IndexFM 44-94 ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND OPERATIONS
DRAFT - February 1998



CHAPTER 1

THE ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND

This chapter addresses the capabilities and characteristics of the Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC). It also discusses the AAMDC’s missions and roles.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

ARMY AIR MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

ARMY AIR MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

DEFINITION OF THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE AND AIR DEFENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

OBJECTIVES OF THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE AND AIR DEFENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

RELATIONSHIP OF THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE AND AIR DEFENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8

 

1-1 INTRODUCTION

Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) operations must remain flexible to meet the demands for air and missile defense (AMD) in a wide range of environments. These operations range from peace to war. During periods of peace the AAMDC trains to meet the challenges of war. This training includes an increased dependence upon reserve component air defense artillery (ADA) units and includes training exercises in tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP) for deployment over land, sea and air. The size of the force to be projected shall be based on the needs identified in intelligence and preparation of the battlespace (IPB) and operational planning. This planning is in accordance with the strategic principles that guide the employment of military forces. These procedures are applicable to war and Support and Stability Operations (SASO). Force requirements of AAMDC vary with the size and scope of the threat and the development of the theater of operations. As a theater develops logistics and C2 infrastructures it may need a greater AAMDC force capability to protect assets.

Underdeveloped theaters require tailoring of the AAMDC forces to ensure readiness, collective security, and aerospace superiority. The focus of force projection operations requires ADA forces to operate as a part of joint operations with the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and possibly multinational forces.

To sustain the AAMDC, in part or in total, as it is deployed requires knowledge of air and missile defense doctrine, training, organization, and equipment requirements. This includes knowing the capabilities and limitations of equipment and personnel to include processes, procedures, and organizations. The concept of backward planning is used to satisfy the AMD needs of the operational areas that units of the AAMDC are assigned to protect. This is achieved through application of the following management functions to air defense operations:

· Plan · Motivate

· Organize · Execute

· Coordinate · Evaluate/Control

· Communicate

1-2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Before describing AAMDC’s operations, it is important to understand the basis for establishing the command. The AAMDC was established due to the direction and guidance found in several authoritative texts to include: the Joint Mission Needs Statement (JMNS) and the Department of the Army (DA) Desert Shield / Storm (ODS) After Action Report. These recognized that Theater Missile Defense (TMD) is a joint effort and executed under the four operational elements which the Joint Forces Commander (JFC) must synchronize. Individually and collectively these documents state the need for a capability which enables the Army Forces (ARFOR) / Joint Forces Land Component Commander (JFLCC) to functionally integrate and merge the various elements associated with TMD. The conceptual basis of TMD operations, as well as, the need for a TMD warfighting capability is rationalized and justified within the Joint Mission Needs Statement for Theater Missile Defense (JROCM-064-91, 18 July 1991). Specifically, this document states that an architecture which integrates C4I capabilities is required to coordinate attack, active and passive defense operations, and to integrate the entire TMD system into overall combat operations.

During ODS the 11th ADA Brigade (Bde) (+) mission was to simultaneously function as the Army Air Defense Command (AADCOM), Echelon Above Corps (EAC) ADA Bde, and XVIII Airborne Corps ADA Bde. This experience clearly demonstrated that multiple missions have many hidden personnel, equipment, and functional demands. Operational efficiency suffered due to inadequate long-rang planning skills. In terms of equipment, extensive augmentation was required from Army resources, as well as, from the other Services. Additionally, the brigade was unable to coordinate effectively with its subordinate elements scattered throughout the theater of operations.

These difficulties manifested themselves in inadequate command and control, voids in coverage, and disjointed communications. Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) addressed these issues within its own ODS Lessons Learned Report and recommended that, "In future operations the Army must commit dedicated ADA with each deployed corps and field an AADCOM to successfully achieve the theater AD mission."

During Roving Sands ‘95, the Theater Missile Defense -Advanced Warfighting Experiment (TMD-AWE) concluded that the prototype TOCs and staff elements contributed to enabling joint capabilities through automation. The ODS experience of the 11th ADA Bde, as well as, the conclusions of the DA and TMD-AWE clearly established the need for a command to conduct theater level AMD planning and coordination during future contingency operations.

1-3 AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY MISSION

The Army must be ready to fight enemies whose air, missile, and surveillance capabilities vary widely throughout a range of possible military operations. Successful theater air and missile defense (TAMD) operations begin with a thorough understanding of an adversary’s missile and air capabilities, doctrine, and operations.

As a contributor to TAMD, Army air defense operations protect the force from aerial and missile attack, aerial surveillance and support the attainment of air superiority. "The ADA mission is to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack and surveillance." This mission statement expands both the types of elements which require protection and the types of aerial threats air defense forces must destroy. Inherent in this mission is ensuring that the ground commander can dominate battlespace to achieve decisive victory by winning quickly with minimal casualties.

1-4 ARMY AIR and MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND (AAMDC) MISSION

The primary mission of the AAMDC is to stategically deploy combat ready air defense units and perform air and missile defense planning, coordination, integration and execution in support of the CINC’s priorities.

The AAMDC mission is a worldwide mission in support of unified, specified, theater and/or joint commands. The presence of the AAMDC in a major regional area of conflict is executed by the projection of a Theater Army Air Defense Element (TAADE). Through the TAADE dedicated and responsive AMD forces are projected to protect the force (multinational or joint). The AAMDC commands ADA EAC units. It serves as the Army’s focal point for joint/multinational air defense training, analysis, planning and operations and mitigates systemic issues related to joint task force/regional AMD for all areas of operation. It supports the JFC with TAADEs, which integrate the functions associated with Army TMAD. It also coordinates related Army mission and air defense requirements with other services and allied forces. It plans space support of Army TMAD, and also connects Army TMD Battle Management and Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (BM/C4I) with Joint TMD (JTMD) architecture.

The AAMDC mission is accomplished by supporting the force commander’s concept of the operation through the judicious allocation of AMD forces, to mass combat power at the critical time and place, and to defeat the enemy within the commander’s desired battlespace. Mission accomplishment may be parallel, concurrent, or sequential in performance and often is joint or multinational.

1-5 AAMDC Overview

a. ASSIGNMENT

The AAMDC is assigned to Headquarters, Forces Command (FORSCOM). During war or Support and Stability Operations (SASO), the AAMDC deploys a TAADE to support the appropriate commander. The AAMDC is modular in design to provide flexibility necessary to meet a variety of operational requirements and conduct split based operations. The AAMDC force requirements are Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops and Time (METT-T) dependent within the theater of operations. As a theater develops infrastructure, the AAMDC organization may expand. Undeveloped theaters require AAMDC tailoring to ensure force protection. The force structure requirements are resourced from both the active component (AC) and reserve component (RC). The staff sections are organized IAW Field Manual (FM) 101-5, Staff Organization and Operations, yet structured to support the special needs of the TAMD mission.

AAMDC is flexible to operate through the full range of military operations. During peace, the AAMDC trains to meet TAMD operational requirements. This training includes exercises in tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP) with joint and multi-national forces for deployment by land, sea, and air. The ability to project U. S. Forces to and from theater bases worldwide in a rapid, timely, and organized manner are key measures of the AAMDC’s effectiveness, efficiency, and readiness. The size of the force to deploy is based on the needs identified in intelligence and operational planning. Planning is IAW the strategic principles that guide the deployment of military forces and is applicable to war and SASO.

b. ORGANIZATION

During peacetime, the AAMDC defines EAC ADA brigades training requirements, establishes a unity of command and coordinates with other services and allied nations. The AAMDC is the command responsible for conducting TAMD training activities and exercises, and conducts automated IPBs, simulations, and analyses. During war, the AAMDC is assigned to the Army Forces (ARFOR) / Joint Forces Land Component Commander (JFLCC) to counter the air and missile threat within his Area of Operations (AO) and may conduct split base operations. The AAMDC deploys the TAADE consisting of command group, liaison officers, and staff into the AO to function as its forward Tactical Operations Center (TOC). Figure 1 displays the AAMDC organization.

Fig 1. AAMDC Organizational Structure

c. MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE AAMDC (LESS TAADE)

(1) Command Section

Provides command and control to the AAMDC. Ensures administrative functions pertaining to the overall operations are planned, coordinated, and executed.

(2) G1 (Personnel)

Responsible for all matters concerning human resources (military and civilian). This includes personnel readiness, personnel services and headquarters management.

(3) G2 (Intelligence)

Initiates and integrates IPB, keeps threat database, monitors, interprets, and updates the enemy and friendly ground forces situations and informs forces of significant changes in operations, objectives, and priorities.

(4) G3 (Operations)

Ensures current theater air combat operations are synchronized with current Army Air and Ground Combat Operations. Coordinates with the ARFOR /JFLCC Deep Operations Coordination Cell (DOCC) and Joint Air Operations Center (JAOC) Combat Operations Section on planned missions against ARFOR / JFLCC targets.

(5) G4 (Logistics)

Maintains an accurate and current assessment of the combat service support (CSS) situation of the organization, its subordinate units and any attached or supporting elements. Determines logistics support requirements in support of ADA and TAMD operations. All logistics functions (supply, maintenance, transportation, services, labor, facilities and construction) are contiuously monitored. Performs duties as identified in FM 101-5, Staff Organization and Operations.

(6) Communications / Electronics Section

Provides communication / electronics planning and coordination; ensures the AAMDC connectivity to joint, multinational, and external organizations, as required.

(7) Headquarters Battery

Provides the full range of personnel management and administrative support for the command and staff personnel.

(8) Maintenance Section

Ensures all assigned equipment is properly maintained and required services are performed. Request repair / replacement items and monitors the automated inventory management system for status and availability of projected repair parts.

Fig 2. The TAADE organization.

d. MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE TAADE

The major functions of the TAADE are a direct link of the AAMDC’s functions. They are as follows:

(1) Tactical Operations Center (TOC) Cell

Collects log journals and maintains official tactical historic files. Coordinates with support facilities. Provides the synchronization and integration structure to coordinate the functional elements of the TAMD system to enhance the overall effectiveness of deployed tactical systems.

(2) Command, Control, Communication, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) Cell

Records and displays TBM track history and reduces sensor-to-shooter timeline via direct data transfer to AD, aviation and field artillery elements for planning purposes. Assess inputs from National Intelligence Assets. Displays selected enemy order-of-battle / fuses displays relevant to intelligence, records and displays TBM TOC operations. Integrates the IPB for the TAADE, analyzes data received from higher and lower echelons for all TAMD and air defense operations.

(3) Active Defense Cell

Monitors airspace management, situational awareness of active defense capable units and the integrated air picture. Passes tactical missile launch information to Attack Operations (AO) and Passive Defense (PD). Conducts Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB) for air defense situation. Displays common integrated air situation by providing near real-time air situation for air breathing threats (ABT) and theater missiles (TM). Provides corps battle simulator interface for displays air picture and ground situation.

(4) Passive Defense Cell

Supports the scheme of maneuver deployment by using IPB, imagery, and air defense situation display to determine friendly areas not protected, only limited protection, or fully protected. Passes, via mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) link, those areas to the battle planners. Monitors and displays friendly ground situation and warns friendly forces of enemy activity. Implements a warning architecture based on the commander’s warning criteria. The passive defense cell must be data linked to Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS) to ensure timely and accurate Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) warning data is received and transmitted according to the commander’s warning criteria.

(5) Attack Operations Cell

Participates in IPB, assesses high priority and high value TAMD targets. Closely coordinates actions with the JFLCC/ARFOR DOCC. Conducts trade-off analysis and identifies potential launch sites. Monitors engagement operations and plans an Army tactical missile system mission and provides launch orders to selected units, if required.

(6) Tactical Operations Center Support Cell

The TOC is responsible for all unit level maintenance and operations of all relevant radio transmission equipment. Assists in the installation, operation, supervision, and performance of radio transmission equipment and radio interoperability devices.

(7) Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility Cell

The Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) cell is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Trojan Spirit workstation and the sensitive compartment information facility. Responsible for intelligence gathering and special access programs.

(8) G1 / G4 Cell

Supervises logistics functions related to mobility, operations, aircraft serviceability, munitions, aerospace ground equipment, readiness spares packages, and petroleum oil and lubricants (POL).

(9) Liaison Teams

Provide liaison between AAMDC and supported organization. Advises liaison commander as required.

e. CAPABILITIES

The AAMDC is capable of performing numerous activities. It executes the following activities in support of worldwide missions:

· Analysis - The AAMDC conducts analysis and formulates plans to support the JFC’s campaign plan; recommends the apportionment of TMAD resources; recommends target priorities; and provides integration to support regional requirements.

· Coordination - The AAMDC coordinates the establishment of a C4I infrastructure throughout the major regional contingency (MRC) area of operation.

· Planning - The AAMDC establishes positioning requirements for TAMD related prepositioned war reserve materiel stocks (PWRMS).

· Data Exchange - The AAMDC exchanges tactical and technical data and intelligence with other services, allied, coalition and multinational agencies as required.

· Reconstitution - The AAMDC controls reconstitution of units.

· SASO - The AAMDC is structured and resourced to support the requirements of all unified commands in war and SASO.

· Deployment - The AAMDC deploys a TAADE into MRC, as required, and provides Liaison Teams on a regional basis to the Joint Forces Commands, (Main and Tactical Operations Center), Land Component Commander (Army), Battlefield Coordination Detachment (BCD)/Air Operations Command, Army Service Component Commander (ASCC), Allied Headquarters, and Host Nations.

· Priorities - The AAMDC recommends priorities for allocation of ADA units and equipment to provide asset protection in MRC scenario.

· Integration - The AAMDC provides for integration of ADA active component (AC) and reserve component (RC) personnel. The AAMDC integrates the AC and RC into fully ready and deployable units. The AAMDC then integrates with host nations, allied forces, land, air, and naval component commanders in conduct of force and engagement operations.

· Liaison - The AAMDC provides liaison elements to the senior ground force commander. Horizontal and vertical distribution of technical and tactical information and intelligence ensures the optimization of sophisticated ADA weapon and sensor systems.

· Rules and Procedures - The AAMDC provides coordination and dissemination of AD rules and procedures. It performs Army airspace command and control (A2C2) staffing tasks for theater ADA elements and the individual corps ADA brigades.

· BM/C4I- The AAMDC plans for BM/C4I to conduct theater missile and air defense operations. It ensures the communications necessary to support tactical and logistical operations are in place. Tactical communications are established with and between the Area Air Defense Commander (AADC), air operations center (AOC), ADA brigade elements (EAC and corps), and control and reporting center (CRC).

· Training - Provides oversight and evaluation of ADA brigades to ensure standardization of training (In accordance with Mission Training Plans (MTPs) and Army Training and Evaluation Programs (ARTEPs). The AAMDC implements the training strategy necessary to ensure a training and evaluation base for the dispersion of Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (DTTP) throughout ADA units. This training strategy extends into AC and RC units and organizations. It includes evaluation of unit and materiel readiness to include the training to integrate these units and organizations through various exercises. How to fight doctrine and how to train products, tactical evaluations, and gunnery exercises prepare units to accomplish mission objectives. The training strategy supports continuity of training to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of systems and crews. This training should be conducted collectively through joint exercise level with sufficient frequency to develop individual and collective proficiency.

The AAMDC’s presence is absolutely essential to the theater missile and air defense mission. It provides a focal point for the ADA defense design and promotes unity of effort within the theater and integrates the operational elements of TMD. The AAMDC provides a command element that is essential in supporting the EAC brigades. The AAMDC coordinates with the corps ADA brigades that are required to fight the AD battle. It focuses on protection of the commander’s critical asset list. It provides rear area vital asset defense and defense of selected geopolitical targets. Systems of the ADA brigade provide responsive, day and night, all-weather, all-altitude protection against the following aerial threats:

· Tactical ballistic missiles (TBM) · Cruise missiles (CM)

· Rotary wing (RW) aircraft · Tactical air-to-surface missiles (TASM)

· Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) · Fixed wing (FW) aircraft

consisting of remotely piloted vehicles

(RPV) and drones

f. FUNCTIONS

The AAMDC coordinates all AD and TMD operations for the ARFOR / JFLCC to provide theater operational protection. As the senior integrator and commander of the EAC ADA brigades and other assigned forces the AAMDC provides air and missile defense coordination through the several liaisons. Inherently, the AAMDC has the following functions:

· Deputy Area Air Defense Commander (DAADC)

· Commander of AAMDC, including EAC ADA brigades

· Theater Army Air Defense Coordinator (TAADCOORD)

· Missile Defense Coordinator (MDCOORD)

· Army integrator for critical asset defense

· Recommends Combat Service Support prioritization and battlefield positioning of Class V and IX stocks

· Establishes and integrates continuous, all weather, 24 hour, dedicated, ground based TMD and AD systems in theater

1-6 DEFINITION OF THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE AND AIR DEFENSE

Theater Missile Defense and Air Defense are two distinct, separate operations in which the AAMDC will synchronize, and (as required), direct the conduct of AD and TMD operations for the purpose of protecting forces as well as designated theater strategic assets. Theater Missile Defense and Air Defense are further defined below.

a. THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE

TMD Applies to the identification, integration, and employment of forces supported by theater and national capabilities to detect, identify, locate, track, minimize the effects of, and/or destroy enemy TMs. Target Areas of Interest (TAIs) may be designated to include the targeting of TMs on the ground and in-flight, ground-based launchers and supporting infrastructure; TM capable ships and vessels in port or at sea; and enemy aircraft armed with air-to-surface missiles. TMD is a coordinated joint services effort, for more information on Army TMD Operations see Field Manual (FM) 100-12, "Army Theater Missile Defense". The four operational pillars of TMD are:

· Attack operations · Passive Defense

· Active Defense · Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence

b. AIR DEFENSE

All defensive measures are designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earth’s envelope or atmosphere or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Air Defense commanders synchronize their operations by integrating them horizontally with other combat functions and vertically within the air defense combat function. The combat functions exist at all echelons of command from echelons above corps through battalion.

1-7 OBJECTIVES OF THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE AND AIR DEFENSE

a. THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE

Theater Missile Defense is inherently a joint effort. Therefore, the objectives of each are the same. There are five (5) objectives of JTMD. The objectives of JTMD are:

· To demonstrate US resolve to deter aggression through the establishment of a TMD capability.

· To protect US-deployed, and multinational forces as well as critical assets and areas of vital interest or political importance from attack by Tms.

· To detect and target TM systems; to detect, warn and report a TM launch; and to coordinate a multifaceted response to a TM attack while integrating that response with other combat operations.

· To reduce the probability of and/or minimize the effects of damage caused by a TM attack.

· To ensure that the JFC has the freedom to conduct joint operations without undue interference from TM operations conducted by the enemy.

b. AIR DEFENSE

Air Defense Objectives are similar at each level of war. Air Defense commanders plan their operations to support accomplishment of the maneuver commander’s strategic, operational, or tactical objectives by protecting their priority forces and assets from air and missile attack and surveillance.

· Strategic Objectives: Air Defense protects forces or geopolitical and military assets of strategic significance. Normally, requirements to protect strategic assets will be establish by the National Control Authority (NCA). Strategic missions can be assigned to air defense units at all echelons of command.

· Operational Objectives: Theater missile defense plans support the joint force commander’s intent and concept of the operation. The JFC employs theater missile defense forces, (and counterair-CA), to achieve two primary operational objectives: gain control of the air environment and protect the force and selected assets. AD units conduct defensive counterair (DCA) and TMD active defense operations and help integrate contributions to CA and TMD by other members of the combined arms team. They protect priority forces and assets in the theater base according to the JFCs and JFLCCs counterair and theater missile defense priorities.

· Tactical Objectives: To protect corps and division forces as they plan and execute battles and engagements. Specific tactical objectives for ADA brigades and battalions are described in FM 44-100, "US Army Air Defense Operations".

1-8 RELATIONSHIP OF THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE AND AIR DEFENSE

Theater missile defense and theater counterair operations are separate but highly related mission areas. Counterair targets are manned aircraft and UAVs, while TMD targets are ballistic, cruise, and tactical air-to-surface missiles. The theater missile threat requires the use of tactics and techniques that differ from those used to counter traditional aircraft threats.

The nature of aircraft flight parameters such as altitude, human (pilot) limitations, time of flight, distance from targets, and the increased exposure to weapon systems over time provides a greater opportunity for engagement by friendly forces. Sensors are provided longer acquisition and detection time windows on targets as they approach friendly battlespace and this facilitates warning and updating of target information for dissemination to theater forces. Aircraft conducting operations against friendly forces are exposed to defensive systems for tens of minutes as they approach friendly lines. Conversely, TBM engagement opportunities are measured in seconds due to the flight trajectories (EXOATMOSPHERIC/ENDOATMOSPHERIC) and increased speeds that TBMs attain. TM trajectories are more vertical when compared to aircraft which fly primarily at a horizontal attitudes. Exposure time to friendly systems for engagement is shorter in duration when compared to aircraft flight paths. The shorter acquisition and detection time window for TMs directly impacts early warning and reaction to defeat the TM threat. Warning information and predicted impact points must be transmitted as quickly as possible throughout the theater of operations especially if Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are suspected. Decentralized control for engagement is imperative to counter the TM threat as reaction time is critical. TMs launched against friendly forces or assets typically fly extremely steep trajectories from enemy positions identifying them as TMs. This precludes the requirement for identification procedures normally used with ABTs to prevent fratricide.

Though there are some areas where counterair and TMD operations overlap (e.g., sensors, weapons, communications, etc.), TMD and counterair command and control (C2) relationships differ. The unique challenges posed by theater missiles require a rapidly responsible C2 structure which decentralizes engagement operations to the lowest lever. By comparison, the requirement to avoid fratricide of friendly aircraft mandates strict, highly centralized control of counterair engagement operations. As a result of these conflicting demands, the joint force adopts separate C2 approaches which optimizes TMD and counterair operations to best protect the force from each type of threat.

A basic understanding of the levels of war explains the relationship between echelons (theater, unified, multinational and joint) and helps us understand the Army’s activities across the full range of military operations. Moreover, the levels—strategic, operational, and tactical—apply not only to war but also to SASO.

· Strategic—The major functions occurring at the national military and theater strategic levels performed by civil and military organizations and unified, joint and multinational strategic forces for successfully executing strategic plans/theater campaigns.

· Operational—The major functions occurring in the theater (or area) of operations, performed by joint and multinational operational forces, for successfully executing subordinate campaigns and major operations to accomplish the strategic objectives of the unified commander or higher military authority and operational objectives.

· Tactical—The major functions occurring on the battlefield, performed by the force to successfully execute operations (battles and engagements) by the Army to accomplish military objectives directed by the operational commander. These major functions are called Army Universal Task List (AUTL).