International Traffic In Arms Regulations

PART 120-PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS


120.1 General authorities and eligibility.
120.2 Designation of defense articles and defense services.
120.3 Policy on designating and determining defense articles and services.
120.4 Commodity jurisdiction.
120.5 Relation to regulations of other agencies.
120.6 Defense article.
120.7 Significant military equipment.
120.8 Major defense equipment.
120.9 Defense service.
120.10 Technical data.
120.11 Public domain.
120.12 Office of Defense Trade Controls.
120.13 United States.
120.14 Person.
120.15 U.S. person.
120.16 Foreign person.
120.17 Export.
120.18 Temporary import.
120.19 Reexport or retransfer.
120.20 License.
120.21 Manufacturing license agreement.
120.22 Technical assistance agreement.
120.23 Distribution agreement.
120.24 District Director of Customs.
120.25 Empowered Official.
120.26 Presiding Official.
120.27 U.S. criminal statutes.
120.28 Listing of forms referred to in this subchapter.
120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Authority: Secs. 2, 38, and 71, Pub. L. 90-629, 90 Stat. 744 (22 U.S.C. 2752, 2778, 2797); E.O. 11958, 42 FR 4311; 3 CFR 1977 Comp. p. 79; 22 U.S.C. 2658.

§ 120.1 -- General authorities and eligibility.

   (a) Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778) authorizes the President to control the export and import of defense articles and defense services. The statutory authority of the President to promulgate regulations with respect to exports of defense articles and defense services was delegated to the Secretary of State by Executive Order 11958, as amended (42 FR 4311). This subchapter implements that authority. By virtue of delegations of authority by the Secretary of State, these regulations are primarily administered by the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, Department of State.

   (b) Authorized Officials. All authorities conferred upon the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls by this subchapter may be exercised at any time by the Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs, the Assistant Secretary of State for Politico-Military Affairs, or the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Politico-Military Affairs responsible for supervising the Office of Defense Trade Controls unless the Legal Adviser or the Assistant Legal Adviser for Politico-Military Affairs of the Department of State determines that any specific exercise of this authority under this subsection may be inappropriate.

   (c) Eligibility. Only U.S. persons (as defined in § 120.15) and foreign

governmental entities in the United States may be granted licenses or other approvals (other than retransfer approvals sought pursuant to this subchapter). Foreign persons (as defined in § 120.16) other than governments are not eligible. U.S. persons who have been convicted of violating the criminal statutes enumerated in § 120.27, who have been debarred pursuant to part 127 or 128 of this subchapter, who are the subject of an indictment involving the criminal statutes enumerated in § 120.27, who are ineligible to contract with, or to receive a license or other form of authorization to import defense articles or defense services from any agency of the U.S. Government, who are ineligible to receive export licenses (or other forms of authorization to export) from any agency of the U.S. Government, who are subject to Department of State Suspension/Revocation under § 126.7 (a)(1)-(a)(7) of this subchapter, or who are ineligible under § 127.6(c) of this subchapter are generally ineligible. Applications for licenses or other approvals will be considered only if the applicant has registered with the Office of Defense Trade Controls pursuant to part 122 of this subchapter. All applications and requests for approval must be signed by a U.S. person who has been empowered by the registrant to sign such documents.

   (d) The exemptions provided in this subchapter do not apply to transactions in which the exporter or any party to the export (as defined in § 126.7(e) of this subchapter) is generally ineligible as set forth above in paragraph (c) of this section, unless an exception has been granted pursuant to § 126.7(c) of this subchapter.

§ 120.2 -- Designation of defense articles and defense services.

    The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a) and 2794(7)) provides that the President shall designate the articles and services deemed to be defense articles and defense services for purposes of this subchapter. The items so designated constitute the United States Munitions List and are specified in part 121 of this subchapter. Such designations are made by the Department of State with the concurrence of the Department of Defense. For a determination on whether a particular item is included on the U.S. Munitions List see § 120.4(a).

§ 120.3 -- Policy on designating and determining defense articles and services.

    An article or service may be designated or determined in the future to be a defense article (see § 120.6) or defense service (see § 120.9) if it:

   (a) Is specifically designed, developed, configured, adapted, or modified for a military application, and

   (i) Does not have predominant civil applications, and

   (ii) Does not have performance equivalent (defined by form, fit and function) to those of an article or service used for civil applications; or

   (b) Is specifically designed, developed, configured, adapted, or modified for a military application, and has significant military or intelligence applicability such that control under this subchapter is necessary.

    The intended use of the article or service after its export (i.e., for a military or civilian purpose) is not relevant in determining whether the article or service is subject to the controls of this subchapter. Any item covered by the U.S. Munitions List must be within the categories of the U.S. Munitions List. The scope of the U.S. Munitions List shall be changed only by amendments made pursuant to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778).

§ 120.4 -- Commodity jurisdiction.

   (a) The commodity jurisdiction procedure is used with the U.S. Government if doubt exists as to whether an article or service is covered by the U.S. Munitions List. It may also be used for consideration of a redesignation of an article or service currently covered by the U.S. Munitions List. The Department must submit a report to Congress at least 30 days before any item is removed from the U.S. Munitions List. Upon written request, the Office of Defense Trade Controls shall provide a determination of whether a particular article or service is covered by the U.S. Munitions List. The determination, consistent with §§ 120.2, 120.3, and 120.4, entails consultation among the Departments of State, Defense, Commerce and other U.S. Government agencies and industry in appropriate cases.

   (b) Registration with the Office of Defense Trade Controls as defined in part 122 of this subchapter is not required prior to submission of a commodity jurisdiction request. If it is determined that the commodity is a defense article or service covered by the U.S. Munitions List, registration is required for exporters, manufacturers, and furnishers of defense articles and defense services (see part 122 of this subchapter).

   (c) Requests shall identify the article or service, and include a history of the product's design, development and use. Brochures, specifications and any other documentation related to the article or service shall be submitted in seven collated sets.

   (d)(1) A determination that an article or service does not have predominant civil applications shall be made by the Department of State, in accordance with this subchapter, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account:

   (i) The number, variety and predominance of civil applications;

   (ii) The nature, function and capability of the civil applications; and

   (iii) The nature, function and capability of the military applications.

   (2) A determination that an article does not have the performance equivalent, defined by form, fit and function, to those used for civil applications shall be made by the Department of State, in accordance with this subchapter, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account:

   (i) The nature, function, and capability of the article;

   (ii) Whether the components used in the defense article are identical to those components originally developed for civil use.

    Note: The form of the item is its defined configuration, including the geometrically measured configuration, density, and weight or other visual parameters which uniquely characterize the item, component or assembly. For software, form denotes language, language level and media. The fit of the item is its ability to physically interface or interconnect with or become an integral part of another item. The function of the item is the action or actions it is designed to perform.

   (3) A determination that an article has significant military or intelligence applications such that it is necessary to control its export as a defense article shall be made, in accordance with this subchapter, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account: (i) The nature, function, and capability of the article;

   (ii) The nature of controls imposed by other nations on such items (including COCOM and other multilateral controls), and

   (iii) That items described on the COCOM Industrial List shall not be designated defense articles or defense services unless the failure to control such items on the U.S. Munitions List would jeopardize significant national security or foreign policy interests.

   (e) The Office of Defense Trade Controls will provide a preliminary response within 10 working days of receipt of a complete request for commodity jurisdiction. If after 45 days the Office of Defense Trade Controls has not provided a final commodity jurisdiction determination, the applicant may request in writing to the Director, Center for Defense Trade that this determination be given expedited processing.

   (f) State, Defense and Commerce will resolve commodity jurisdiction disputes in accordance with established procedures. State shall notify Defense and Commerce of the initiation and conclusion of each case.

   (g) A person may appeal a commodity jurisdiction determination by submitting a written request for reconsideration to the Director of the Center for Defense Trade. The Center for Defense Trade will provide a written response of the Director's determination within 30 days of receipt of the appeal. If desired, an appeal of the Director's decision can then be made directly to the Assistant Secretary for Politico-Military Affairs.

§ 120.5 -- Relation to regulations of other agencies.

    If an article or service is covered by the U.S. Munitions List, its export is regulated by the Department of State, except as indicated otherwise in this subchapter. For the relationship of this subchapter to regulations of the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, see § 123.20 of this subchapter. The Treasury Department controls permanent imports of articles and services covered by the U.S. Munitions Import List from foreign countries by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction (31 CFR part 505). The Department of Commerce regulates the export of items on the Commerce Control List (CCL) under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 768-799).

§ 120.6 -- Defense article.

    Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter. The policy described in § 120.3 is applicable to designations of additional items. This term includes technical data recorded or stored in any physical form, models, mockups or other items that reveal technical data directly relating to items designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter. It does not include basic marketing information on function or purpose or general system descriptions.

§ 120.7 -- Significant military equipment.

   (a) Significant military equipment means articles for which special export controls are warranted because of their capacity for substantial military utility or capability. Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794(6) note) refers to significant combat equipment on the U.S. Munitions List. The terms significant military equipment and significant combat equipment are equivalent for purposes of that section of the Arms Export Control Act and this subchapter.

   (b) Significant military equipment includes:

   (1) Items in § 121.1 of this subchapter which are preceded by an asterisk; and

   (2) All classified articles enumerated in § 121.1 of this subchapter.

§ 120.8 -- Major defense equipment.

    Pursuant to section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794(6) note), major defense equipment means any item of significant military equipment (as defined in § 120.7) on the U.S. Munitions List having a nonrecurring research and development cost of more than $ 50,000,000 or a total production cost of more than $ 200,000,000.

§ 120.9 -- Defense service.

    Defense service means:

   (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production, assembly, testing, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing or use of defense articles; or

   (2) The furnishing to foreign persons of any technical data controlled under this subchapter (see § 120.10), whether in the United States or abroad.

§ 120.10 -- Technical data.

    Technical data means, for purposes of this subchapter:

   (1) Information, other than software as defined in § 120.10(d), which is required for the design development, production, manufacture, assembly, operation, repair, testing, maintenance or modification of defense articles. This includes information in the form of blueprints, drawings, photographs, plans, instructions and documentation.

   (2) Classified information relating to defense articles and defense services;

   (3) Information covered by an invention secrecy order;

   (4) Software as defined in § 121.8(f) of this subchapter directly related to defense articles;

   (5) This definition does not include information concerning general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and universities or information in the public domain as defined in § 120.11. It also does not include basic marketing information on function or purpose or general system descriptions of defense articles.

§ 120.11 -- Public domain.

    Public domain means information which is published and which is generally accessible or available to the public:

   (1) Through sales at newsstands and bookstores;

   (2) Through subscriptions which are available without restriction to any individual who desires to obtain or purchase the published information;

   (3) Through second class mailing privileges granted by the U.S. Government;

   (4) At libraries open to the public or from which the public can obtain documents;

   (5) Through patents available at any patent office;

   (6) Through unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or exhibition, generally accessible to the public, in the United States;

   (7) Through public release (i.e., unlimited distribution) in any form (e.g., not necessarily in published form) after approval by the cognizant U.S. government department or agency (see also § 125.4(b)(13) of this subchapter);

   (8) Through fundamental research in science and engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Fundamental research is defined to mean basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of which are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if:

   (i) The University or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity, or

   (ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable.

§ 120.12 -- Office of Defense Trade Controls.

    Office of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20522-0602.

§ 120.13 -- United States.

    United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, any territory or possession of the United States, and any territory or possession over which the United States exercises any powers of administration, legislation, and jurisdiction.

§ 120.14 -- Person.

    Person means a natural person as well as a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity, organization or group, including governmental entities. If a provision in this subchapter does not refer exclusively to a foreign person (§ 120.16) or U.S. person (§ 120.15), then it refers to both.

§ 120.15 -- U.S. person.

    U.S. person means a person (as defined in § 120.14 of this part) who is a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3). It also means any corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust or any other entity, organization or group that is incorporated to do business in the United States. It also includes any governmental (federal, state or local) entity. It does not include any foreign person as defined in § 120.16 of this part.

§ 120.16 -- Foreign person.

    Foreign person means any natural person who is not a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3). It also means any foreign corporation, business association, partnership, trust, society or any other entity or group that is not incorporated or organized to do business in the United States, as well as international organizations, foreign governments and any agency or subdivision of foreign governments (e.g diplomatic missions).

§ 120.17 -- Export.

    Export means:

   (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except by mere travel outside of the United States by a person whose personal knowledge includes technical data; or

   (2) Transferring registration, control or ownership to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite covered by the U.S. Munitions List, whether in the United States or abroad; or

   (3) Disclosing (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring in the United States any defense article to an embassy, any agency or subdivision of a foreign government (e.g., diplomatic missions); or

   (4) Disclosing (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring technical data to a foreign person, whether in the United States or abroad; or

   (5) Performing a defense service on behalf of, or for the benefit of, a foreign person, whether in the United States or abroad.

   (6) A launch vehicle or payload shall not, by reason of the launching of such vehicle, be considered an export for purposes of this subchapter. However, for certain limited purposes (see § 126.1 of this subchapter), the controls of this subchapter may apply to any sale, transfer or proposal to sell or transfer defense articles or defense services.

§ 120.18 -- Temporary import.

    Temporary import means bringing into the United States from a foreign country any defense article that is to be returned to the country from which it was shipped or taken, or any defense article that is in transit to another foreign destination. Temporary import includes withdrawal of a defense article from a customs bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone for the purpose of returning it to the country of origin or country from which it was shipped or for shipment to another foreign destination. Permanent imports are regulated by the Department of the Treasury (see 27 CFR parts 47, 178 and 179).

§ 120.19 -- Reexport or retransfer.

    Reexport or retransfer means the transfer of defense articles or defense services to an end use, end user or destination not previously authorized.

§ 120.20 -- License.

    License means a document bearing the word license issued by the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls or his authorized designee which permits the export or temporary import of a specific defense article or defense service controlled by this subchapter.

§ 120.21 -- Manufacturing license agreement.

    An agreement (e.g., contract) whereby a U.S. person grants a foreign person an authorization to manufacture defense articles abroad and which involves or contemplates:

   (a) The export of technical data (as defined in § 120.10) or defense articles or the performance of a defense service; or

   (b) The use by the foreign person of technical data or defense articles previously exported by the U.S. person. (See part 124 of this subchapter).

§ 120.22 -- Technical assistance agreement.

    An agreement (e.g., contract) for the performance of a defense service(s) or the disclosure of technical data, as opposed to an agreement granting a right or license to manufacture defense articles. Assembly of defense articles is included under this section, provided production rights or manufacturing know-how are not conveyed. Should such rights be transferred, § 120.21 is applicable. (See part 124 of this subchapter).

§ 120.23 -- Distribution agreement.

    An agreement (e.g., a contract) to establish a warehouse or distribution point abroad for defense articles exported from the United States for subsequent distribution to entities in an approved sales territory (see part 124 of this subchapter).

§ 120.24 -- District Director of Customs.

    District Director of Customs means the District Directors of Customs at Customs Headquarters Ports (other than the port of New York City, New York, where it is the Area Director of Customs); the Regional Commissioners of Customs, the Deputy and Assistant Regional Commissioners of Customs for Customs Region II at the Port of New York, New York; and Port Directors at Customs ports not designated as Headquarters Ports.

§ 120.25 -- Empowered official.

    Empowered Official means a U.S. person who:

   (1) Is directly employed by the applicant or a subsidiary in a position having authority for policy or management within the applicant organization; and

   (2) Is legally empowered in writing by the applicant to sign license applications or other requests for approval on behalf of the applicant; and

   (3) Understands the provisions and requirements of the various export control statutes and regulations, and the criminal liability, civil liability and administrative penalties for violating the Arms Export Control Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations; and

   (4) Has the independent authority to:

   (i) Enquire into any aspect of a proposed export or temporary import by the applicant, and

   (ii) Verify the legality of the transaction and the accuracy of the information to be submitted; and

   (iii) Refuse to sign any license application or other request for approval without prejudice or other adverse recourse.

§ 120.26 -- Presiding official.

    Presiding official means a person authorized by the U.S. Government to conduct hearings in administrative proceedings.

§ 120.27 -- U.S. criminal statutes.

    For purposes of this subchapter, the phrase U.S. criminal statutes means:

   (1) Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778);

   (2) Section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2410);

   (3) Sections 793, 794, or 798 of title 18, United States Code (relating to espionage involving defense or classified information);

   (4) Section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 16);

   (5) Section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (relating to foreign assets controls; 50 U.S.C. 1705);

   (6) Section 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78dd-1) or section 104 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U.S.C. 78dd-2);

   (7) Chapter 105 of title 18, United States Code (relating to sabotage);

   (8) Section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (relating to communication of classified information; 50 U.S.C. 783(b));

   (9) Sections 57, 92, 101, 104, 222, 224, 225, or 226 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2077, 2122, 2131, 2134, 2272, 2274, 2275, and 2276);

   (10) Section 601 of the National Security Act of 1947 (relating to intelligence identities protection; 50 U.S.C. 421);

   (11) Section 603(b) or (c) of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 (22 U.S.C. 5113(b) and (c)); and

   (12) Section 371 of title 18, United States Code (when it involves conspiracy to violate any of the above statutes).

§ 120.28 -- Listing of forms referred to in this subchapter.

    The forms referred to in this subchapter are available from the following government AGENCY:

   (a) Department of State, Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, Office of Defense Trade Controls, Washington, DC. 20522-0602.

   (1) Application/License for permanent export of unclassified defense articles and related technical data (Form DSP-5).

   (2) Application for registration (Form DSP-9).

   (3) Application/License for temporary import of unclassified defense articles (Form DSP-61).

   (4) Application/License for temporary export of unclassified defense articles (Form DSP-73).

   (5) Non-transfer and use certificate (Form DSP-83).

   (6) Application/License for permanent/temporary export or temporary import of classified defense articles and related classified technical data (Form DSP-85).

   (7) Authority to Export Defense Articles and Defense Services sold under the Foreign Military Sales program (Form DSP-94).

   (b) Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration:

   (1) International Import Certificate (Form BXA-645P/ATF-4522/DSP-53).

   (2) Shipper's Export Declaration (Form No. 7525-V).

   (3) Department of Defense, Defense Security Assistance Agency: Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DD Form 1513).

§ 120.29 -- Missile technology control regime.

   (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Canada, and Japan, announced on April 16, 1987, to restrict sensitive missile-relevant transfers based on the MTCR Annex, and any amendments thereto;

   (b) The term MTCR Annex means the Guidelines and Equipment and Technology Annex of the MTCR, and any amendments thereto;

   (c) List of all items on the MTCR Annex. Section 71(a) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. § 2797) refers to the establishment as part of the U.S. Munitions List of a list of all items on the MTCR Annex, the export of which is not controlled under section 6(l) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(l)), as amended. In accordance with this provision, the list of MTCR Annex items shall constitute all items on the U.S. Munitions List in § 121.16 of this subchapter.