IndexFM 44-94 ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND OPERATIONS
DRAFT - February 1998



CHAPTER 2

THREAT

 

This chapter outlines the global air and missile threats facing US forces. To counter the threat, it is first necessary to understand it. Focusing on an enemy's capabilities and methods of operations, air defense commanders can best employ their resources to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHANGING THREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

CRUISE MISSILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

AIR TO SURFACE MISSILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

BALLISTIC MISSILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

FIXED WING AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5

ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

RECONNAISSANCE, INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE

and TARGET ACQUISITION (RISTA) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8

ELECTRONIC WARFARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9

WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10

SPACE THREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11

GROUND THREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12

THREAT APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13

 

2-1 CHANGING THREAT

Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the fall of the Soviet Union have resulted in changes to the worldwide geopolitical structure. The US no longer faces a communist block that poses a major threat to its security. The focus on internal political and economic reconfiguration in the former Soviet Union and the elimination of the Soviet troop presence in central Europe have reduced the likelihood of a super power confrontation. However, the world is now even more unstable due to increased nationalism and religious fundamentalism along with changing political affiliations. Regional conflicts and the proliferation of modern military technology mean that the Army must be prepared to face the full range of threat capabilities anywhere in the world with little notice. Potential force projection missions range from operations other than war to combat operations. Lack of a single, concrete threat doctrine and structure require an Army with operational flexibility and versatility.

It is difficult to determine which regional situations will require US force intervention. Rational and clearly recognized national goals and objectives are no longer the primary sources of conflict between nations. In addition, potential threat capabilities differ greatly in training, organization, and equipment.

These threats in regional conflicts will pose a serious challenge to US military planners and intelligence personnel. We can expect to see future adversaries armed with the full spectrum of military hardware from pre-World War II vintage equipment to the most technologically advanced systems. Future adversaries will also differ in their dedication, competence, and ability to employ their weapons effectively. In the face of unpredictable and varied threats, a versatile, deployable, and lethal Army remains essential.

The air defense commander and staff must consider the broad spectrum of potential air and missile threats to successfully protect the force and geopolitical assets. The future air threat has changed greatly since the demise of the Warsaw Pact. Though still potentially dangerous, the manned fixed-wing aircraft is no longer the only threat to US ground forces.

US and allied or coalition air forces will protect the force from most of the fixed-wing aircraft threat. However, there are a variety of other air and missile systems that can perform a wide range of missions against the joint force.