IndexFM 44-94 ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND OPERATIONS



Chapter 1

Army Air and Missile Defense Command

Mission, Roles and Organization

This chapter provides a concise overview of the Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) including its mission, roles and organization. It includes an operational overview, which describes the AAMDCís command and control (C2) structure, theater C2 relationships and concept of operations; a support overview, which describes how the AAMDC supports air and missile defense (AMD) operations; and a communications overview, which summarizes the AAMDCís communications requirements and C4I architecture.

MISSION

ADA MISSION

1-1. The Air Defense Artillery (ADA) mission is to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack and surveillance. This protection is normally provided within a joint theater and requires that Army AMD systems be integrated with joint AMD systems and that operations be closely coordinated.

AAMDC MISSION

1-2. The AAMDC mission is to strategically deploy combat ready air defense artillery units and perform air and missile defense planning, coordination, integration and execution in support of the commander-in-chiefís (CINCís) priorities. In performing this mission, the AAMDC ensures that the Armyís contribution to the theater AMD fight is seamlessly integrated, coordinated and synchronized with other Army, joint and multinational units and supports the joint force commanderís intent.

ROLES

1-3. The AAMDC is the Armyís operational lead for Army theater air and missile defense. In wartime, the AAMDC deploys into the theater of operations in support of the Army forces (ARFOR) commander or, if designated, the joint forces land component commander (JFLCC), ensuring that Army AMD operations are properly coordinated and integrated with those of joint and multinational forces. In peacetime, the AAMDC ensures Army echelons above corps (EAC) AMD forces are properly trained and ready to support AMD operations. The AAMDC plans and executes a variety of training activities, exercises, and simulations to ensure force readiness. It also coordinates with joint and multinational partners to develop procedures for combined theater AMD operations, interoperability and training. See Figure 1-1 for a functional comparison with the ADA brigade headquarters.

Figure 1-1. Functional Comparison

ORGANIZATION

AAMDC ORGANIZATION

1-4. The AAMDC is a multi-component organization of active and reserve component intelligence, fire support, aviation, chemical, air defense, special forces, signal, and logistics personnel melded into an effective theater air and missile defense (AMD) team. A second AAMDC is authorized and will consist of all reserve component personnel. Although not part of the AAMDC table of organization and equipment, civilian contractor personnel may be required to augment the AAMDC for operational and technical support. The organizational structure of the AAMDC is shown in Figure 1-2. It consists of a command section and twelve subordinate sections: the Chief of Staff, G1 (Personnel), G2 (Intelligence), G3 (Operations), G4 (Logistics), G6 (Communications/Electronics), Headquarters Commandant, Inspector General (IG), Public Affairs, Staff Judge Advocate (SJA), Battery Headquarters and Motor Maintenance sections.

Figure 1-2. AAMDC Organizational Structure

AAMDC FUNCTIONS

1-5. The major functions of the command section and its subordinate staff are summarized below:

1-6. The Command Section exercises command and control of the AAMDC and subordinate units and ensures that functions pertaining to the overall operation of the AAMDC are planned, coordinated, and executed. The Command Section also performs battle management functions and oversees the planning, initial entry, and combat operations for air and missile defense functions.

1-7. The Chief of Staff Section directs and coordinates the activities of the subordinate staff (to include the special staff, Public Affairs Section, Chaplain, IG, and SJA) and ensures that assigned tasks are promptly and efficiently completed.

1-8. The Personnel Section is responsible for personnel administration and manpower management and is the focal point for all personnel-related matters. It advises and assists the commander in management of personnel records and reports, personnel replacements, discipline, morale, welfare and personnel services.

1-9. The Intelligence Section is the focal point for all military intelligence, counterintelligence and security operations and provides theater AMD intelligence support to Army component forces and other joint/multinational forces as required. It is responsible for acquiring, maintaining and monitoring intelligence systems; determining intelligence communication requirements; assisting in the development of physical security plans, operational plans and operations security measures; assisting the commander in identifying priority intelligence requirements (PIRs); and coordinating intelligence and security drills. It also participates in a variety of intelligence production, dissemination and support activities. These activities include analyzing intelligence reports and messages, refining and validating the intelligence preparation of the battlespace (IPB), developing and refining the intelligence estimate, processing requests for information (RFIs), and keeping the commander informed of intelligence capabilities and limitations and the potential impact on operations.

1-10. The Operations Section is responsible for coordinating, integrating and synchronizing all current and future AAMDC operations. It directs the emplacement of the tactical operations center (TOC) and monitors the operational status, location and engagement capabilities of land-based air and missile defense units. The section coordinates unit movements and maintains situational awareness of the theater AMD battle. It also establishes and maintains liaison officers at major theater and ARFOR C2 nodes to facilitate the conduct of air and missile defense operations. For example, in the event a missile is launched, the operations section receives missile launch and TBM impact points, disseminates early warning, and after analysis passes targeting recommendations on the enemyís launch platforms and associated infrastructure to the deep operations coordination cell (DOCC). The operations section prepares the AMD annex to the ARFORís OPLAN/OPORD. It also develops plans to support future operations, assists integration of TMD time sensitive and planned air tasking order (ATO) target missions, and assists in the development of the theater air defense plan.

1-11. The Logistics Section is responsible for coordinating the supply, maintenance, transportation and services for the command. It determines current and future ADA supply needs, recommends logistical allocations and priorities, and assists the operations section in preparing plans for service support. The section also monitors equipment readiness and unique ADA classes of supply (Class V and IX). It also prepares the movement annex to OPLANs/OPORDs, coordinates and schedules transportation operations and advises units on current transport requirements and movement restrictions.

1-12. The Communications/Electronics (C/E) Section provides data and voice communications, information systems planning, coordination and support to the AAMDC as well as joint, multinational and external organizations as required.

1-13. The Headquarters Battery (Battery HQ Section) provides the full range of personnel management and administrative support for the battery. It provides the administrative link when requesting replacements, reporting casualties and conducting personnel actions.

1-14. The Maintenance Section provides maintenance support and expertise on all assigned equipment and ensures required services are performed. It requests repair and replacement items and monitors the automated inventory management system for status and availability of projected repair parts.

1-15. The Headquarters Commandant Section exercises operational control over soldiers assigned to the headquarters. It provides for headquarters security, food service, quartering, medical support, field sanitation and supply for headquarters personnel. It also arranges for the reception and integration of augmentees to support the AAMDC mission.

1-16. The Inspector General (IG) Section advises the commander on the overall welfare and state of discipline of the command. It integrates the commanders organizational inspection program, conducts inspections and investigations, and assists the commander in determining the state of the discipline, efficiency, morale, training and readiness within the command.

1-17. The Public Affairs Section plans and supervises the commandís public affairs program. It advises and informs the commander of the public affairs impact and implications of planned or implemented operations. It serves as the commandís spokesman for all communication with the external media, monitors media and public opinion, and evaluates the effectiveness of public affairs plans and operations.

1-18. The Staff Judge Advocate Section provides legal advice to the commander on military, domestic and foreign laws as well as those relating to armed conflict. It also provides legal services for the command, supervises the administration of military justice and ensures that the rights of individuals are protected and the interests of justice are served.

OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW

1-19. Air and missile defense operations are separate, but highly related mission areas. Air targets are manned aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), while theater missile targets are comprised of ballistic, cruise, and air-to-surface missiles. Operations to protect the force from theater missiles differ fundamentally from those actions taken to defend against the air threat. With the proliferation of advanced guidance systems, lower radar cross-sections, penetration aids, and warheads of mass destruction, missile threats are more stressful to air and missile defense operations than manned aircraft. In addition to the highly vulnerable fixed nature of aircraft-related support facilities to attack operations, the operational battlespace (or the opportunity to engage) is much greater for aircraft than for missiles. While aircraft conducting operations against the force are exposed to defensive fires for tens of minutes, missile engagement opportunities may be measured in seconds and mobile missile launchers are less vulnerable to attack operations.

1-20. Although there are some areas where air and missile defense operations overlap (for example, some sensors, weapons and communications are the same), air and missile defense C2 relationships differ. The unique challenges posed by theater missiles require a highly responsive C2 structure that decentralizes engagement operations to the lowest level. By comparison, the requirement to avoid fratricide of friendly aircraft mandates strict, highly centralized control of air defense (counterair) engagement operations. As a result of these conflicting demands, the joint force adopts separate C2 approaches that optimize air and missile defense operations to best protect the force from each type of threat.

 

COMMAND AND CONTROL

1-21. The AAMDC commander is responsible for planning, coordinating and integrating AMD operations for the ARFOR commander or, if designated, the JFLCC, and ensuring these operations are properly executed. He accomplishes these functions through the following activities:

OPERATIONAL CONCEPT

1-22. An AAMDC can operate throughout the full range of military operations. During peacetime the AAMDCs are based in the continental United States (CONUS) and are organized for rapid deployment during force projection operations to plan and conduct theater air and missile defense for the ARFOR commander. During contingency missions the AAMDC will plan, recommend, and task organize force requirements based on mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, time available, and civilian considerations (METT-TC). The force requirements may be resourced from both active and reserve components.

1-23. The AAMDC must train to meet air and missile defense operational requirements. This training includes developing and practicing tactics, techniques, and procedures with joint and multinational forces. The AAMDC provides unity of command and commonality of purpose for all EAC ADA Brigades by establishing the EAC ADA Brigade training guidance and enforcing applicable standards. The AAMDC also coordinates with other services and multinational forces on AMD matters.

1-24. The AAMDC plans, coordinates, integrates, and executes Army theater air and missile defense operations by horizontally and vertically receiving, analyzing, integrating, and disseminating AMD information. Within AMD operations the AAMDC integrates the four operational elements of TMD: passive defense, active defense, attack operations, and C4I to protect contingency, forward deployed, and reinforcing forces as well as designated assets from the joint force commanderís (JFC) defended asset list (DAL). The AAMDC executes its mission using an integrated system of hardware and software located in the TOC. This system, known as the Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System (AMDPCS), includes the computers, communications an other equipment necessary to plan, coordinate, monitor, and integrate the execution of AMD for the ARFOR or, if designated, the JFLCC. Also, dedicated liaison teams deploy to selected major theater and ARFOR elements to assist in execution of the mission.

1-25. The commanding general (CG) of the AAMDC performs three critical roles during AMD operations. The CG commands the AAMDC and its subordinate EAC ADA brigades, performs the functions of the TAAMDCOORD for the ARFOR commander (or JFLCC), and performs the functions of the DAADC for the AADC. The AAMDC normally locates with the ARFOR headquarters, but may co-locate with the joint air operations center (JAOC), dependent on METT-TC. The location of the commander and his role is also dependent on METT-TC.

SUPPORT OVERVIEW

SUSTAINMENT

1-26. AAMDC sustainment operations involve both planning and oversight activities that are performed primarily by the G1 and G4 staffs. These activities focus on how, when and where to accomplish the sustainment functions of manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving and sustaining soldiers and their systems.

PRIORITIZATION

1-27. The AAMDC commander may establish support priorities by phase of the operations or change priorities during operations to ensure that combat support (CS) or combat service support (CSS) are provided in accordance with their relative importance to accomplishing the mission. Changes by phase to the defended asset list (DAL) or reprioritization of critical assets on the DAL will normally affect support priorities and require continual assessment by the staff. The G1 and G4 staffs will ensure these priorities are implemented in accordance with the commanderís intent.

RECONSTITUTION

1-28. Reconstitution operations are conducted to restore the AAMDC and/or its supporting forces to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and available resources. They are implemented when combat effectiveness has been degraded as a result of enemy activity or other battlefield environmental factors. Due to the limited AMD assets available for the critical force protection mission, the AAMDC will normally provide guidance and direction to theater-wide AMD reconstitution efforts to ensure forces are available to provide active defense of priority assets on the JFCís DAL. Reconstitution operations include regeneration and reorganization. Regeneration involves rebuilding the unit through large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment and supplies, including the reestablishment or replacement of essential C2 personnel and equipment and the conduct of mission essential training. Reorganization involves the shifting of internal resources within the unit to increase its level of combat effectiveness. The AAMDC will assist the EAC ADA brigades in regeneration and reorganization decisions and provide support and assistance in executing either mission. Given the severely limited amount of AMD-specific equipment worldwide, the likelihood of complete regeneration of units is small. Most reconstitution operations will be a combination of regeneration and reorganization.

COMMUNICATIONS OVERVIEW

1-29. The AAMDC must establish and maintain communications at the theater level with the ARFOR, joint forces, and multinational elements. It must also establish and maintain a robust internal communications system. These communication linkages are required to support a variety of critical activities including:

REQUIREMENTS

1-30. The AAMDC C4I system for AMD must be sufficiently interoperable to respond to the needs of the ARFOR, joint and multinational commands and also link passive air defense, active air defense, and attack operations elements in order to plan, coordinate, and integrate forces to accomplish the theater AMD mission. C4I resources detect, identify, and track threats to warn and cue defensive assets as well as provide accurate launch and impact points. These resources should be capable of rapidly exchanging information, interfacing with components, displaying a common operational picture and allowing distributive/collaborative planning. The information flow should support the chain of command and be as complete, secure, and as near real time as possible.

1-31. New C4I functions, equipment, and procedures may be required to accommodate the changing characteristics and signatures associated with the rapidly evolving air and missile threat. These C4I capabilities and procedures should be integrated with existing and planned C4I systems as requirements are developed. At a minimum, capabilities should match the following JTAMD requirements.

1-32. Intelligence plays a critical role in planning, deploying, employing, and sustaining joint AMD operations. The effectiveness of AMD operations requires the timely collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of reliable and accurate intelligence on enemy capabilities and activities. The intelligence system is vital to the decision making cycle and must support the status, assessment, planning, warning, and IPB functions, as well as target prioritization recommendations. The AAMDC intelligence system must accommodate a variety of component, joint, and multinational systems.

ARCHITECTURE

1-33. The AAMDC C4I infrastructure needs interoperable systems that facilitate the conduct of AMD operations against a diverse threat array. These systems should be connected to commanders at appropriate decision and execution levels to integrate forces and missions. The systems expedite C2 functions through rapid, reliable, flexible, and secure exchange of information throughout the chain of command and across the joint warfighting community. The C4I architecture provides the timely intelligence and operational information needed to plan, employ, coordinate, integrate, execute, and sustain AAMDC participation in joint air and missile defense operations.