IndexFM 44-94 ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND OPERATIONS
DRAFT - February 1998



APPENDIX C

COMMUNICATIONS

 

This appendix addresses the AAMDC/RCE communications needs. The AAMDC/RCE relies heavily on communications, both data and voice, for the conduct of air defense operations. The extremely short reaction times allowed by modern air platforms have resulted in the development of a sophisticated, software-driven, highly automated air defense command and control systems. The digital data and voice communications requirements of the system have resulted in dedicated communications assets for the ADA force structure. The TOE of the AAMDC/RCE contains user owned and operated communications capabilities. Detailed information concerning communications for operations is located in FM 100-103-1.

 

CONTENTS

Page

AAMDC/RCE Communications Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AAMDC/RCE Communications Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ADA Communications Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

AAMDC/RCE COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS

The communications system for the AAMDC/RCE must provide reliable, real-time or near real-time information to dispersed RCEs, ADA brigades, battalions, higher headquarters, and supported units. The communications system must be redundant so that communications are available even when the primary system fails. To effectively defeat the air threat, the AAMDC/RCE must maintain communications to support --

· Alert and early warning.

· Command.

· Control of the air battle.

· Administrative and logistical communications with higher headquarters and subordinate units.

· Liaison with the AADC, ADA brigades and battalions, supported units or the units in whose area the AAMDC/RCE is operating.

The AAMDC/RCE Commander is responsible for establishing an effective communications system. He exercises command and control of organic signal assets through his SIGO. The AAMDC/RCE uses radio and wire nets for local external and internal communications. Communications are established from higher to lower echelons, left to right, and supporting to supported. The doctrinal responsibilities for establishing communications are found in FM 24-1, FM 101-5 and FM 100-103-1.

a. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS

The AAMDC/RCE establishes a communications link with the AADC. This link is used for force operations and for administrative and logistical coordination. External communications are established between the AAMDC/RCE and brigades and battalions. The number and types of communications links are determined by the type of operation and the mission (see Figure C-1).

 

 

Figure C-1. External communications.

(1) AAMDC/RCE to Brigade Communications

Generally, three channels are used for control of the air battle. One channel is used for the automatic data link which uses Army Tactical Data Link One (ATDL-1). One channel is used by the brigade and battalion tactical directors for the identification function. Also called Intelligence and Radar Reporting (IRR) net, it is usually established on party line two. The third channel, the air defense control line, is used by the brigade and battalion tactical director assistants (TDA) for the engagement function, and is usually established on party line one. All voice circuits are terminated at the ICC voice patch panel. The automatic data link is also terminated at the ICC either at the routing logic radio interface unit or a modem. IHFR-AM is not the backup to the multichannel UHF voice system for ADC and IRR. Because of effective internal communications, only a backup AM between brigade and battalion is required. There is no EAC ADA AM command net. The following illustration shows the AAMDC/RCE and brigade multichannel network (Figure C-2).

Figure C-2. AAMDC/RCE and brigade multichannel network.

(2) Adjacent Brigades

The ADA brigade establishes UHF communications with adjacent brigades. The link is established by the brigade signal company. This link provides the means for coordination between the brigade. This allows the exchange of force and engagement operations and the necessary coordination for complete air defense coverage of the battle space. The corps ADA brigade will also establish UHF communications with divisional ADA units. This allows for the coordination of the corps and division air defense plans and the exchange of early warning data .

If the corps ADA brigade is the highest ADA element in the theater, it is required to establish communications with the AADC. This communications link provides the means for coordinating air defense force and engagement operations, command and control means, and for the coordinating of divisional ADA units into the theater air defense plan.

(3) Supported Force

The AAMDC/RCE establishes communications with the supported force or the force in whose area the brigade is operating. The brigade provides early warning to the supported force using the FM command NET.

(4) Supporting Units

It is the responsibility of any supporting unit to establish communications with the supported unit. Units providing support to the AAMDC/RCE on a area basis establish the communications link. The ADA brigade SIGO ensures that the coordination has been done to open this link. He should have these links identified in his communications plan.

(5) ADA Battalions

Communications with ADA battalions supports air battle C2. It also facilitates administrative, logistical, operational, and intelligence functions. The brigade signal company establishes the voice and data links between brigade and battalions (Avenger, Hawk, and eventually THAAD). In Patriot units, the brigade link may be terminated at a modem in either the ICC or a CRG. The ADA brigade has the AN-TSQ-73 Missile Minder and multichannel capability with the AN-TRC 145 and TRC 113.

b. INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS

Internal communications are established with each ADA brigade to support the AAMDC/RCE command function. Internal communications also facilitate control of the air battle and support the administrative, intelligence, operations, and logistics functions.

(1) AAMDC/RCE Command

The AAMDC/RCE command net is an AM net. AM is selected because of its ECM resistance, long range, and non line-of-sight transmission ability.

(2) Headquarters and Headquarters Battery Command

The purpose of this FM net is to provide communications for the command function within the AAMDC/RCE headquarters. Each staff section operates in the HHB command net. This net is primarily used during movements and between elements at separated positions. Wire would normally connect elements when emplaced.

(3) Control of the Air Battle

The C2 structure is heavily dependent upon communications for efficient operations. In order to pass real time air battle and air traffic information from the JTAGS facility, automatic data links must be established.

(4) Administration, Intelligence, Operations, and Logistics

Normally, the UHF system which provides communications for force operations control and supports logistic functions. Since the UHF system is operational most of the time, it is also the primary means for the staff to provide command and control of the assigned ADA brigades.

C-2 AAMDC/RCE COMMUNICATIONS PLANNING

Communications subsystems are radio relay terminals, routing logic radio interface units, communications patching panel corner reflectors, and antennas and amplifiers. These items facilitate execution of the AAMDC/RCE's communications plan. See appropriate technical manual for a functional description of these items.

a. PLANNING

The SIGO, in conjunction with the AAMDC/RCE S-3, coordinates with the brigades staff in developing the communication plan prior to each move. Well developed communication plans minimize confusion and indecision during moves. The SIGO prepares the communications plan using the signal annex and the SOI. Frequency management personnel can assist in developing several areas of the plan.

b. PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS

When developing the communications plan, the SIGO must consider a number of items. The planning list will vary depending on the situation. The SIGO will:

· Identify all network units (AAMDC/RCE, brigade, battalion and UTM coordinates)

· Plan for polarization of VHF antennas. Antenna polarization is a vital part of link planning. This

is assigned with frequency allocation.

· Define the patching scheme for the AAMDC/RCE to brigade element. Determine antenna azimuths for each

system.

· Identify the inter-brigade or intra-brigade exit and entry port and shelter modem to be used for each

brigade or intra-brigade link. Direct linking offers an alternative to the use of modems for inter-brigade communications.

c. STANDARDIZATION

Standardization of communications tasks facilitates rapid system emplacement and operations. To the maximum extent possible, basic and redundant communications functions should be standardized.

C-3 ADA COMMUNICATIONS DEFINITIONS

The ADL passes real-time digital information concerning the conduct of the air battle among computers at higher level control facilities, the battalion FDC, and the AFPs. Target position information, target identities, system status, missile count, and firing commands are passed between higher and lower echelons via this net. Hawk units may use or be involved with several data languages. Tactical digital information link (TADIL) is a JCS approved standardized communication link suitable for transmission of digital information using standardized message formats and transmission characters. There are four links used in this system: TADIL A, B, C, and J. It is important to avoid routing the data in a closed loop to and from the source with any of the returning data overloading the buffers. An explanation of each language follows.

a. ARMY TACTICAL DATA LINK 1

Army Tactical Data Link 1 (ATDL-1) is a secure, point to point, full duplex (transmits and receives simultaneously) link for automatically processed data. It is used exclusively to process data involved with the targeting and firing of Hawk and Patriot air defense systems. It permits the flow of information between the PCP, the battalion AN/TSQ-73, and the brigade AN/TSQ-73. An ATDL-1 link may also be established to share data between the Hawk AN/TSQ-73 and the Patriot ICC, or direct links may be established between the Patriot ICC and the PCP. ATDL-1 is used during engagement operations.

b. TACTICAL DIGITAL INFORMATION LINK A

Tactical Digital Information Link A (TADIL-A) is a secure, half duplex digital link (transmits and receives in alternating time frames) that can use HF and UHF radios. The AWACS will send information directly to the CRC or the message processing center (MPC). Neither the AN/TSQ-73 nor the Patriot ICC can use TADIL-A directly. It must be translated to TADIL-B by either the CRC/MPC or by the Joint TADIL A Distribution System (JTADS). TADIL-A is used primarily during engagement operations.

c. TACTICAL DIGITAL INFORMATION LINK B

Tactical Digital Information Link B (TADIL-B) is a secure point-to-point, full duplex link for data exchange between ground-based air defense units and the CRC. The adaptable surface interface terminal (ASIT) is required to make the JTIDS/IJMS to TADIL B exchange in joint operations. TADIL-B is the primary link for use with other services and is used extensively by Air Force MPCs and Marine Corps TAOCs. The AN/TSQ-73 uses TADIL-B. The Patriot ICC can establish up to four TADIL-B links. TADIL-B is used during engagement operations.

d. TACTICAL DIGITAL INFORMATION LINK J

Tactical Digital Information Link J (TADIL-J) is a full duplex, secure, jam resistant, nodeless data link which uses a JTIDS Class 2 terminal and J series message formats. It provides a significant increase in capacity compared to previous digital links and will replace all other ADL languages in the future. Currently fielded is an interim form called Interim JTIDS Message Standard (IJMS), a half-duplex system that can be transmitted and received by the ASIT Class 1 terminal. The ASIT translates IJMS data into TADIL-B for use by the AN/TSQ-73 or the Patriot ICC.

e. LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION

Long distance communication is essential for Hawk battalion operations. The Hawk battalion may need to conduct operations over an area up to 50 kilometers wide and 80 kilometers deep. These extended distances greatly complicate command, control, logistical, and administrative functions because of the stress they place on the communications systems. The multichannel UHF system is the primary communications means for all of the nets discussed below, with the exception of the SHORAD FM and liaison nets. These communication nets support force operations.

f. COMMAND NET

This channel is a direct UHF link among the brigade, the battalion, the battery commanders, and the platoon leaders. It is used to pass command orders, to closely coordinate movement, and for damage control and reconstitution. It may be established as a point-to-point circuit or conducted over dedicated switchboard lines. The FM command net backs up this UHF net.

g. OPERATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE NET

This circuit, commonly known as the message passing line (MPL), serves as the primary means for passing information such as alert status, emission control (EMCON) instructions, movement instructions, critical intelligence, and changes in procedural controls for the air battle. The same FM net backs up both this and the command net.

h. ADMINISTRATIVE AND LOGISTICAL NET

This circuit is used to pass administrative and logistical traffic such as supply, repair parts, ammunition, personnel, and casualty status. An FM net normally backs up this circuit.

i. MAINTENANCE NET

This circuit facilitates maintenance of the battalion's operational capabilities by establishing a link between the direct support unit and the assault fire platoons to pass such information as requests for Hawk peculiar repair parts, maintenance assistance, and consultation. The FM Admin/Log net is the backup for this net.

j. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL NET

This circuit is used to exchange information concerning NBC

related intelligence, nuclear detonations, and reports of chemical attacks. This net may also be used by the battalion and brigade intelligence officers to pass lengthy intelligence reports. No dedicated backup is provided for this net, but unit SOPs should direct the use of FM Admin/Log or command nets when UHF is not available.

k. ADA BATTALION AIR DEFENSE NET

The ADA AD net is a battery FM net used to control an ADA unit's organic man portable air defense system (MANPADS) team. It is used to pass early warning from the Hawk system, engagement results, and weapons control status.

l. AIR DEFENSE LIAISON NET

This FM or AM net provides communications with supported or supporting units. The AD liaison officer uses this net to pass information such as weapons control status, maneuver unit position information, and more importantly, the disposition and intentions of both friendly and enemy troops. In addition, this net may be used to request indirect fire support and to coordinate logistical and medical support with local maneuver units.

m. AIR DEFENSE COORDINATION NET

The air defense coordination net (ADCN) is an AM net used for coordination between the air defense coordination section (ADCS) and the battalion ADTOC section. The ADCS is usually located at the nearest HIMAD unit. The ADCS keeps the ADTOC informed of changes in HIMAD coverage and positions and the general status of HIMAD units. The ADTOC can also keep the ADCS informed of the maneuver situation. They both exchange information on airspace control measures.

n. SINGLE CHANNEL GROUND AND AIRBORNE RADIO SYSTEM

A SINCGARS component chart is reflected at Figure C-3. This chart identifies the components of each of the SINCGARS radio versions.

Figure C-3. SINCGARS components table.