Homeland Defense / Domestic Preparedness

TRADOC White Paper – Supporting Homeland Defense

22 April 1999

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW

  1. GENERAL. This provides an overview of the TRADOC White Paper – Supporting Homeland Defense.
  2. BACKGROUND. This White Paper was requested by LTG Steele to provide an overarching concept for the preparation of doctrine on homeland defense. In January 1999, during a briefing to the CSA on homeland defense related issues at Fort Leonard Wood, MO, a paper was promised to the CSA by the end of April 1999. This White Paper has been produced as a collaborative effort of JADD, the Chemical, Military Police and Engineer Schools, AMEDD, and CAC. It has been staffed with these organizations, the TRADOC Headquarters staff, Headquarters, FORSCOM, and the Directorate of Military Support, DA.
  3. OVERVIEW OF THE PAPER.
  1. Definition. There is currently no definition of homeland defense. The proposed definition shows the Army’s mission to protect our territory, population, and critical infrastructure by; deterring/defending against foreign and domestic threats, supporting civil authorities for crisis and consequence management, and helping to ensure the continuance critical national assets.
  2. Background. Historical examples are presented that show how the U.S. Army, both active and reserve, has defended the U.S. homeland in the past. The nation’s vulnerabilities, caused by new technologies and potential enemies, have changed the focus of recent efforts to execute the homeland defense requirement. The basis for the Army’s support to civil authorities is outlined using current directives and the concept that the military’s role is to be in support of civil authorities.
  3. Challenges and Response.
  4. (1) Threats and Vulnerabilities. This section addresses the changes in post-Cold War era and the threats that face the U.S.. International terrorism, domestic terrorism, conventional attack, and transnational threats are discussed. These provide potential enemies with means of attack against homeland targets. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are discussed as a potential threat.

    (2) Responsibilities. Using the homeland defense definition, general military and civil responsibilities are delineated.

    (3) The Army’s Role. The Army’s unique capabilities to support civil authorities and its roles are presented. These roles include force protection, support to crisis management, consequence management, protection of critical assets, preemptive strikes against foreign targets, and deterrence/defense against strategic attack. The program of Military Assistance to Civil Authorities is outlined.

  5. Fundamental Activities and Functions. This section, the heart of the paper,

uses the National Military Strategy elements of shape, respond and prepare now

as the framework for discussion.

    1. Shape. The major sub-sections are:

(a). Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. This explains how military intelligence, to include other governmental intelligence agencies, can be used to support the military in preparation for homeland defense. The discussion also includes limitations placed on the military in accordance with civil law.

(b). Domestic preparedness. This section addresses the Army’s support of the interagency training of first responders, the Army medical community training programs, and the Reserve Component’s extensive capability to assist the local and state authorities.

(c). Force protection. Basics of what is force protection.

(d). Critical Asset Assurance Program. This addresses the Army’s the role as DOD’s executive agent for the program. Special emphasis is given to computer information systems and the organizations that are in place to action the protection programs.

(2). Respond. This section addresses the assets that can be utilized in response

to an incident in the homeland. It stresses the actions in the event of a

WMD.

(a). A detailed explanation of the Military Support Detachment (Rapid

Assessment and Initial Detection) [RAID] gives their capabilities and

structure.

(b). Also discussed are the Soldier and Biological Command (SBCCOM),

Technical Escort Unit (TEU), Chemical Biological Rapid Response Team

(CB/RRT) and their roles in a response.

(c). Lastly, there is some detail on the Army Medical Command’s role in

support to casualties and the civilian medical community.

(3). Prepare now. This section uses DTLOMS as a basis for looking at what future actions should be accomplished to prepare the Army for homeland defense responsibilities.

(a). Doctrine. What present doctrine needs to be revised and areas that

require development.

    1. Training. New and revised courses in TRADOC schools, AMEDD training programs and exercises and FORSCOM support packages to support homeland defense subjects.
    2. Leader Development. A listing of individual training courses and modification to present curriculum for related subjects.
    3. Organizations. A discussion on the Maneuver Support Center, RAID detachments, missile defense, and reserve component units.
    4. Materiel. A listing of proposed medical, nonlethal weapons, NBC related items and antimissile detection equipment.
    5. Soldiers. A discussion of challenges that soldiers may face while conducting homeland defense.

e. Appendices. There are five appendices that list key National Guard assets, force protection considerations, Combat Health Services support, key U.S. Army Reserve assets and a list of references used in researching the paper. Also, there is a glossary.