enemy ground courses of action.

(c) Friendly forces. The friendly force air and missile defense disposition, composition, and strength. Highlight the vulnerability of the force to enemy air and missile attacks and surveillance.

    1. Friendly courses of action. State the force commander's course of action. Include any guidance which affects air and missile defense operations. Include description of any phasing of operations in the courses of action and the impact of those operations on support relationships or requirements.
    2. Current status of resources within staff area of responsibility. The status of personnel and logistics in the unit. Identify civil-military operations requirements. Identify limitations which affect or may affect the conduct of air and missile defense operations. Can the mission be accomplished?
    3. Current status of other resources that affect Air and missile defense area of responsibility.
    4. Comparison of requirements versus capabilities and recommended solutions.
    5. Key considerations (evaluation criteria) for COA supportability.
    1. Assumptions.

3. ANALYSIS

Analyze each COA using evaluation criteria to determine advantages and disadvantages. Identify those aspects in the commander's plan which create difficulty in providing air and missile defense and affect the ability of the force to accomplish its mission.

4. COMPARISON

Compare COAs using evaluation criteria. Rank order COAs for each key consideration. Comparison should be visually supported by a decision matrix. Present an air and missile defense course of action for each of the supported force courses of action. Each ADA course of action presented should include the following aspects:

(Classification)

ESTIMATE OF THE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE SITUATION (Continued)

(Classification)

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____

5. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS

a. Recommended COA based on the comparison

________________________

NAME

RANK

(Air Defense Coordinator)

ANNEXES: (as required)

(Classification)

PREPARING THE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ANNEX

The estimate of the situation assists the commander in determining the most suitable course of action to accomplish the mission. Once the commander makes this decision and clearly articulates the intent, the staff prepares OPLANs and OPORDs.

The ADCOORD must conduct detailed coordination with other staff sections to develop this annex. The ADCOORD derives information affecting the air and missile defense annex from other staff estimates. Additionally, the air and missile defense estimate helps drive these other staff estimates.

AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE ANNEX

The ADCOORD writes the plan as a five-paragraph annex to the supported unit's OPLAN or OPORD. See the Anex G (Air and missile defense) to OPORD illustration. The air and missile defense annex assigns specific air and missile defense missions each unit must accomplish. Concurrently or sequentially, ADA units may be preparing their own OPLANs or OPORDs.

ANNEX G (AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE) TO OPORD

ANNEX G (AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE) TO OPORD

(Classification)

Copy___of___copies

Issuing headquarters

Place of Issue

Date-time group of signature

Message reference number

ANNEX G (AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE) TO OPORD_____

References: Maps, charts, or other relevant documents.

Time Zone Used Throughout the Order:

Task Organization

  1. SITUATION

  1. Enemy. See Annex B (Intelligence).
  2. (1)Terrain. Identify most likely enemy ingress and egress routes.

    (2) Weather. Identify enemy aircraft all-weather capabilities and limitations.

    (3) Enemy air capability and or activity.

    (a) Air threat data. List air-capable organizations including air platforms by number and type.

    (b) Additional air threat information. List air threat information pertinent to the operation but not covered in the Intelligence Annex. Highlight specific air threat considerations like sortie rates, subordination of air elements to ground units, ordnance peculiarities, target preferences, tactics, and recent significant activities.

    (c) Air avenues of approach. List all expected air avenues of approach and identify by air platform their potential users. List all known beginning points and describe avenue of approach as it goes through the area of interest.

    (Classification)

  3. Friendly situation. ADA mission at all applicable levels. Describe how the air and missile defense plan integrates with higher echelon plans.

    1. Higher units. Outline higher AD unit intent and plans.
    2. Adjacent units. Outline adjacent AD unit intent and plans.

(3) Supporting elements. Note supporting units and support relationship.

c. Attachments and detachments. Identify air and missile defense resources attached from other commands and identify those air and missile defense resources detached.

2. MISSION

Who, what, when, where, how, and why statement of the mission for the air and missile defense artillery unit.

3. EXECUTION

  1. Scheme of ADA support. Commanders overall ADA plan to include the intent, objectives, and priorities.
  2. Tasks to subordinate ADA units. Briefly discuss ADA plan, command and support relationships, and priority of protection.

  1. Coordinating instructions. Instructions applicable to two or more subordinate units. Include references to other applicable annexes.

    1. ADW and ADW authority. LADW and LADW authority also.
    2. WCS and WCS authority. Include any plans to change WCS.
    3. Hostile criteria. Basic rules the commander has established to assist in the identification of friendly or hostile air vehicles. Include preplanned changes.
    4. Rules of engagement. Address ROE unique to the operation or points in the operation where changes are intended. Include use of supplemental fire control measures.
    5. Passive air and missile defense. Specific passive air and missile defense measures that all units should take to protect themselves from air and missile attack or surveillance during this operation.
    6. Combined arms for air defense. Briefly discuss specific techniques units should use to help in defending themselves against an air or missile attack or surveillance.

(7) Early warning. Review method and format for passing early warning to the entire force.

4. SERVICE SUPPORT

See Service Support Annex.

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL

    1. Command.

    1. ADA CP locations.
    2. Succession of command.

    1. Signal. See Signal Annex.

    1. IFF code edition and book number.

(2) Communications links for early warning equipment.

ACKNOWLEDGE:

OFFICIAL: NAME (Commander's last name)

APPENDIXES: RANK (Commander's rank)

APPENDIXES:

DISTRIBUTION: