[Index]

NAVAL

THEATER AIR & MISSILEDEFENSE

CONCEPT

 

 

Naval Doctrine Command

 

Theater Air & Missile Defense ConceptDevelopment Team

September 26, 1997

 

Naval Doctrine Command POC:

CDR R.T. McCrillis, N821

mccrillis@ndc.navy.mil

Mr. Bill Bishop, N821B

wbishop@ndc.navy.mil

(757) 445-0561

DSN: 565-0561

Fax: (757) 445-0570

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary

Overview

Mission

Threat

The Naval TAMD Concept

Conduct of Naval TAMD Operations

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Purpose and Intended Audience

Scope and Organization

THE NAVAL THEATER AIR &MISSILE DEFENSE CONCEPT

OVERVIEW

THEATER AIR & MISSILE DEFENSE MISSION

THREAT

THE TAMD CONCEPT

The Foundation

Integrated C4I

Integrated Information Resources

Common Tools

Common Doctrine

Catalysts for "Plug and Fight"Capability

Flexible Command Structure

Battlespace Awareness

Integrated Airspace

Joint TAMD Capabilities in Network-BasedWarfighting

Tailored situational awareness

User-customized decision support

Unified combat action

JOINT TAMD OPERATIONS

Organization

How Joint Forces Conduct TAMD Operations

SUMMARY

RECOMMENDATIONS

Overview

Doctrine

Training and Personnel

Acquisition and Research

Closing Note

APPENDIX A: TAMDOPERATIONS

OVERVIEW

SCENARIOS

Scenario One: Forward Presence/Crisis

Mission and main effort

Battlespace

Chain of command

Active Defense

Attack Operations

Passive Defense

C4I

Scenario Two: Enabling Operations

Mission and main effort

Battlespace

Chain of command

Active Defense

Attack Operations

Passive Defense

C4I

Scenario Three: Sustained Combat Operationsby a Joint Task Force

Mission and main effort

Battlespace

Chain of command

Active Defense

Attack Operations

Passive Defense

C4I

APPENDIX B: ENABLINGTECHNOLOGIES

Overview

Infrastructure Projects

Application Projects

APPENDIX C: REFERENCES

A. DOCTRINE

B. REPORTS, RESEARCH PAPERS, AND STUDIES

C. MAGAZINE ARTICLES

D. CONCEPTS AND VISION STATEMENTS

E. OFFICIAL STATEMENTS, POLICY PAPERS,AND DOCUMENTS

F. PRESENTATIONS

G. WEB SITES

H. OTHERS

List of Figures

Figure EX-1.Network-Based Forces Engage the Enemy System
Figure EX-2.Network-Based Warfighting Underpins DynamicDefense in Depth
Figure EX-3.The TAMD Command Structure
Figure 1The Enemy Theater Air and Missile Threat isa System
Figure 2TAMD Engages the Enemy Throughout the Battlespace
Figure 3.Service C4I Integrates into the Joint Architecture
Figure 4.The System Supporting Integrated InformationResources
Figure 5.Joint Doctrine Implemented Through ServiceDoctrine is "Common Doctrine"
Figure 6.Integrated C4I Hosts TAMD Command and ControlWithin Service C2 Centers
Figure 7.The Structure of Network-Based TAMD Capabilities
Figure 8.Layers of Dynamic Defense in Depth
Figure A-1.Scenario One Battlespace for TAMD
Figure A-2.Scenario Two Battlespace for TAMD
Figure A-3.Scenario Three and TAMD Battlespace

 

Executive Summary

Overview

The strategic pause accompanying the end of the Cold War creates a windowof opportunity in which to apply emerging technology, advance new warfightingcapabilities, and test new doctrinal concepts without placing US combatforces and interests at risk. Weapons systems and enabling technologiesare proliferating among our known and potential enemies, increasing thedanger to US forces and interests from hostile theater air and missilesystems. This Naval Theater Air & Missile Defense (TAMD) Concept describesthe naval contributions to the joint TAMD system and its operations circa2010. Although the focus is on "naval" operations and capabilitiesfor dynamic defense in depth, the concept is joint. Navy and Marine capabilitiesand operations are joint, by design and necessity, whether they serve asthe foundation for a developing joint force, reinforce an established jointforce, or are the only forces in an operation.

Mission

Theater air and missile defense is the prioritized protection of criticalassets, friendly forces, and US interests from air and missile attack.Taking a systems analysis perspective, TAMD plans integrate joint air andmissile defense operations against piloted and uninhabited aircraft, theatermissiles, and their infrastructure for logistics, command, and control.TAMD operations support the main effort of the joint force, preventingenemy air and missile forces from interfering with operations by US forces.Forces and operations for TAMD are organized around the joint task forceoperations area and its associated areas of interest (AOI).

Threat

The historical theater air threat to US forces and interests was massedattacks by piloted aircraft. Despite the end of the Cold War, this threatremains widespread due to the continuing export of advanced combat aircraft,and now is complicated by the rising threat from theater missiles. "Theatermissiles" include cruise missiles and theater ballistic missiles (TBM).Each presents very difficult technical and tactical problems to US forces.Televised coverage of Iraqi SCUDs exploding in Israel and Saudi Arabiafocused US attention on the TBM threat and emphasized its proliferation.The overall TBM threat is predicted to increase in quantity, range, andlethality in the next decade. Cruise missiles share some of the characteristicsof aircraft but display others that are unique. A significant cruise missilethreat is emerging from the export of current weapons, the proliferationof indigenous production capabilities, and the likelihood that large inventoriesof antiship cruise missiles will be converted to land-attack cruise missilesusing commercially available technology. All three of these threat systems(piloted aircraft, TBMs, and cruise missiles) can be used to deliver weaponsof mass destruction (WMD).

The Naval TAD Concept

Joint, integrated TAMD operations are one element of US network-basedwarfighting capabilities. Cohesive, force-wide leverage of network-basedknowledge and understanding supports dynamic defense in depth against airand missile attack. TAMD forces neutralize or destroy the threat beforelaunch where possible, engage and defeat attacks which are launched, andminimize the effectiveness of attacks which canít be prevented or stoppedenroute. Dynamic defense in depth integrates mutually supportive, network-basedoperations to prevent hostile air and missile forces from interfering withUS operations. Network-based forces wage dynamic defense in depth acrosstime and distance, engaging enemy forces in every phase of their operationsand throughout the battlespace. Joint forces integrate their actions againstenemy aircraft, theater missiles, and the logistics, command, and controlinfrastructure, engaging it as an operational system. Planning is centralized,enabling operational commanders to synchronize decisive, high-tempo tacticaloperations, issuing broad guidance and clear requirements to tactical commandersand their units for decentralized execution. Tactical commanders integratecombat actions and adapt decisions to exploit the changing situation, reportingtheir status and the progress of the battle to the network.

 

Figure EX-1. Network-based Forces Engage theEnemy System

 

Figure EX-2. Network-Based Warfighting Underpins DynamicDefense in Depth

Network-based capabilities for TAMD enable tailored situational awareness,user-customized decision support, and unified combat action. Network-basedwarfighting springs from a flexible command structure, battlespace awareness,and integrated use of airspace. In turn, these three enablers depend uponthe "plug and fight" foundation to create network-based capabilities.The foundation combines integrated C4I, integrated information resources,common doctrine, and common tools for decision support. Air defense planscombine TAMD actions into four operational elements: attack operations,active defense, passive defense, and supporting C4I. These "operationalelements" are conceptual and planning constructs, not to be confusedwith functional or tactical organizations of forces.

Conduct of Naval TAMD Operations

The Joint Force Commander normally delegates operational command ofTAMD to an Area Air Defense Commander (AADC). Network-based capabilitiesenable on-scene location of the AADC, using collaborative planning systemsto draw and organize support from geographically dispersed resources intoa "virtual staff." The AADC is responsible for TAMD operations,developing the Air Defense Plan (ADP) in coordination with other jointforce operational commanders, particularly the Joint Force Air ComponentCommander (JFACC). The AADC exercises command through Service tacticalcommanders and control centers, such as the Navyís Air Warfare Commanderand the Marineís Air Combat Element commander. The AADC prioritizes forcesand assets for protection in the ADP, assigning responsibility for eachto specified tactical commanders, making best use of Service expertiseand capabilities. Tactical commanders execute these assignments with theirService air defense organizations, plus any additional assets assignedby the ADP.

Figure EX-3. The TAMD Command Structure

The Air Defense Plan (ADP) integrates the four operational elementsas mutually supportive parts of dynamic defense in depth. The leading elementof dynamic defense in depth is the attack operations which destroy or neutralizeenemy forces before missiles and aircraft become airborne, and the passivedefense measures which deny effective targeting information and minimizethe number of attractive targets for the enemy. Once hostile raids areairborne, layered active defenses engage them from their points of originall the way to their targets, providing 360 degree coverage for defendedassets. The C4I system ensures timely detection, warning, classification,and identification. The goalkeeper of dynamic defense in depth is the passivedefense measures for protection from weapon effects, reconstitution offorces, and recovery. The C4I system links and supports the other threeoperational elements, underpinning their coordination with other forceoperations. Integrated C4I distributes the integrated information resourcesavailable to the force, directly enabling intelligence preparation of thebattlespace (IPB), battlespace awareness, and battle management.

Conclusion

Concepts exploit the promise of emerging capabilities. This conceptshows the power of network-based capabilities to enhance human understanding,decision, and action. Network-based TAMD contributes to full-dimensionalprotection and battlespace dominance, combining the four operational elementsof TAMD to defeat the theater air and missile threat and prevent enemyinterference with U.S. operations.

INTRODUCTION

Purpose and Intended Audience

Naval Concepts are tools for thinking through problems, complementingefforts in war gaming, modeling, and simulation. They bridge the gap betweenthe CNOís strategic vision, Forward From the Sea, and the immediate demandsof the budget cycle and current warfighting doctrine. Sponsored by theNaval Doctrine Command, a Concept Development Team (CDT) will identifyan issue, frame the problem, analyze and synthesize the elements of theproblem, evaluate the results, and produce a "naval concept"- a proposed solution to the opportunity or challenge. A CDT integratesand unifies the expertise of representatives from operational commandsand supporting activities. By synthesizing their concurrent efforts itguides ongoing research and development, thereby setting an authoritativeframework for future equipment, capabilities, and doctrine.

This concept paper examines future employment of naval forces in theconduct of theater air and missile defense (TAMD) circa 2010-2020 AD. Itexamines the doctrinal challenges inherent in future operational requirements,scientific advances, and technological changes. The paper concentrateson the larger themes and issues involved in integrating naval forces intocombined and joint operations. This naval concept is the product of collaborationbetween the Naval Doctrine Command, the Marine Corps Combat DevelopmentCommand, operational Navy and Marine commands, the R&D community, acquisitioncommands, and resource sponsors working together on the CDT. The documentserves the following purposes, and should accommodate a broad audience:

Scope and Organization

This paper examines how naval forces contribute to TAMD across a rangeof situations and in a variety of conditions. The context always is joint,but the subject is naval forces - the elements of the Navy and the MarineCorps. The Concept begins with todayís technology, doctrine, and operations,and blends them with emerging and potential developments through the nexttwo decades. The Concept addresses ideas without using a deadline or atimetable. The paper defines the nominal mission and the threat to U.S.interests and forces, describes naval forces and capabilities contributingto TAMD, discusses the principles, functions, and the role of the TAMDchain of command, and discusses general principles for TAMD planning. Theconclusion captures the common threads, key capabilities, and key issuesfor TAMD as it develops through 2010 and beyond. Appendix A uses threescenarios to illustrate the Naval TAMD Concept, demonstrating the influenceof different military and geographic circumstances on naval capabilities.Appendix B lists some of the significant technologies and representativeprograms which shaped the Naval TAMD Concept, while Appendix C is a partialBibliography for the concept project. Appendix D is a List of Acronyms.

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