Table of
Contents

APPENDIX B

PATRIOT BATTALION EQUIPMENT AND ORGANIZATION

This appendix provides a physical description of Patriot equipment and support equipment organic to the battalion.
Patriot is an AD guided missile system designed to cope with the AD threat beyond the year 2000. The threat characteristically employs defense suppression tactics using TBMs, saturation, maneuver, and electronic countermeasures (ECM). Patriot is effective against aircraft at all altitudes and against several types of TBMs using automated operations with capability for human intervention.

SYSTEM FEATURES

The single, multifunction phased-array radar performs the following functions that required separate radars in older systems:

The missile is command-guided by the radar to a point just prior to intercept. At this point, the unique track-via-missile (TVM) guidance mode begins. The radar set (RS) sends out a special waveform that illuminates the target and sends an uplink message that commands the missile to open its receiver for detection of reflected TVM waveform energy from the target. The missile encodes and sends boresight errors via downlink messages back to the radar. Guidance computations are then made by the engagement control station (ECS) and are sent back through the radar to the missile, via uplink messages. This process continues until intercept, providing a greater accuracy than other types of guidance systems.

The automated operation provides firepower at saturation levels many times greater than earlier systems, in addition to a multiple simultaneous engagement capability. Built-in test equipment (BITE) and automated diagnostics, along with fewer system-peculiar major items, provide a significant improvement in availability and maintainability. Figure B-1 portrays the scheme of operations of a Patriot battalion and provides the principal functions of each major item.

PATRIOT SYSTEM OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW

The Patriot system has four major operational functions.

The four functions combine to provide a coordinated, secure, integrated, battalion-level, and mobile AD system. The Patriot system is capable of defending assets and areas in support of Army field forces against multiple hostile TBMs and aircraft in an ECM environment (jamming and deception). Figure B-2 shows the operational interfaces within the Patriot battalion and the external interfaces with brigade and other AD elements.

The ICC provides the Patriot system with automatic data processing (ADP) and communications capabilities required to operate with other AD systems. The ICC communicates with the BTOC using the Army tactical data link-1 (ATDL-1) and TADIL-B. The Patriot ICC may be interconnected with other weapons and surveillance systems such as USAF tactical air control and tactical air defense systems (TACS and TADS) plus USAF air defense command and Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS). The BTOC equipment also provides a link with Hawk AD units.

Three radio systems provide the Patriot battalion and fire unit communications. The first is the direct link between battalion to brigade communications link via the multiple subscriber equipment (MSE). The second is a UHF pulse-coded modulation data or voice communications system operating through radio relay terminals (RRTs) in the ICC and ECS. An additional unit, the CRG, also contains radio relay terminals. The third is a very high frequency (VHF) voice communications system used for tactical intrabattalion communications (battery-to-battery and battery-to-battalion).

Patriot fire control communications are provided by three RRTs in each ICC and ECS, and four RRTs in each CRG. Although primarily for data transmission, the RRTs can be used for voice communications. When the terrain makes direct line-of-sight paths impossible, intermediate stations are required. At each end of a UHF data link is an antenna mast group (AMG) with four rotatable, directional parabolic antennas, on two pneumatically erected masts. Each antenna assembly includes a power amplifier for each RRT and circulator-isolators for simultaneous transmitting and receiving with one antenna. The antennas are oriented toward other AMG locations to form a UHF data link network.

DATA LINK TERMINAL

The data link terminal (DLT) is a secondary VHF link that transfers missile initiation, pointing, and launcher commands from the ECS to each launching station (LS). Launcher status signals are returned to the ECS to acknowledge command receipt (primary link is fiber optics [FO]).

CENTRALIZED AND DECENTRALIZED

The Patriot system can operate as a centralized or decentralized battalion command system. FUs can operate autonomously if the tactical situation or communications failure make it necessary. Target evaluation, threat ordering, and engagement decision and weapon assignment (EDWA) is performed through the ICC and ECS man-machine interface. Evaluation and engagement decisions can be semiautomatic via operator response to console displays and indicators in the ICC and ECS, or automatic with the operator retaining override capability over the weapons control computer (WCC).

PATRIOT BATTERY EQUIPMENT

The heart of the Patriot battery is the fire control section and associated launchers. The fire control section consists of an ECS, AMG, RS, EPP, and eight LSs. The primary mode of emplacement is automatic (secondary is manual, as described in FM 44-85-1[TBP]). Once emplaced, the FU enters the initialization phase of operations. In initialization, the crew enters all data required for tactical operations into the WCC database. This data includes masked terrain mapping of the assigned sector. Once the crew has completed initialization and entered all locally required operating data and or received transferred data from the ICC, and put all required equipment on-line, the battalion grants approval for the FU to assume tactical operations.

Upon termination of tactical operations from an occupied site, the FU can be march ordered and moved to a new presurveyed tactical site. The FU can accomplish several such moves and tactical emplacements in 24 hours.

ENGAGEMENT CONTROL STATION

The ECS is the only manned station in the FU (see Figure B-3) during battle engagements. The ECS controls the LSs via FO cable, with VHF radio data link as a backup. Data cables connect the RS and AMG with the ECS. The AMG provides the communications link with adjacent fire units and the battalion ICC.

The ECS is the operational control center of the Patriot FU. It contains the WCC, man-machine interface, and various data and communications terminals.

The ECS is air-conditioned and includes a positive pressure air filtration device and a modular-collective protective entrance (MCPE) forced-air entry lock for use in an NBC environment. Additionally, the ECS is equipped with devices which afford the shelter electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection in a nuclear environment.

External characteristics of the ECS include radio frequency (RF) communications antennas, air entry and exhaust ducts, a crew doorway, front-end air conditioners, radar control and prime-power cable entry ports, and a gas particulate filter unit (GPFU). The walls and inlets include electromagnetic shielding.

The curbside of the ECS contains a VHF digital data link (DDL) antenna carried horizontally during road march. During emplacement, the crew assembles the antenna and raises it to a vertical position. This provides secondary radio communications with the LSs.

A ladder and rear entry door provide access to the shelter. Four air inlets and two exhaust fan assemblies on the forward end, and two air inlets and two exhaust fan assemblies aft near the doorway of the shelter (see Figure B-4) provide cooling air for the equipment, except UHF radio stacks which are cooled by outside air.

Terminal boxes on the forward exterior wall of the shelter provide interconnection points for power and control cables to the EPP and a single data cable to the radar. Cables to the AMG exit via connectors on the aft roadside.

The air-conditioning system which cools, heats, and ventilates the interior of the ECS includes two air conditioners which recirculate inside shelter air mixed with external air.

In NBC situations, where outside air is contaminated, the ventilating air for the ECS is drawn through a GPFU housed below the air conditioners. Particulate filters and blowers have sufficient capacity to provide a purified forced-air supply for an air-shower in the shelter entry lock. In the NBC environment, the MCPE provides a cleaning area for personnel about to enter the ECS. Note: Outside air is used to cool the UHF radio stacks, therefore, under NBC conditions, the doors to the stacks should remain closed. If they must be opened in an NBC environment, the van should be considered contaminated and all necessary measures taken.

ENGAGEMENT CONTROL STATION SHELTER

The ECS shelter is a radio frequency interference (RFI) and weather-tight enclosure with appropriate air inlet and exhaust ports for the environmental control systems. The shelter is of standard type construction with equipment mounted at the forward end and on both sides of the center aisle.

Interior of the ECS

The interior of the ECS is shown in Figure B-5. At the forward end are two operator stations, a BITE status panel, FU status panel, an environmental control panel (air conditioner controls, ambient air controls, and lighting controls), generator control panel, hard copy unit (HCU), and power distribution unit (PDU). The left side as seen from the doorway (roadside) includes three UHF RRTs and a voice communications station (MS2). The right side (curbside) includes the VHF data link terminal, radar weapon control interface unit (RWCIU), WCC, and auxiliary communications equipment.

The Computer

The computer within the Patriot system (see Figure B-6) is a 24-bit parallel militarized computer with fixed and floating point capability. The WCC is organized in a multiprocessor configuration which operates at a maximum clock rate of 6 megahertz.

Weapons control computer. The WCC provides the necessary data processing for the Patriot FU, including capability for communications with other FUs or battalions through a routing logic radio interface unit (RLRIU).

The major subsystems within the computer system are the--

The WCC configuration consists of two CPUs, one IOCU, and 512K of main memory.

Central processing unit. The WCC CPU exhibits a broad variety of instructions and addressing modes as well as processing power. Each CPU has a maximum computational capability of one million ads per second (MAPS), permitting a dual central processing unit multiprocessor configuration to exhibit a two-MAPS capability.

Input/output control unit. The IOCU controls and communicates with all external interfacing subsystems. All data in the memory is accessible by the IOCU at a one word per microsecond rate.

Monolithic memory unit. The building blocks of the WCC memory system are two monolithic memory drawers which contain plug-in medium scale integration modules. Memory blocks of 32K may be added or removed from each drawer. Maximum memory storage is eight blocks of 32K per drawer (256K) or 512K per system.

Peripheral control unit. The PCU is used to interconnect the hard copy unit (HCU), the recovery storage unit (RSU), the mass storage unit (MSU), and the computer maintenance panel (CMP) with the computer.

Weapons control computer peripherals. The WCC peripherals which are controlled by the PCU consist of the following:

Hard copy unit. The HCU provides printouts of selected tabular displays, fault detection and assessment data, and communications messages received by the FU. Printout is initiated by the operator pressing the hardcopy key on the keyboard.

Recovery storage unit. The RSU is a high-speed dual tape drive used for loading computer programs into the WCC memory. Initialization programs, operating programs, diagnostic programs, and data may be loaded via tape cassettes. The RSU is also used to restore the complete contents of the computer memory in case of EMP or other electromagnetic transient which may garble or erase any portion of that content. Following initialization, the tape in the RSU will contain a duplicate set of the program and particular site data as stored in the computer memory.

Mass storage unit. Four tape transporters and associated interface electronics comprise an MSU. The MSU is used for loading computer programs into the WCC memory and is also used to store the operational maintenance procedures and the troop proficiency trainer (TPT) scenarios.

Computer maintenance panel. The CMP is used for manual testing of the WCC. The switches on this panel setup, select, and control computer tests. Panel indicators show data register contents. The computer maintenance panel indicators also monitor WCC power supply, data parity, and clock functions.

COMPUTER PROGRAMS

A number of WCC programs direct the operation of the Patriot FU equipment. The following paragraphs group the programs according to functions.

System Initialization

This group of programs performs the functions of loading all necessary data into the WCC and other special purpose computers in the RS, collecting and storing site-peculiar data (such as radar orientation coverage boundaries, horizon map, and masked regions), establishing equipment operability, and loading the system operational programs. The system is capable of rapid reinitialization in the event of an EMP occurrence (which could destroy data within the digital computers) or when the system has been down for repair. The RSU provides this capability using the recovery data tape.

System Operation

System operation of WCC programs provide centralized real-time control of all elements of the fire unit. The following discrete functions are included:

These operational programs also evaluate all target track and environment data to determine which targets are hostile and threatening and in what order the system should engage them for maximum effectiveness. Results of this evaluation are presented to the operators. Depending on the mode of operation, the system will either automatically execute the engagements or wait for the operator to command engage. The operator can override any automatic engagement decision.

Diagnostics

This group of programs provides for rapid location of failed components and a check for proper operation after repair. The operator selects and loads the program based on information obtained from the status monitoring function. The fault isolation display-aided procedures called up by the operator will display the step-by-step repair procedures to permit the operator to isolate the problem.

Training

Proficiency training is provided by a set of programs which, with associated scenario tapes, constitute the troop proficiency trainer, terrain map trainer, and on-line training mode.

DISPLAY AND CONTROL GROUP

The focal control point and nerve center for the Patriot FU is located at the display and control group in the ECS. At this position, the operators monitor plan-position indicator scopes and surrounding indicator lamps and readouts. The combined assemblage of readouts provides them with the data required to operate and control the system.

The operators can select fully automatic modes and act as FU monitors with a command option for interceding. They can also select semiautomatic modes in which they exercise preselected C2 options according to the TSOP.

CONTROL INDICATOR PANEL

The control indicator panel (Figure B-7) provides the controls and displays necessary to oversee the local tactical environment and call up specific categories and classes of information. Typical display data include zones of coverage, friendly and hostile targets, and electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM).

Situation Display Presentation

A situation display presentation can be overlayed with diverse types of symbols, boundary lines, grids, and alphanumeric statements and tables. It can be enlarged or reduced, lined into zones, segmented into coverage areas, overlayed with chosen categories of symbols and tracks, and configured with computer commentaries and or listings of data.

Controls and Displays

Push buttons, shown in Figure B-7, provide the operator with the means to control the fire unit.

Console mode. The following four push buttons select the operational mode for the console:

Situation display select. The following eight map data options are available for zones and geographic data to be painted on the display scope:

Track data. The following-thirteen options are available to call up particular categories of display information:

Offset/scale. The following five options are available to offset and or magnify the scope display in addition to clutter map updating:

Tab display select. The following options instruct the WCC to format and display tabular listings of data:

Acknowledge control. This acknowledges alerts presented on display, erasing them, and silencing any audible alarm.

Engagement mode. This is provided to select either the semiautomatic or automatic engagement mode.

Engagement initiate. This provides the following actions:

Low power. This push button reduces transmitter radiated power.

Engagement override. This push button provides the following three options to inhibiting engagement of individual targets:

Radiate. This switch/indicator (S/I) ceases or resumes radar radiation.

Track evaluate. For individual targets, the operator can--

System control. Functional push buttons allow the operator to select the FU method of control and weapon control status (WCS) as follows:

Radar, IFF, and launcher control.

Radar, IFF, and launcher control push buttons, divided into four categories, allow the operator to--

CONTROL KEYBOARD ASSEMBLY

The control keyboard assembly provides an alphanumeric keyboard and accessory controls for communications with the WCC. The assembly, which is positioned at table top height in front of the operator, provides controls and options (Figure B-8).

STATUS PANEL

The status panel (Figure B-9) is located above and between the two fire control operator consoles. This panel provides color-coded indicator lamps and numerical readouts indicating the C2 status and the GO/NO-GO conditions of FU equipment, communications links, and the LSs.

Indicator lamps and readouts labeled A to H provide the following:

BUILT-IN TEST EQUIPMENT PANEL

The built-in test equipment (BITE) panel is a multiple-purpose display unit located above the left console. The display panel switches and indicators are labeled A through G in Figure B-10.

RADAR WEAPONS CONTROL INTERFACE UNIT

Digital data link communications between the ECS and the radar are carried on a single multiconductor cable interfaced at both ends with an RWCIU. At the ECS end of the cable, the RWCIU accepts a 32-bit operational code and status words from the WCC and translates them to serial format. The individual bits are then sent to the radar. The unit demodulates and translates incoming signals for interface with the WCC.

At the radar end of the cable, an RWCIU receiver decodes the WCC messages for use in timing, code selection, transmitter control, beam pointing, switching, and mode control of the receiver ground processor. Messages returned from the radar provide all necessary data for display and WCC processing.

UHF TRANSMITTER-RECEIVER TERMINALS

These are the "UHF stacks" found inside the ICC, ECS, and CRG shelters. Each of these shelters has the same RRT stacks.

Each RRT consists of an AN/GRC-103 radio, a KG-194A security device, a multiplexer TD-660, and a high-speed serial data buffer TD-1065. All of these items, together with one AMG antenna (or shelter corner reflector antenna) form one terminal of a UHF line-of-sight microwave radio link providing 12 communications channels. The circuits are routed through the communications patching panel for convenience in cabling. One channel of each UHF radio is dedicated for data. The remaining 11 channels of each RRT can be interconnected or connected to the modems (ICC and CRG), to the party-line hybrids, or to the external lines by means of patch cords.

DATA LINK TERMINAL

The data link terminal (DLT) is shown in Figure B-11. The equipment incorporates several communications security (COMSEC) and ECCM features for secure communications exchanges with the LS.

The single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS) is a family of standard military VHF-FM, voice, and digital data communications systems. COMSEC is accomplished by means of a TSEC/KY-57. Modes of operation include single channel (SC) and frequency hopping (FH) in either voice or digital data. The AN/VRC-90 provides the VHF radio data link between the ECS and LS and is the primary backup to the FO cable.

The processor feeds data to and from the FO interfaces or the AN/VRC-90 under control of the WCC and the RLRIU. The slave bus unit (SBU) provides the interface between the processor and master bus unit (MBU) in the ECS, and the processor and FO interface unit in the LS.

The MBU provides control and timing for the ECS SBU and develops the output power required for transmission to all LSs through the FO cable. The MBU can be operated as an SBU when two or more MBUs are in a net.

VOICE COMMUNICATIONS

The ECS voice communications system (see Figure B-12) consists of two VHF transmitter-receivers and encrypting devices. The ECS can conduct secure voice communications with the FU voice net and the command net and can monitor the administrative net. Interconnections with the radio link are made by means of operator control units located at the--

The communications patching panel is located on the forward interior roadside of ECS, ICC, and CRG shelters.

ROUTING LOGIC RADIO INTERFACE UNIT

The RLRIU (Figure B-13) provides the interface between the computer and the DLT, the computer and the UHF terminals, and between the UHF terminals.

The functions provided by the RLRIU at the ECS include message buffering, message validation, message packet processing, bit timing, built-in test, message accounting for multiple routing, UHF link error monitoring, Patriot AD information language transmission formatting, and housekeeping functions.

WIRE COMMUNICATIONS

The ECS, ICC, and CRG have external land line connections. Land lines will allow the following capabilities:

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

The ECS shelter is divided into a sealed electronics equipment area and an operator compartment.

The air conditioners cool the operator compartment in hot weather and warm it in winter. The environmental control panel (Figure B-14) for the air conditioners and the ambient air cooling system status panel for the equipment cooling outside air fans are located above the curbside operator.

The ECS is equipped with an alarm to alert the operators when pressure has been lost and NBC masking is required. The unit feeds filtered outside makeup air into the air conditioner ventilation system.

In contaminated, or potentially contaminated environments, the GPFU unit provides a purified air flow to an air shower in a sealed air lock modular collective protection equipment mounted and sealed over the ECS entry door. The crew entering the MCPE shelter will decontaminate themselves, remove protective clothing, and then enter the ECS through the normal crew access door.

The air-conditioning system maintains a higher than atmospheric pressure within the shelter. Any leakage is from inside to outside, thereby preventing contaminated air seepage into the operator compartment.

POWER

A three-phase, 400-hertz power cable and a control and status monitoring cable connect the ECS to the electric power plant (EPP). A generator control panel (Figure B-15) located between the two operators allows them to monitor the status of the EPP. The panel also provides power switches for the ECS and RS and emergency controls to shut down the EPP.

The power distribution panel mounts circuit breakers and run time meters for shelter equipment. It is located between the two operator stations at floor level.

PATRIOT BATTALION FIRE DIRECTION CENTER EQUIPMENT

The Patriot FDC is located in the battalion ICC shelter.

SHELTERS

With a few exceptions, the ICC shelter configuration is identical to that of the ECS. The ICC, shown in Figure B-16, is housed in the same type of shelter as the ECS; it contains the same environmental and power control assemblies, the same UHF equipment, the same two display consoles (the status panel has labeling and functions consistent with battalion operations), and the same peripheral equipment for the WCC. Its computer is the same basic unit as that of the ECS. A modification to the ICC has added a second CPU to meet Patriot-Hawk interoperability requirements.

A few physical differences distinguish the ICC from the ECS. The ECS contains the RWCIU and the VHF data link terminal, and the external VHF antenna mast. These items are not in the ICC. The ICC contains modems to permit communications with AD elements that do not use the Patriot data information link. The dimensions and weight of the ICC are listed in the section, Tactical Equipment, Weights and Dimensions, at the end of this appendix.

COMPUTER PROGRAMS

The ICC computer programs process the data received from the battalion's FUs, from adjacent AD elements, and from higher echelons. The ICC facilities allow efficient and effective coordination of all operations, including engagement actions of FUs under its command. These programs are organized in groups similar to those described for the ECS.

System Initialization

This group performs the collection and storing of all necessary data relative to the deployment of the organization. This includes location and orientation of FUs in the organization; location, size, and value of defended assets; friendly aircraft protection boundaries; and restricted zones. The ICC can assist in loading much of their required database via the UHF data link.

Deployment Command Plan

The deployment and or command plan function provides the battalion commander with the capability to alter the tactical database or to plan future battalion deployments. The database contains tactical information, FU locations, communications antenna azimuth and linkages, identification data, and engagement parameters. It is preplanned and stored on tape for rapid access and transmission.

Air Defense Mission

The battalion receives its AD mission in the form of assets or forces to be defended. Before these can be assigned to any FU, at least one deployment must be designed. Two more designs relative to the mission for each FU may be prepared later during tactical operations.

System Operation

These programs control the display and communications equipment within the ICC on a real-time basis. They also perform the following command and coordination functions:

Diagnostics

This group of programs, very similar to those at the ECS, provide automated assistance for rapid location of failed components within the ICC. The fault isolation display aided procedures called up by the operator will display the step-by-step repair procedures to permit the operator to isolate the problem.

Training

The ICC program package includes a TPT software package. The TPT assists the unit in the sustainment of operator proficiency. The FUs additionally have the terrain map trainer (TMT) for operator mapping proficiency.

ELECTRIC POWER UNIT

The EPU II is the prime power source for the ICC and CRG. The EPU II is a 30-kilowatt, 400-hertz, diesel engine generator set mounted on a trailer and towed by the ICC or CRG. The ICC and the CRG are assigned two power units each.

COMMUNICATIONS RELAY GROUP

The CRG (see Figure B-17) provides a multiroute secure, two-way data relay capability between the ICC and the FUs and between adjacent units. The CRG provides automatic logic routing for the data and manual patching of voice channels. The CRG also provides the capability for both data and voice exit and entry for communications with elements external to Patriot. Two AN/VRC-46 type radios provide command, administration, and logistics communications within the battalion. The communications equipment in the CRG is identical to that used within the ECS and ICC. With a few exceptions, the CRG shelter configuration is identical to the ICC. Externally, the CRG and ICC are identical. The internal arrangement of the CRG is shown in Figure B-17. The CRG has no WCC and no MS1 and MS3. A fourth UHF stack and a work area have been added. A rearranged forward end provides work space and a storage area for spare UHF equipment. The dimensions and weight of the CRG are shown in the section, Tactical Equipment, Weights and Dimensions at the end of this appendix. An EPU II, towed during road march, provides power when the CRG is deployed.

ANTENNA MAST GROUP

The AMG is a mobile antenna mast system used to carry the amplifiers and antennas associated with the UHF communications equipment in the ECS, ICC, and CRG.

The AMG includes four antennas in two pairs on remotely controlled masts. The antennas can be controlled in azimuth, and the masts can be elevated to 100 feet 11 inches above ground level. Mounted at the base of each pair of antennas are two high-power amplifiers associated with the antennas and the radios in the collocated shelter. The radios use the antenna amplifier system with several amplifier power options as conditions require:

The AMG carries the cables needed to connect the antennas to the collocated shelter. Included on the AMG are RF cables, antenna control cables, and primary power cables. In addition to the UHF radios in the collocated shelter, there are two units installed to support the AMG operation: the antenna control unit shown in Figure B-18, and the antenna mast monitor panel shown in Figure B-19.

The antenna control unit is used to remotely control and indicate the azimuth orientation of the antennas. The AMG mast monitor panel indicates the vertical orientation of the AMG antennas and provides an alarm when critical motion has occurred due to high-wind conditions

The AMG is emplaced and the antennas deployed using self-contained hydraulic and pneumatic systems powered by onboard vehicle dc or ac power provided by the collocated shelter. Emplacement consists of stabilizing the AMG, setting the antenna feed and adjusting the antenna elevation as necessary. The antennas are deployed by hydraulically raising the masts to a vertical position and pneumatically extending the antennas to the desired height.

RADAR SET, SEMITRAILER-MOUNTED, AN/MPQ-53

The RS consists of a multifunction phased-array radar mounted on an M-860 semitrailer. The RS is towed by an M983, heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT). The RS is powered by the EPP III. It is monitored and controlled by the ECS through the RWCIU.

THE PHASED-ARRAY RADAR

The phased-array radar, under control of the ECS, is unmanned in the operating mode. It contains BITE, which reports the complete radar status to the WCC every 15 seconds. The operators at the ECS can optionally implement special radar diagnostic checks. They can also remotely activate and deactivate the transmitter and set search track volumes for the antenna. The interfacing data link to the ECS is via shielded cable to protect against EMI and EMP.

PHASED-ARRAY RADAR ANTENNA

The phased-array radar antenna is positioned at an angle, relative to the horizontal plane, during emplacement of the RS. Integral leveling equipment on the M860 semitrailer permits emplacement on slopes of up to 10 degrees. When fully elevated, the antenna can be trained in azimuth by means of a motor driven pedestal assembly which supports and rotates the entire radar shelter. The shelter can be positioned remotely from the ECS or locally by use of a handheld control. Prime power and the RWCIU data link signals are transferred from the fixed pedestal to the rotating shelter through slip rings in the pedestal.

OTHER EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS

Other external characteristics of the radar shelter include electronic equipment cooling air inlet and exhaust hoods. The shelter has high-level electronics (transmitter) and front-end electronics access doors, equipment storage bays, comparator assembly, and a maintenance crew entry door. The crew door provides access to low-level electronic components inside the shelter.

MAJOR EQUIPMENT GROUP SUBSYSTEMS

There are 10 major equipment group subsystems in the RS:

RADAR SUBSYSTEMS

The radar subsystems are equipped with BITE, display lamps, and BITE options located on test panels. Subsystems are scanned every 15 seconds for operational condition and the data is sent via the RWCIU cable to the ECS. The ECS automatically shuts down the radar transmitter in case of system failures.

Shelter

The RS shelter is an RFI and weather-tight enclosure with appropriate air inlet and exhaust ports for the environmental control systems.

The enclosure is a multicompartmental structure consisting of a central, full length, interior aisle (see Figure B-20), and nine exterior access bays. There are four access bays on curbside, four on roadside, and one forward. The low-level electronic units (receiver signal processor and control unit group) are bulkhead-mounted on each side of the interior aisle. The transmitter group is divided between the center curbside and roadside bays. The liquid cooling pumping unit is located in the aft curbside bay.

The forward roadside and curbside utility bays house the IFF, RWCIU, pressure dehydrator, miscellaneous power supplies, ambient air blowers for the low-level electronics cooling system, and the local RS status and control panel. Two of three digital signal processor units are in the roadside utility bay and one is in the maintenance aisle on the roadside.

The M2 aiming circle, prism, and M1A1 gunner's quadrant used for system orientation and alignment are located in the forward curbside utility bay. The antenna travel cover and the maintenance weather shields are stored in the aft roadside utility bay.

Radar Weapon Control Interface Unit

The RWCIU is a duplicate of the RWCIU in the ECS. It accepts and decodes radar messages from the ECS and encodes and transmits radar messages to be returned. The input/output device for the RWCIU at the radar interface is called the control unit group (CUG).

Control Unit Group

The CUG is the two-way data exchange interface between the RWCIU and the remainder of the radar. It acts essentially as a special purpose computer with logic circuits and hardware that enable it to form and route trigger pulses in response to instruction routines stored in memory. When an ECS radar action message dictates, the CUG sets up the radar for the requested activity. The unit then generates trains of electronic impulses used for synchronization and timing. The CUG accepts and formats radar return messages and delivers them at the appropriate time to the RWCIU (and thus to the computer). The CUG subsystems include the radar input output unit, a trigger generator, IFF interface unit, and antenna beam steering microprocessor. The CUG mounts in a three-tiered module rack assembly. The rack is forward on the upper right side of the crew maintenance aisle.

RF Exciter

The RF exciter performs two main functions. It translates an IF waveform to one of multiple C-band frequencies for amplification and transmission. It also generates three discrete low-level radio frequency signals (LO1, LO1*, and LO2) for RF signal conversion at the radar receiver group.

Radar Transmitter Group

The transmitter amplifies the RF waveforms used for the surveillance and guidance functions of the radar. The radar action messages from the WCC to the CUG select the appropriate waveform characteristics for timing, pulse width, single- or multiple-pulse groupings, and high- or low-power level. The waveform sets, after conversion by the exciter to C-band, are amplified in the driver and final stages. The transmitter maintenance upgrade (TMU) increases organizational maintenance capability for the transmitter and reduces transmitter mean time to repair (MTTR).

Radar Antenna System Group

The radar antenna system group consists of the lens assembly and the comparator assembly. The lens assembly is hinged at the forward end of the shelter. The comparator assembly mounts at the lens focal point on the shelter rooftop.

The comparator assembly. The comparator assembly contains the radiating, high-power output horn. The horn is connected, via the waveguide, to the transmitter. In the transmit mode, the transmitter horn illuminates the 5,161 element lens of the main phased-array antenna. The array electronically steers the beam by loading into the elements the appropriate phase commands for the desired steering angle.

In the receive mode, the lens focuses the RF into the receiver horn in the comparator assembly. The comparator forms sum and difference channel information by means of microwave arithmetic networks. The sum, azimuth difference, and elevation difference signals pass to the receiver front ends. After frequency conversion and filtering, the received energy, at intermediate frequency (IF), passes down into the shelter to the receiver group circuitry.

The lens assembly. The lens assembly, shown in Figure B-21, houses the main antenna array, a TVM array, an IFF array, and the auxiliary arrays. Energy received by the TVM and auxiliary arrays is passed, via flexible shielded cable, from the lens assembly to the receiver group. A clutter canceller modification has been added to the TVM correlation processor (TVMCP), which cancels radar returns from stationary targets, permitting only moving targets to be processed by the signal processor group (SPG).

The radar status and control panel provides a local means of controlling main power. It also permits erecting and lowering the antenna lens assembly.

The lens assembly is positioned by electrically driven jackscrews. The jackscrews push the base section up and out to rotate the antenna back onto the shelter roof for horizontal storage and travel. The same jackscrews are reversed to pull the antenna base down toward the shelter. The base is pulled against the mechanical stops and throw-out switches to ensure that the antenna is firmly locked at the proper elevation angle during operation.

Radar Receiver Group

IF returns are routed inside the shelter to the RRG. The subassemblies of this group, the low-level electronics, form the bulk of all units in the shelter interior.

The receivers in the RS perform such functions on the received signals as sensitivity time control, pulse compression, gain control, range gating, correlation, ECM sensing, ECCM implementation, and conversion to video for signal digitizing. The three search and track receiver channels (one sum and two difference channels) are located at the upper roadside of the shelter maintenance aisle. A fourth channel is for sidelobe blanking. It is located next to the search and track channels. Diagonally across the aisle, and occupying more than half the space on the curbside, are the TVM correlation and TVM analog processors.

Outputs of the ECCM receiver are coupled from the receiver group assemblies to the CUG for transmission to the ECS. Search and track receiver, and TVM receiver outputs are fed to the radar signal processor.

The RRG also includes the waveform generator and pulse expansion units. These devices supply the waveforms for the radar transmitter.

The RRG consists of a total of 29 interconnected module rack assemblies of 19 different types plus two receiver front-end assemblies. The module rack units are single-, double-, and triple-tiered assemblies.

A module rack assembly consists of both module and receiver unique hardware. The assemblies are interconnected via nine-layer motherboards which contain all of the power and approximately 80 percent of the signal interconnections.

Signal Processor Group

The SPG performs analog-to-digital (A/D) conversions and subsequent high-speed digital processing of all video signals from the receiver. The ECS, in each radar action message, sets up the signal processor group. Modules of the signal processor are housed in the lower roadside section of the shelter maintenance aisle and in the roadside utility bay. The SPG consists of three-tiered module rack assemblies, a single rack assembly, and an A/D converter rack.

Identification, Friend or Foe Group

The IFF group consists of an electronically steerable IFF antenna array located on the antenna lens assembly, and an IFF interrogator set (AN/TPX-46[V]7), located in the forward curbside shelter utility bay. The IFF group is controlled and timed by the IFF interface unit in the control unit group, according to instruction messages from the WCC.

Environmental Control Unit

The radar ECU equipment provides temperature control for operation of radar unit subsystems. Low-level electronics are cooled by a flow of outside ambient air, pulled into the shelter through RFI-shielded inlet ports in the maintenance aisle door. The cooling air is drawn through the electronic modules, into central air ducts, and exhausted through ports located in the roadside and curbside utility bays.

For operation at low outside temperatures, a system of pneumatically-driven louvers recirculate exhaust air back into the aisle. The louvers recirculate the air when temperatures are below 70F.

Transmitter ambient air cooling is accomplished by means of vaneaxial blowers. These blowers are located in the forward end of the shelter, above the PDU. The blowers draw air in through the RFI-shielded ports in the power distribution unit doors, blow it through the transmitter electronics, and exhaust it overboard through ports in the utility bays.

A high-capacity liquid cooling pumping unit (cooler, liquid, and electron tube) is located in the aft, curbside bay of the shelter. The cooling pump cools high-power components of the transmitter. Liquid coolant is circulated to power supplies, modulators, low- and high-power transmitter tubes, and critical microwave components.

A pressure dehydrator unit, located in the forward roadside utility bay, provides dry air for pressurizing the waveguide to gauge pressures of 26 PSI. Reduced air pressure is also supplied to the transmitter driver at 11 PSI.

Automatic Emplacement Enhancement

The automatic emplacement enhancement (AEE) consists of the following two hardware components:

Together these units automatically perform the operator alignment functions which generate location, azimuth angle, roll and cross-roll for the system. FU software programs are modified to account for this new capability.

Global Positioning System. The GPS is one component of the AEE. The GPS operates passively, gathering positioning data from a number of satellites, allowing an unlimited number of users to simultaneously acquire precise position and navigation data under all weather conditions at anytime of day or night. The GPS provides location and elevation data for each LS and RS. A minimum of four satellites is required to ensure accurate position and altitude information.

The GPS receiver, AN/VSN-8, is located in the curbside utility bay of the RS and on the turntable pedestal on each LS. On the RS, the GPS antenna is attached to the top of the main antenna array while on the LS, the GPS antenna is attached to the DLT antenna mast support. The GPS has onboard BIT. The display unit displays a failure code and test sequence number when a fault is detected by BIT. Using the Failure Code and a Fault Isolation Table in TM 11-5825-275-23, the LRU most likely to have caused the problem can be replaced. To retain satellite data and time when vehicle power is removed, the GPS has memory batteries. These are three AA alkaline batteries (BA-3058/U) (NSN 6135-00-935-3587) which are changed semiannually.

GPS provides accurate position, altitude, and time information on a continuous, worldwide basis. This information is provided at two accuracy levels through the standard positioning service (SPS) and the precise positioning service (PPS). SPS is a civil position/navigation service providing the lower accuracy available to any user. The PPS is a military service providing higher accuracy. PPS is restricted to US and allied military forces and, if in the national interest, to selected civil users. The satellite transmits a "coarse acquisition" code called C/A code, and a "precise" code, called P code. The user is able to obtain a more accurate position and velocity solution when using P code than when using C/A code (16 meters circular error probable [CEP] versus 100 meters).

PPS is implemented with selective availability (SA) features. SA denies the unauthorized real-time user of the full PPS accuracy. Cryptographic measures are integral to SA requiring cryptographic keys to gain access to full PPS accuracy.

PPS is also implemented with antispoofing (AS) features that protect GPS users from transmitters that intentionally mimic GPS navigation signals (spoofing or beaconing). Cryptographic measures are also integral to AS. The cryptokeys are stored in the GPS receiver using a standard KYK-13. Two types of cryptokeys are used by the GPS. They are a group unique key (GUK) and a cryptokey weekly (CKW). The GUK is normally good for a year, while the CKW is good for seven days. The Army is currently issuing the yearly codes (GUK).

North finding system. The NFS part of the AEE provides the azimuth and roll information for the RS and each LS. The NFS is also referred to a bearing-distance-heading indicator (BDHI). The NFS is located adjacent to the GPS on both the RS and LS. It is a gyrocompass-based system which senses the platform attitude with respect to the earth's true north reference. NFS will determine that azimuth orientation of the RS or LS over the range of 0 to 6399.9 mils with a plus or minus 2.0 mils accuracy. The NFS provides this azimuth accuracy throughout much of the world where Patriot is expected to be deployed. NFS provides roll and cross-roll measurements within the range of plus or minus 100 mils (-5.6 to +5.6) with an accuracy of plus or minus 2.0 mils. See FM 44-85-1(TBP) for additional information.

The NFS has a built-in self-test that is accomplished within 20 seconds of power application. Built-in test equipment (BITE) will detect 99 percent of the NFS mission-oriented faults and isolate the malfunction to a battery replaceable unit (BRU).

ELECTRIC POWER PLANT, TRUCK-MOUNTED

The electric power plant (EPP) is the prime power source for the ECS and RS which, together with EPP and AMG, comprise a Patriot fire control section. Each EPP consists of two 150-kilowatt, 400-hertz diesel engines which are interconnected through the power distribution unit. Each EPP contains two interconnected 283.9-liter (75-gallon) fuel tanks, and a fuel distribution assembly with grounding equipment. Each diesel engine can operate more than eight hours with a full fuel tank. It is recommended to switch generators every eight hours for maintenance checks and services.

The power cables for the RS and ECS and the EPP control cable are stowed on cable racks on the roadside outer section of the truck body. One power cable and the control cable connect to the ECS, while the remaining three power cables connect to the RS. The control cable connection to the ECS allows fire control operators to control the power distribution unit connectors and circuit breakers. The connectors provide power to both the RS and the ECS. The control cable also provides the ECS with a low-fuel warning and EPP emergency shutdown capability. Each power cable is interlocked so that power is not available through it until it is terminated on both ends. A sound power telephone jack at the EPP provides communications with the ECS or RS.

LAUNCHING STATION, GUIDED MISSILE,
SEMITRAILER-MOUNTED,
M901

The LSs are remotely-operated, fully self-contained units that can carry up to four guided missiles. The ECS controls operation of the LS via FO or VHF data link. The LS is mounted on an M860 semitrailer towed by an M983 HEMTT, as is the RS.

Integral leveling equipment permits emplacement on slopes of up to 10 degrees. The LS is trainable in azimuth and elevates to a fixed, elevated, launch position. Precise aiming of the LS before launch is not necessary, thus no extra lags are introduced into system reaction time.

At the LS, BITE automatically monitors all critical electronics and guided missile functions. Status reports are returned periodically to the ECS.

The ECS sends missile prelaunch guidance messages and launch command instructions via the FO data link. On command from the ECS, the LS initiates an automatically sequenced missile countdown. The countdown includes loading the prelaunch guidance messages into missile memory. The LS weights and dimensions are listed in the section, Tactical Equipment, Weights and Dimensions, at the end of this appendix.

The LS contains four major equipment subsystems (Figure B-22). The four subsystems have the following designations and roles in Patriot system performance:

LAUNCHER GENERATOR SET

The generator for the LS is located on the yoke assembly of the trailer and includes a built-in, 56.8-liter (15-gallon) base fuel tank. It is adjoined by side-mounted work platforms. The unit is a diesel engine-driven generator, rated at 15 kilowatts, which provides three-phase, four-wire, 400-hertz, 120/208-volt power. It is recommended that the LS be refueled every eight hours to ensure continuous operations.

LAUNCHER ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY

The launcher electronics assembly consists of two functional equipment modules located on the trailer bed aft of the electrical generator. The modules are below the stowed LS platform when march ordered.

Launcher Electronics Module

The LEM is used for the real-time implementation of LS operations requested via data link from the ECS.

Azimuth and elevation toggle switches on the front console control panel permit manual elevation and rotation of the LS. A toggle switch enables BITE tests to run, and a pair of rotary switches dial LS and group designations for display at the ECS. A key switch enables the LS to be remotely controlled by the ECS.

Elsewhere on the control panel, a total of 23 display lamps show missile and LS equipment status. Three of the lamps verify the configuration of the LS for travel or launch modes, five lamps indicate BITE test results, three lamps indicate power supply status, and three groups of four lamps indicate the status of each missile.

Data Link Terminal Module

The DLT module on the curbside forward end of the trailer acts as an encoding-decoding unit, event timer, and transmitter and receiver for the digital communications link between the LS and the ECS. All items in this group are comparable to components of the DLT module found at the ECS.

LAUNCHER MECHANICS ASSEMBLY

The LMA consists of an LS platform, platform erection system, and a motor-driven pedestal assembly. The launch platform has two elevation positions: horizontal for travel and GM loading, and 38-degree elevation for launching. Elevation and azimuth drive controls on the roadside control panel of the launcher electronics module provide control of launcher platform orientation during emplacement. Azimuth reorientation is possible by remote control from the ECS and is used only when radar retraining requires a different launch angle. The elevation linkage for the mechanical assembly also raises and lowers the data link antenna.

LAUNCHER INTERCONNECTION GROUP

The LIG consists of the network of external missile data and power cables, plus a launcher missile-round distributor. The launcher missile-round distributor is located on the aft end of the elevating LS platform. It provides an electronic switching matrix for automatically interconnecting launch functions of a single input cable to one of four output cables connected to the canisters. Electrical interconnections to the guided missiles are made through a multiple-pin connector located below and to the left of the rear blowout cover of the canister. The launcher missile round distributor also includes sensing and command lines plus circuitry for control of missile onboard heaters.

PATRIOT GUIDED MISSILE, INTERCEPT AERIAL, MIM-104

The Patriot guided missile consists of a missile mounted within a canister that is the shipping and storage container and the launch tube. Guided missiles are stacked in groups of four per LS. For loading purposes, a guided missile is lifted by hoist fittings and lowered so that four alignment holes match with four pins in the support frame. The bolts secure two lower guided missiles side-by-side on the frame. These in turn, serve as support and alignment structures for two additional guided missiles. The upper side of the canister support frame contains pins which mate with the underside holes of the upper missile canisters to be loaded.

On the aft end of the guided missile, a desiccant indicator monitors the humidity within the canister. A single umbilical cable connects the canister with the LS and provides the means for status monitoring, preheating, and launching.

The missile has four clipped-delta, all-movable tail control surfaces. It is propelled by a single-stage, all-boost, solid-propellant rocket motor.

BITE checks missile readiness and provides GO/NO-GO logic for successive events in the countdown. A malfunction in any lead-in event in the missile activation and arming sequence will prevent rocket motor ignition. The defect is automatically reported to the WCC in the ECS.

GUIDED MISSILE

The missile, from front to rear, consists of a radome, guidance section, warhead section, propulsion section, and control actuator section (Figure B-23).

Radome

The radome is made of slip cast fused silica approximately 16.5 millimeters (0.64 inch) thick, with nickel alloy tip, and a composite base attachment ring bonded to the slip cast fused silica and protected by a molded silicone rubber ring. The radome provides an aerodynamic shape for the missile and microwave window and thermal protection for the RF seeker and electronic components.

Guidance Section

The Patriot guidance function is performed by the modular digital airborne guidance system (MDAGS). The MDAGS consists of a modular midcourse package which performs all of the required guidance functions from launch through midcourse and a terminal guidance section.

Missile Seeker The TVM seeker is mounted on the guidance section, extending into the radome. The seeker consists of an antenna mounted on an inertial platform, antenna control electronics, a receiver, and a transmitter.

Modular Midcourse Package The MMP, which is located in the forward portion of the warhead section, consists of the navigational electronics and a missile borne computer which computes the guidance and autopilot algorithms and provides steering commands according to a resident computer program.

Warhead Section

The warhead section, just aft of the guidance section, contains the warhead, safety-and-arming device, fuzing circuits and antennas, link antenna switching circuits, auxiliary electronics, inertial sensor assembly, and signal data converter.

Propulsion Section

The propulsion section consists of the rocket motor, external heat shield, and two external conduits. The rocket motor includes the case, nozzle assembly, propellant, liner and insulation, pyrogen igniter, and propulsion arming and firing unit. The casing of the motor is an integral structural element of the missile airframe. It contains a conventional, casebonded solid propellant.

Control Actuator Section

The CAS is at the aft end of the missile. It receives commands from the missile autopilot and positions the fins. The missile fins steer and stabilize the missile in flight. A fin servo system positions the fins. The fin servo system consists of hydraulic actuators and valves and an electrohydraulic power supply. The electrohydraulic power consists of battery, motor pump, oil reservoir, gas pressure bottle, and accumulator.

MISSILE CANISTER

The canister (see Figure B-24) functions as a launch tube and as a missile shipping and storage container. It protects the missile from the time of assembly until missile launch.

The Patriot canister is a reinforced square aluminum canister made of welded flat sheet stock with a welded external frame. It incorporates internal thermal insulation, an externally mounted fiberglass and rubber flythrough front cover, and a hard fiberglass blow-away rear cover. It has externally indexed mounting and latching mechanisms for rapid attachment to the LS. It also includes lifting and towing eyes, towing skids, and forklift provisions.

Inside the canister, the missile is supported on two aluminum longitudinal rails and adjustable upper and side support shoes. Longitudinal support is provided by a restraint pin which is unlocked for emplacement and relocked by the torque handle for road march.

At launch, each missile blasts away its aft canister cover and flies through its forward cover. Individual canisters may be removed and new guided missiles reloaded, as needed.

PATRIOT MAINTENANCE SUPPORT

Organizational-level maintenance personnel from the battery and battalion perform preventive and corrective maintenance on the Patriot system by replacing battery replaceable units (BRUs). The organizational maintenance capability is backed up by intermediate maintenance contact teams to diagnose problems beyond organizational capability. The guided missile is a "certified round" with no field test or repair permitted. If missile maintenance is required, the "certified round" is returned to a Patriot missile facility. Standard army equipment such as generators, vehicles, and communications equipment in the Patriot system is supported by the conventional Army direct support (DS) and general support (GS) system.

MAINTENANCE PLAN

The Patriot maintenance plan enhances the organizational personnel's capability to perform the level of maintenance necessary to sustain the AD mission. Included are--

PATRIOT AIR DEFENSE BATTALION

The battalion is supported for Patriot peculiar equipment through the battalion maintenance center. The center, at the HHB, has battalion maintenance equipment (BME) and a separately towed power generator.

Standard Army equipment support includes a DS activity for power generation, air-conditioning, and communications equipment. For vehicles, theater DS and GS are available.

PATRIOT FIRE UNIT

The Patriot-peculiar equipment of the FU is supported with a battery maintenance group (BMG). The BMG consists of a maintenance center, small repair parts transporter, a large repair parts transporter, and a towed 15-kilowatt power generator (PU-732/M). Standard Army equipment is supported with portable tools and test equipment stored in the maintenance center.

PATRIOT SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

The Patriot battery maintenance group and the battalion maintenance support equipment consists essentially of standard Army vehicles and equipment modified for use with the Patriot system. They provide the maintenance and supply capabilities required for selected Patriot equipment at the battery and battalion headquarters levels. Storage for repair parts, tools, handling and test equipment, publications, and maintenance and supply records are all provided with the vehicles to form a complete organizational maintenance capability.

The Maintenance Center

The maintenance center (see Figure B-25), used in both the BMG and BME, is a semitrailer mounted shop. It contains the tools and handling, and test equipment necessary to maintain the Patriot tactical equipment. The HHB of the maintenance center has been reconfigured to also function as an SRPT. The tools and handling equipment consist of common tools and equipment plus several items of special tools and handling equipment (ST & HE) which are contractor-furnished equipment (CFE).

The power unit PU-732M is a trailer mounted, 15-kilowatt, 400-hertz, diesel generator set. It is towed by a separate vehicle and provides power for the maintenance center and small repair parts transporter not used at HHB.

The Small Repair Parts Transporter

The SRPT is used only in the FU and uses the same vehicle as the maintenance center but is normally not occupied. No environmental control is required. Storage racks, baskets, and drawers for storing small repair parts are furnished.

Guided Missile Transporter

The guided missile transporter (GMT), located normally with the HHB, is a modified HEMTT M985. It is used for delivery, recovery, and loading of guided missiles, using a heavy duty material handling crane attached at the rear of the vehicle.

Large Repair Parts Transporter

The large repair parts transporter (LRPT) provides a means to transport and store large, heavy repair parts. It consists of a HEMTT M977 cargo truck with a light-duty material handling crane.

TEST EQUIPMENT

Patriot test equipment enables crew members to maintain the system. Though most test equipment is built-in, several items are portable.

Launching Station Test Set

The launching station test set (LSTS) (see Figure B-26) is a portable test set stored in the battery maintenance group. Its basic function is fault localization of the launcher electronics.

Missile-Round Cable Test Set

The MRCTS (Figure B-27) is a portable test set used primarily to check for stray voltages and cable continuity during missile reload operations. The MRCTS is stored in the maintenance center when not in use.

Electronic Counter

The electronic counter is a portable test set. It is stored in the maintenance center. It is a time and frequency measurement device used for maintenance calibration and as a diagnostic tool in fault isolation.

The Patriot-peculiar system equipment is designed with a means of maintenance calibrating the necessary measuring devices with accuracy traceable to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) through area support calibration team equipment. This is accomplished with the portable test equipment and calibration adapters. Much of this equipment in Patriot units is standard Army equipment. Standard equipment is supported in the conventional manner.

TRAINING DEVICES

The missile-round trainer (MRT) is a tactical canister shell with ballast permanently secured inside. It has the physical appearance, weight, and center of gravity of a tactical guided missile. An electrical simulator mounted inside the trainer canister provides electrical responses to simulate a safe missile to the launcher electronics for all functions except launch related responses.

Operator Tactics Trainer

The operator tactics trainer (OTT) simulates the Patriot ECS and ICC displays, controls, communications, and data processing systems. The instructor station can control and monitor the simultaneous training of eight individual student operator positions. The training position consoles allow student operators to perform all actions related to initialization, monitoring, and proper use and response to displays, controls, and communications. The training equipment and interconnecting cabling allow installation in a classroom or laboratory and separate these operating groups which are not normally within the same tactical enclosure.

Operator Training Software

There are basically four types of operator training software used on the Patriot tactical system at the present time.

Troop proficiency trainer. The Patriot TPT for operator refresher training uses a software-only approach. The software-only concept means the radar unit is not used and thus there is a completely controlled operator evaluation environment.

The TPT software can be used in either a stand-alone configuration or netted battalion configuration. In the stand-alone option, training is provided only at the using unit (ICC or FU). In the netted configuration, the ICC provides integrated C2 to the ECSs and the training process as in tactical operations. The netted configuration also provides communications training. The TPT uses a taped prepared training scenario. The scenario contains primarily target and ECM data. The data base (geographic areas, et cetera) is entered by using the appropriate database tape (FU or ICC) which can be prepared using the tactical initialization programs.

During the conduct of the training, the training officer loads the software and enters the appropriate asset and target selection. In addition, the training officer will start or end the exercise and start the recorder for post training evaluation.

The ICC TPT is limited to use in the standalone mode. For netted training to be conducted with the FU from the ICC, the troop netted trainer (TNT) must be used. The ICC TPT and TNT present realistic images of the tactical environment in which a battalion will perform its air defense mission (ADM).

The ICC TPT and TNT provide an AD game concept in which operators allocate resources in defense of simulated assets. Realism is provided through simulation of TBM attacks. Simulated hostile aircraft perform defense suppression and confusion tactics, while attacking defended assets. During an exercise, ICC operators perform actions and tactics as they would during an actual air battle.

The ECS TPT presents an image of the environment in which a FU will perform its mission. During normal missions, the ECS functions as the operational and maintenance control center of the FU. The ECS simulates the following operations and battle conditions:

The ECS TPT consists of computer software loaded into the WCC. The software includes a TPT exercise processor program, a selected scenario, and a geographic database for each scenario. The TPT exercise processor provides the controls to process the scenario. In conjunction with the scenario and geographic data base, it allows ECS operating personnel to engage simulated TBMs and aircraft to defend their assigned defended areas or vital assets as they would in an actual mission.

On-line training mode. The on-line training mode (OTM) is used with TPT software. The OTM allows the Patriot battalion to create its own exercises using locally tailored target sets.

A local target set is a group of targets created by the training officer and stored on an MSU cartridge. An individual target is defined by a flight path made up of a series of universal transverse mercator (UTM) points and altitude designations. A minimum of two to a maximum of eight points may define the flight path of a target. The target must have a defined altitude for at least the first UTM point. Thereafter, if no altitude is specified, a constant altitude will be assumed for all successive UTM points on the flight path of a target. A local target set may consist of 1 to 99 individual targets.

An ECS OTM exercise using locally defined target sets enables the training officer to customize an exercise to the FU's site. This site-relevant training uses tactical data bases which depict the geographic environment of an actual FU site. OTM generated exercises can be used in either the stand-alone (ECS) or netted (ICC-ECS) configuration.

Local target set capabilities which the OTM provides include--

Live air trainer. The live air trainer (LAT) is a version of the tactical software, modified to track live targets and simulate their engagement. The training exercise uses the live air trainer software at ECSs and ICCs. The ICC uses a complete FU (RS, ECS, AMG, and LSs), an ICC, and the remaining FUs in the battalion to track and simulate the engagement of live targets in a simulated battalion air battle. ECS operators employ FU AD standing operating procedures (SOPs) during this training exercise.

Terrain mapping trainer. The terrain mapping trainer (TMT) is an ECS embedded trainer software which will be used to train all TACI OSLB-MTM and masked area drawing functions. TMT will provide training using actual line radar-generated terrain data which is recorded by TMT at a site during the radar data map generation process. Subsequent training sessions can be conducted at any site, without radiating, using the previously generated data.

Maintenance Trainers

Patriot batteries use tactical equipment in the maintenance training program. Maintenance training devices and simulators are used in proponent school training programs but are not available at the Patriot battalion.

Equipment object trainers. Equipment object trainers are used where actual components can be easily and economically removed from tactical equipment and placed in a training configuration. A group of Patriot organizational maintenance trainers has been developed to provide hands-on training for the Patriot fire control section and the ICC. The Patriot organizational maintenance trainer (POMT) can consist of any combination of the following trainers: the active maintenance training simulator (AMTS), the part task trainer (PTT), and the ECS curbside training system. These trainers are active life-size mockups and are physically segmented for efficient student team processing.

The trainers are driven by commercial computers to simulate tactical hardware and maintenance software for realistic hands-on maintenance training. With few minor exceptions, no real tactical hardware of software is used within the POMT. Each simulated shelter and part task trainer contains both active and passive components. The active components are those that support the selected maintenance task to be trained. The passive components are nonfunctional but look like their real hardware counterparts. The system is capable of training 12 maintenance teams, simultaneously and independently.

Active maintenance training simulator. The active maintenance training simulator (AMTS) enables operator and operator maintainer trainees to develop a level of proficiency in the use of display aided and manual maintenance procedures through practice of selected critical maintenance tasks associated with the ECS and RS. The AMTS can present realistic display aided and manual maintenance procedures and procedural cues to an operator maintainer trainee who will direct the accomplishment of remove and replace, repair, fault locate, test, inspect, adjust, align, and calibrate tasks performed by other operator maintainer trainees at interactive RS and ECS simulators. The conditions realistically simulate actual equipment.

The AMTS consists of the following major subsystems:

Part task trainer. The PTT is a portion of the POMT. The PTT provides a realistic training environment for Patriot operator and maintenance personnel. The PTT is capable of simulating repeatable ECS, display and control console, and RS final modulator power supply maintenance training tasks. It provides operator and maintenance trainees with an opportunity to develop levels of proficiency in the use of display aided maintenance tasks associated with specific ECS and RS equipment. It also is capable of providing the missile system technician the means of developing a proficiency in the analysis and solution of problems that are not resolved by operator maintainer personnel. The three display and control console simulators (DCCS) support simulations of fault symptoms and the sequencing of the proper scenarios expected to be performed by the MST trainee to correct a fault.

The PTT consists of the following subassemblies:

TACTICAL EQUIPMENT, WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS

Figure B-28 provides approximate weights and dimensions of tactical equipment in the emplacement, march order, and shipping configuration. Tabulated data is given in both English and metric systems.

All weights and dimensions correspond to the equipment configuration shown. Additional and more precise weights and dimensions can be found in the respective equipment TMs, which should be the basis for logistical planning.

UNIT ORGANIZATION

The Patriot battalion consists of a headquarters and headquarters battery and from either three to six firing batteries (FUs) shown in Figure B-29.

HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS BATTERY

The battalion headquarters and headquarters battery (HHB) is both a tactical and administrative organization. It is organized with a battalion headquarters and a headquarters battery. Whenever tactically feasible, the HHB will be centrally located in relation to other battalion elements. This enables it to provide responsive and timely support (see Figure B-30).

BATTALION HEADQUARTERS

The battalion headquarters provides command, operational control, and administrative and logistical support for the battalion. The functions performed by the Patriot battalion headquarters are similar to those performed in other ADA battalion organizations. The following paragraphs discuss those sections unique to the Patriot battalion.

Command Section

The battalion commander, the executive officer, and the coordinating and special staff officers make up the command section. Coordinating staff officers are the S1, S2, S3, and S4. Special staff officers are the chaplain, surgeon, communications-electronics officer, and the ADA coordination officer. The command section also includes the battalion command sergeant major, the battalion signal officer, and three radio operators. (See FM 101-5 for detailed information on staff elements.)

Fire Distribution Center

The FDC operates the ICC which is the battalion fire direction center (FDC). The FDC exercises direct control and supervision of Patriot FUs and attached or assigned Hawk AFPs during the air battle. The ICC exchanges data and voice information with the brigade TOC, each FU, and adjacent Patriot or Hawk battalions. If the brigade TOC is out of action, the ICC can establish data link communications directly with the control and reporting center (CRC).

Communications Platoon

The communications platoon includes a platoon headquarters, a communications center section, and a relay section. The communications center section is responsible for battalion wire communications operations and operation and maintenance of the battalion radio sets. It also handles administration of COMSEC material and organizational maintenance of HHB communications equipment (less multichannel). The communications relay section operates four communications relay groups (CRGs). The CRGs provide UHF (voice and data) and VHF communications to units not having line of sight with the battalion FDC. Each communications relay group has a crew of four.

HEADQUARTERS BATTERY

Headquarters battery supports the battalion. It provides the resources to support battalion headquarters personnel with food service and unit supply. It provides refueling and unit maintenance support for vehicles, power generators, and engineer missile equipment. Headquarters battery is organized with a battery headquarters section and a motor maintenance section. The headquarters has two dedicated MANPADS teams and equipment to provide self-defense of the FDC.

FIRE UNIT

Each Patriot FU includes a battery headquarters; a fire control platoon, a launcher platoon, and a maintenance platoon. Two dedicated MANPADS teams and equipment are authorized to provide coverage in radar blind areas during malfunctions, march order, and emplacement.

Battery Headquarters

A battery headquarters section provides command, unit administration, unit supply, and food service functions. Figure B-31 illustrates the organization of a Patriot battery.

Fire Control Platoon

The fire control platoon includes a platoon headquarters and a fire control section. The platoon is capable of sustained operations and is fully mobile. Fire control section equipment includes the ECS, RS, EPP, and the AMG. The UHF multichannel communications are installed and operated by a three-man team. The platoon has personnel to operate the EPP and perform diesel maintenance. Two dedicated MANPADS teams and equipment are authorized and assigned to the fire control platoon to provide self-defense of the battery.

Launcher Platoon

The launcher platoon contains four launcher sections. Each section has two launching stations. Each launching station is manned by three crew members.

Support Platoon

Effective communications, reliable transportation, and system maintenance are essential to the FU's mission. A support (maintenance) platoon has been organized to fill these needs. It consists of a support platoon headquarters, motor support section, and system support section. The support platoon headquarters exercises C2 over the support platoon. The platoon leader and platoon sergeant ensure that PMCS are performed in a timely and coordinated manner. The motor support section provides organizational maintenance for all organic vehicles and generators, vehicle recovery, and refueling. The section maintains a PLL for motor support. The system support section performs organizational maintenance for Patriot system-peculiar equipment--ECS, RS, LS, AMG, electronics, and maintenance test equipment.