IndexFM 44-94 ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND OPERATIONS
DRAFT - February 1998



CHAPTER 5

AAMDC SUSTAINMENT OPERATIONS

 

"Forget logistics and you lose."

Commanding General, TRADOC

This chapter addresses the employment of the discrete EAC operational air defense force elements assigned to the AAMDC, their system capabilities, and their associated logistics sustainment operations that must be considered by the AAMDC when planning for and executing air defense force projection operations. The significance of logistics to the success of ADA force projection operations demands that ADA planners and operators at all levels understand not only integration of air defense systems, but also the associated sustainment requirements. Just as the dynamic characteristics of each air defense system contributes a capability to the overall force projection operation, it brings with it unit and system sustainment requirements. These requirements are shaped by where a system is employed and how the system fights.

CONTENTS

Page

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT FUNDAMENTALS . . . . .

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT CHARACTERISTICS . . . .

THEATER ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . .

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .

AAMDC FORCE PROJECTION SUSTAINMENT CONSIDERATIONS

 

The ADA warfighting is based not only on defense designed to protect high priority assets, but also on effective and efficient joint planning and coordination. This includes tactical and logistical planning to gain "Decisive Victory".

5-1 COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT FUNDAMENTALS

In modern warfare and in SASO, operations and logistics are totally interdependent. Current and future ADA systems require well-trained, motivated soldiers to operate them, and a flexible, responsive CSS system to sustain them. Combat Service Support, from the strategic and operational levels of war to the tactical level, provide the commander the means to initiate and sustain operations.

 

a. STRATEGIC COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

Strategic CSS deals with mobilization, acquisition, force projection, strategic mobility, and the strategic concentration of logistics in the theater support base and COMMZ. ADA units have greater contact with the strategic logistics system than most tactical organizations. Logistics assistance representative (LARs) from US Army Missile Command (MICOM), a subordinate command of AMC, are assigned to most ADA battalions and brigades. They serve as technical advisors on maintenance and supply, and provide a direct link to the AMC support base. ADA units also can expect to have direct contact with contractors on select systems to expedite maintenance, for repair part identification, and for resupply.

b. OPERATIONAL COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

At the operational level the TAADCOORD exercises operational CSS responsibilities by recommending priorities for allocation of logistics functions to all ADA units in the theater. He plans and coordinates theater-wide CSS support for ADA units, and ensures missiles and repair parts are allocated to the corps and EAC ADA brigades according to the JFLCC’s priorities.

c. TACTICAL COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

The objective of tactical CSS is to provide the right support at the right time and place. The focus is on manning and arming tactical units, fixing and fueling their equipment, moving soldiers and materiel, and sustaining soldiers and their systems.

5-2 COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT CHARACTERISTICS

There are five characteristics essential to effective and efficient CSS operations. These five characteristics--anticipation, integration, continuity, responsiveness, and improvisation--enable operational success.

a. ANTICIPATION

The AAMDC commander and his logisticians must be able to identify, accumulate, and maintain the assets and information necessary to provide timely support. His ability to estimate, as accurately as possible future logistics demands, will enhance the success of the operation. Anticipation also means developing CSS capabilities that are versatile and mobile enough to accommodate likely operational or tactical events. Anticipation requires constant coordination between the operations and CSS staffs.

b. INTEGRATION

Tactical and operational success depends on fully integrated concepts of CSS and operations. Integration during planning ensures support of operations during execution. Based on the theater strategic and operational concept, logisticians develop a CSS concept that gives commanders the greatest possible freedom of action and enhances the agility and versatility of an operation.

c. CONTINUITY

During operations, forces require continuous supply and service support to sustain their fighting strength and agility. Any interruption in CSS operations diminishes the combat power of a force. When the pace of combat activity diminishes, units reconstitute their capabilities. Continuity of support with a responsive CSS system increases the probability of operational success.

d. RESPONSIVENESS

The CSS system must react rapidly in crises. Seldom will all support requirements be known in advance. ADA commanders and staffs must adapt units to unanticipated requirements, often on short notice. CSS requirements will be difficult to forecast with complete accuracy. Supply discipline contributes to responsive logistics.

e. IMPROVISATION

Improvisation is the ability to make, invent, arrange, or fabricate what is needed out of what is at hand. Plans that are disrupted may require improvisation. Logistical improvisation will often spell the difference between success and failure of operations.

5-3 THEATER ORGANIZATION

The JFC may designate a joint rear area (JRA). It is designated to facilitate protection and operation of installations and forces that provide support to combat operations. The ASCC provides necessary CSS support capabilities for Army forces assigned to the joint force. The army support structure is designed to provide flexibility through tailoring the support structure based upon METT-T, strategic lift, pre-positioned assets, and host nation support. Support "building blocks" or modules are assembled and tailored to meet the support requirements of the force.

The ASCC augments Corps structure with selected operational-level CSS organizations when required. He may further organize these operational CSS organizations into an operational-level support command. It uses a material management cent (MMC) to manage supply and maintenance and a movement control agency to provide theater level movement management.

5-4 PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

CSS preparation of the battlefield is just as important as IPB. Logistician anticipate support requirements through development of a CSS estimate. Current and projected status can be identified using the CSS estimates of higher headquarters. The focus of this planning must remain on:

· What, how much, when, and where the force will need support applied to the sustainment functions (manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving and sustaining soldiers and their systems)?

· What sources of support will be used during all phases of the operations?

· What support distribution methods will be used during all phases of the operations?

· What early and continuous coordination with supporting organizations and subordinate unit logisticians is essential?

The administrative / logistics staff performs planning, coordination, and supervision of the logistics functions: Man, Arm, Fuel, Fix, Move, and sustain the soldier and their systems. In addition, this staff is the logistical conduit through the AAMDC to external logistics organizations.

a. MANNING

Personnel readiness management, replacement management, and casualty management are the sub-components of manning. The personnel readiness system focuses on all personnel service support functions and actions required to ensure support during predeployment, deployment, and redeployment for war and SASO.

The G3 / S3 section provides the G1 / S1 OPORD, OPLAN and FRAGOS that stipulate task organization information necessary for identifying command and control relationships. This information is used to provide accurate strength accountability and to determine necessary modular personnel system support packages.

Within ADA battalions and under the supervision of the battalion S-1, the administrative section of the respective HIMAD battalion or the SHORAD battalion S-1/S-4 section, has primary responsibility for the execution of the manning function. This staff will insure the most current data available is provided to the ADA commander.

b. ARMING

Arming is providing the right mix and quantity of ammunition to the right place and at the right time. Weapon systems must be armed as close to the point of employment as the tactical situation permits. During periods of intense combat, arming the fighting force is the most extensive and time-sensitive task of the sustainment system. It must routinely be accomplished in a highly responsive manner to support accomplishment of the commander's mission.

The Army Materiel Command (AMC), through the Missile Command (MICOM), provides AD missiles to the theater in accordance with production and stockage constraints, threat assessment, and as established by the theater commander. AD missiles will arrive in theater on flat-racks that are part of the palletized loading system (PLS) distribution concept. These racks are compatible with the PLS common platforms used in ADA units.

The CSS system sustains combat capability by providing unit basic loads of missile munitions and missile munitions resupply. ADA units are authorized basic loads of ammunition, expressed in rounds per weapon per day, to sustain them in combat until they can be resupplied. The theater commander normally establishes a unit's basic load based on mission, the types and number’s of weapon systems, transport capability, and the time necessary to effect resupply. The missile munitions basic load is carried into battle on the unit's PLS. SOPs should describe distribution of the basic load.

To determine the requirement for a specific operation, units develop a required supply rate (RSR) for each type of ammunition. The operations officer (S-3) prepares the RSR during the planning stages of the operation. RSRs are forwarded, reviewed, and consolidated at each level in the ADA chain of command and also to the TAADCOORD. He develops a theater wide RSR for each type of ADA missile, and provides that information to the ASCC headquarters. At ASCC headquarters level the G3, G4, and the commander review the requirements and availability of ammunition. Based on this review the commander establishes the controlled supply rate (CSR) which is the actual authorized rate for resupply. Once the theater commander establishes the CSR he forwards it to the TAADCOORD. The TAADCOORD, after consulting with the G3 and G4, allocates the CSR to the corps and EAC ADA brigades based upon the CINC’s priorities. Those ammunition items for which the CSR is less than the RSR will normally be identified in the appropriate CSS annex.

c. FUELING

Fueling is a critical sustainment function that keeps the force on the move. Setting clear priorities for fueling, estimating fuel consumption, and economizing assets whenever possible contribute to ensuring adequate support of operations.

Initial allocation of fuel is based on estimates prepared and submitted by the G4 / S-4 using experience and standard planning factors. These estimates must consider special factors that include terrain, weather, and the units mission. The estimates are forwarded to higher headquarters where they are refined, consolidated, and forwarded to the TAACOM MMC.

d. FIXING

Fixing is the function of sustaining material and equipment in an operational status, restoring it to serviceable condition, and upgrading it's functional abilities through modification. These functions are performed at unit, DS, GS, and depot. A key aspect of maintenance is the ability to repair equipment quickly and as close as possible to the point of failure or damage. The operator is the first link in the chain of maintenance followed by the organizational mechanics of the battery. Battery maintenance personnel provide a quick turnaround of equipment based on replacement of unserviceable line replaceable units (LRU) and minor repair (adjust, clean, lubricate, and tighten). Equipment repaired, rebuilt and or refurbished at the GS and Depot maintenance levels will normally be returned to the supply system.

Logisticians maintain visibility of repair parts throughout the theater, and cross-level parts routinely to repair non-operational systems. ADA brigades and EAC units will interface with the theater logistics system at the Theater Army Materiel Management Center (TAMMC) level. It will also keep the AAMDC G-4 abreast of the operational status of equipment and oversight of repair parts within the brigade.

e. MOVING

Movement is inherent in all the logistics functions as it is in combat and combat support functions. It cannot be looked at in isolation; it is the one element that ties sustainment and all battlefield operations together. Movement is a major concern of the S-3. He must orchestrate the maneuver of his units; all other movement simply supports that maneuver. The S-1/S-4 section is concerned with the detailed planning and execution of logistics movement and assisting in the execution of tactical movement.

The movement function goes beyond the physical movement of personnel and materiel. It involves all the elements of moving forces and their logistics requirements to locations required by operations. Some of the components of movement are the physical transportation modes, the process of planning and controlling movement, allocating transportation resources, and prioritizing movement.

Transportation assets within a theater perform three functions: modal operations, terminal operations, and movement management. Modal operations move personnel or materiel in any conveyance by one of the transportation modes: air, rail, road, or water. Terminal operations shift cargo from one mode of transportation to another or from one type of transport within the mode to another. Movement management involves the staff planning and coordination necessary to the transportation system's effectiveness. FM 55-10, "Movement control in a Theater of Operations" provides detailed guidance on procedures for obtaining transportation support and conducting movement planning.

 

f. SUSTAINING SOLDIERS AND THEIR SYSTEMS

The five elements of sustaining soldiers and their systems are personnel services, health services, field services, quality of life, and general supply support.

(1) Personnel Services

Personnel service support functions sustain the morale and welfare of the soldier. At battalion, these include chaplain activities, legal services, public affairs, postal services, and finance services.

(2) Health Service Support

Battalion health service support (HSS) is planned by the unit surgeon and S-1, and provided by the unit medical section. To ensure adequate medical support a thorough understanding of the battalion's concept of operation and the support plan is required of the medical staff and supporting elements.

(3) Field Services

Field services are services required by units that are not usually available within the unit. These services are provided by TAACOM organizations on an area support basis. Services assist in maintaining the health, morale, and welfare of the individual soldier thereby providing the commander with healthy, motivated soldiers to fight the battle.

(4) Quality of Life

Quality of life and family considerations affect every soldier's readiness and willingness to fight. The soldier fights best when he is reassured that his loved ones are adequately cared for at home station. There is a direct relationship between adequate, well-thought-out soldier and family quality of life programs, soldier morale, and combat effectiveness.

(5) General Supply Support

General supply support encompasses the provisioning of clothing, water, barrier material, and major end items. These classes of supplies include all the systems that support the soldier. The quality and acceptability of rations, clothing and sundry packages are critical in sustaining the morale of soldiers and enhancing their ability to perform effectively.

5-2 AAMDC FORCE PROJECTION SUSTAINMENT CONSIDERATIONS

a. FORCE PROJECTION SUSTAINMENT PLANNING

Planning for, and execution of any operation includes a series of actions and activities to accomplish the mission by supporting the commander's intent. The projection of AAMDC forces into an area of operations will be time phased in accordance with CINC requirements. Doctrinally, this is an eight step operational process.

Step 1. Mobilization activities. A mobilization of the reserve component is required. This includes selective, presidential selection reserve call-up (PSRC), partial mobilization, full mobilization, and/or total mobilization. Each of these actions requires sustainment planning by the AAMDC.

Step 2. Pre-deployment activities. All pre-deployment activities require a wide array of planning and execution steps by the AAMDC. Appendix C contains a set of predeployment checklists that can be used to ensure all aspects of manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining soldiers and their systems are accomplished.

Step 3. Deployment activities. The range of military actions could include deployment for operations other than war, conflict, or war. Again, the mission and logistics intelligence preparation of the theater will govern the deployment sustainment activities the AAMDC needs to plan for and execute. Appendix D contains a deployment checklist that can be used to ensure all aspects of manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining soldiers and their systems are accomplished.

Step 4. Entry operations. Depending on the military action being supported, the AAMDC will encounter an unopposed entry operation, opposed entry operation and/or an early entry decision covert or overt. The AAMDC organizations will enter the theater with basic loads. These basic loads are generally equal to the organization's transportation carrying capacities. There is a definite need for the identification of required maintenance, services, and supply units to be included in the TAACOM force projection to support the AAMDC.

Step 5. Mission operations. The mission operations executed by the AAMDC will be time phased to support lodgment and expansion phases. The sustainment activities must support each phase of the AAMDC's plan to include a balance between internal and external sustainment resources. This is where

sustainment actions and activities will play the greatest role.

Step 6. War termination and postconflict activities. Postconflict operations reflect a transition from hostilities to a restoration of peacetime activities. It sets into motion the following conditions, each having sustainment planning implications:

· Restoring order.

· Reestablishing host nation infrastructure.

· Preparing ADA forces for redeployment.

· Providing ADA forces for humanitarian assistance(housing, sanitation and feeding).

· Providing ADA forces for population control.

· Providing ADA forces for control of prisoners.

· Supporting refugee work.

· Potential Resumption of hostilities.

Step 7. Redeployment and reconstitution. The AAMDC must restructure the EAC ADA force and redeploy assets no longer needed. The same factors and conditions that were faced in the deployment will be faced in the redeployment. The factors of METT-T must also be considered as the mission evolves. The sustainment planning to support redeploy is just as challenging as the sustainment planning for deployment and must consider:

· Redeployment of assets no longer needed.

· Phasing of the redeployment.

· Air and sea lift requirements.

· Redeployment to areas other than home station.

· Reconstitution of resources.

· Protection of redeploying assets.

· Contractor support requirements.

· Host nation support requirements.

Step 8. Demobilization activities. The AAMDC involvement in the demobilization of ADA organizations, units, and soldiers must highlight the honors owed to the units and individuals being demobilized. Planning must include:

· Acknowledging the contribution of organizations and soldiers to the mission.

· Ensuring rights of the soldiers to reemployment are known.

· Providing public affairs announcements to home towns of units and soldiers.

· Providing for medical attention, through appropriate channels for injured soldiers.

· Providing for counseling in family and civilian integration.

· Ensuring all equipment and material are given a full technical inspection.

· Providing for maintenance, repair, and upgrade of equipment returned from the area or theater of operation.

b. ADA FORCE SUSTAINMENT PLANNING ISSUES

As discussed above, the AAMDC is involved in a dynamic and fluid situation to meet the requirements of manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining its soldiers and systems throughout the conduct of force projection operations. It is imperative that the AAMDC and its subordinate ADA force know the organizations that support them during each step of a force projection operation.

The AAMDC must plan and coordinate with the service and joint force commands to highlight the AAMDC personnel and logistics support requirements. This must be done for each phase of AAMDC force deployment from any location to ensure that the balance between tactical element and required support is achieved.

Doctrinally, at EAC the AAMDC is supported by a TAACOM in a mature theater of operations. However, depending on the region of the conflict, war, or SASO the projection of AAMDC assets could first be supported in a theater of operations by support elements of a CONUS projected AMC logistics support task force, the COSCOM of a deployed corps, or by another service component under a joint logistics support organization. Under any or all of these support structure scenarios the AAMDC force can expect to receive sustainment through HNS, Department of the Army civilian (DAC), and in country or CONUS/OCONUS projected contractor personnel.

The AAMDC must ensure that a balance between the force being projected and the required basic load to sustain them is sufficient until normal supply operations are established. Sustainment planning concerns are keyed to the force development and force protection activities. To ensure continuous sustainment throughout ADA force projection operations staff planning must continually address the following combat service support issues associated with each of the six sustainment functions.

(1) Manning

Manning addresses all requirements of the commander to support personnel. ADA force planners must continuously assess their:

· Personnel section of the TOE and modified TOE (MTOE).

· Manning services providers.

· Personnel services provider.

· Finance services provider.

· Chaplain services provider.

· Means to gain host nation support (for all or any of the above).

· Requirements that must be communicated to all providers.

· Provider's capabilities.

· Provider's limitations.

· Procedures to acquire support.

· Need to coordinate requirements.

(2) Arming

Arming addresses all requirements of the commander to arm his weapons. ADA force planners must continuously assess their:

· Missile munitions service provider.

· Transporting capacity.

· Required supply rate.

· Controlled supply rate.

· Conventional ammunition service provider.

· Explosive ordnance disposal support providers.

· Provider's capabilities.

· Provider's limitations.

· Procedures to acquire support.

· Need to coordinate requirements.

(3) Fueling

Fueling addresses all requirements of the commander to fuel his systems. ADA force planners must continuously assess their:

· Basic load requirements.

· Transporting capacity.

· Bulk fuel service provider.

· Package fuel service provider.

· Provider's capabilities.

· Provider's limitations.

· Procedures to acquire support.

· Need to coordinate requirements.

(4) Fixing

Fixing addresses all requirements of the commander to fix his systems. ADA force planners must continuously assess their:

· Equipment listed on the TOE and MTOE.

· Operational readiness status.

· PLL status.

· Equipment maintenance service providers.

· Equipment Class IX service providers.

· Provider's capabilities.

· Provider's limitations.

· Procedures to acquire support.

· Need to coordinate requirements.

(5) Moving

Moving addresses all requirements of the commander to move his organization and supplies. ADA force planners must continuously assess their:

· Vehicle carrying capability of the organization.

· Strategic lift requirements for the organization.

· Rail movement requirements for the organization.

· Need for load plans for all organic vehicles and trailers.

· Transportation service providers.

· Provider's capabilities.

· Provider's limitations.

· Procedures to acquire support.

· Need to coordinate requirements.

(6) Sustain the Soldier and Their Systems

Moving addresses all requirements of the commander to sustain the health, welfare and morale of his soldiers. ADA force planners must continuously assess their:

· Public affairs service provider.

· Legal service support provider.

· Food service provider.

· Water provider.

· Personal welfare and comfort service providers.

· Clothing and soldier equipment providers.

· Laundry, bath and renovations providers.

· Medical service providers.

· Graves registration service provider.

· Provider's capabilities.

· Provider's limitations.

· Procedures to acquire support.

· Need to coordinate requirements.