CITATIONS GATHERED FROM COMMERCIALLY PUBLISHED JOURNALS AND NEWSLETTERS Administration Officials Defend Position On Chinese Launches. Aerospace Daily, Jun 19, 1998, p 448 "We do not believe that the commercial space launch activities that have been authorized by licenses and monitored under these procedures have benefited China's missile or military satellite capabilities," John D. Holum told a joint hearing of the HNSC and IRC. Holum said strict policy is designed to prevent the transfer of sensitive military technology to China that could assist its launch vehicle program. Jan M. Lodal told the committee that the DoD is fully cooperating with the investigation on Loral and Hughes. Commercial Remote Sensing Faces Tough Sell To DoD, Intel. Aerospace Daily, Jun 22, 1998, pp 457-458 Commercial remote sensing companies will have a hard time breaking into the military and intelligence markets until they have capabilities to match government needs. These include overhead imagery that is timely, can be collected and downlinked anywhere on the globe, and that precisely locates features on the surface, and can be scaled up or down. HAC Slashes Starlite Funds, Cuts Underfunded Joint STARS Upgrade. Aerospace Daily, Jun 22, 1998, p 461 The House Appropriations Committee recommended withholding 1999 funds from several DoD projects, including Starlite, JSTARS, and the tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV). China Seen Deploying New ICBM Within Two Years. Aerospace Daily, Jun 24, 1998, pp 469-470 China is expected to deploy the solid fuel DF-31 ICBM within the next two years, according to a report sponsored by the US National Defense University. The DF-31 is more accurate than previous Chinese ICBMs and will be able to reach most of the US, according to "Strategic Trends In China" produced by the NDU Institute For National Strategic Studies. Big Budget Increase Would Speed Fielding Of Navy Missile Defense. Aerospace Daily, Jun 24, 1998, p 470 According to the US Navy's principal adviser on the Upper Tier TMD and Area Wide TMD, a budget increase of $2b to $3b would achieve Block 1 Upper Tier capability in under 40 months, 4 to 5 years earlier than now planned. Special China Panel: An Exercise In Political Compromise. Aerospace Daily, Jun 24, 1998, p 474 The House Republican leadership, eager to avoid further embarrassment, has shifted strategy from confrontation to accommodation by forming a panel to investigate possible transfer of sensitive military technology to China. The list of committee members, which includes 5 Republicans and 4 Democrats and was announced Friday, also represents a compromise. Experts See Dangers In American Use Of Chinese Launchers. Aerospace Daily, Jun 18, 1998, p 440A The US has doubled China's experience in launching multiple payloads through launch efforts for programs like Iridium, according to testimony of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center before the HNSC and IRC. This is one of several hearings on China and US satellite launches reviewing allegations that Space Systems/Loral and Hughes shared sensitive technology with China following the failure of the Chinese Long March 3B rocket in 1996. Russia Orbits Six Military Communications Satellites. Aerospace Daily, Jun 18, 1998, p 446 Russia launched six low-orbiting satellites for military communications on June 17, but an apparent launch vehicle malfunction left the satellites in an irregular orbit which may cripple their normal use by the Russian military. HAC Wants Second THAAD Source; Fences 50% Of EELV Funds. Aerospace Daily, Jun 18, 1998, p 443 The HAC, following direction of the House authorization bill, has told BMDO to consider an alternate contractor for THAAD. Future KE Missile May Target Helicopters As Well As Armor. Aerospace Daily, Jun 18, 1998, p 445 The development of a small kinetic energy (KE) missile in the Compact KE Missile (CKEM) Technology program may allow the army to add anti-helicopter capability. Raytheon In $141M Contract To Upgrade German Patriot Missiles. Aerospace Daily, Jun 18, 1998, p 445 Announces Raytheon Systems Co.'s award of a $141M contract from the German government to upgrade ground equipment associated with German Air Force Patriot Air Defense System. Serious Problems In US Firms' Relations With China: Shelby. Aerospace Daily, Jun 25, 1998, p 479 Quotes Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Shelby (R-AL) about "serious problems with how US companies interact with Chinese launch service providers." These comments came at the end of a closed hearing which included representatives from the CIA, NAIC, and Defense Technology Security Administration. US Solid Rocket Makers Say China Policy Hurts Their Industry. Aerospace Daily, Jun 26, 1998, p 485 In testimony before the HSC, representatives of Thiokol Propulsion and Alliant Techsystems charged that defense industrial base is threatened by the US policy that allows China to launch US satellites, because China is undercutting the US commercial space launch industry that sustains large solid fuel rocket production in the post Cold War environment. This continues hearings on possible sensitive technology transfer from US satellite manufacturers to China. US Helps Secure Georgian Nuclear Materials. Arms Control Today, Apr 01, 1998, p 28 In a cooperative effort involving Britain and Georgia, the United States removed 4.3 kg of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and 0.8 kg of spent fuel from a former Soviet research reactor on April 24. US Imposes Sanctions On Pakistan, N. Korea Following Missile Test. Arms Control Today. Howard Diamond, Apr 01, 1998, p 22 In response to Pakistan's April 6 flight test of its new 1,500 km range Ghauri missile, the United States on April 17 imposed missile proliferation related sanctions on Islamabad's premier weapons lab and a North Korean trading company. The missile test is widely seen as a warning that Pakistan will respond to attempts by New Delhi to alter the strategic status quo. Russian Export Controls Fail To Stop Steel For Iranian Missile Program. Arms Control Today. Howard Diamond, Apr 04, 1998, p 26 Russia announced on April 7 that its Federal Security Service (FSB) had arrested three foreign citizens in connection with the attempted transfer of 22 tons of special alloy steel reportedly destined for Iran's ballistic missile development effort. UN Maintains Sanctions On Iraq As Security Council Split Grows. Arms Control Today. Howard Diamond, Apr 01, 1998, p 25 Having received conflicting progress reports from the two organizations monitoring Iraq's UN-imposed disarmament, the UN Security Council on April 28 voted to maintain sanctions on Baghdad for an additional six months because of its failure to fully comply with its obligations. Yeltsin Submits START II ABM-TMD Agreements To Duma. Arms Control Today. Craig Cerniello, Apr 01, 1998, p 24 As part of the START II ratification process, Russian Pres. Boris Yeltsin formally transmitted to the Duma on April 13 the package of strategic arms control agreements that were signed by the United States and Russia last September in New York. This action has been accompanied by some encouraging signs that the Duma may take up START II before adjourning for its summer recess in July 10. Dismantling The Concept Of ' Weapons Of Mass Destruction'. Arms Control Today. Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Apr 01, 1998, pp 3-8 The world today faces a confused and potentially extremely dangerous situation in its current contradictory treatment of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons -- commonly referred to collectively as weapons of mass destruction (WMD). In addition to their differing legal status, these three classes of weapons are very diverse in their technical nature and military significance. Progress in controlling each category of weapons and resolution of the contradictions in the existing non-proliferation regime is made more difficult by lumping biological, chemical and nuclear weapons together under the banner of WMD. Ballistic Missile Defense: Is The US 'Rushing To Failure'? Arms Control Today. John Pike, Apr 01, 1998, pp 9-13 In the 15 years since Pres Ronald Reagan's March 23, 1983 speech inaugurating the Strategic Defense Initiative, the $40b to $50b spent on ballistic missile defense (BMD) has produced surprisingly modest results. But missile defense program managers and proponents remain hopeful that 1998 will finally mark a turning point in demonstrating the technical maturity of an array of theater missile defense (TMD) and national missile defense (NMD) interceptor programs. Senate Panel Approves NMD Bill Seeking To Move Up Deployment. Arms Control Today. Craig Cerniello, Apr 01, 1998, p 23 On 21 April, the Senate Armed Services committee approved by a party-line vote of 10-7 the "American Missile Protection Act of 1998" setting the stage for what could become a highly contentious debate between the Clinton administration and Congress over national missile defense (NMD) policy. The S.1873 bill, introduced on March 19 by Senators Thad Cochran and Daniel Inouye and reintroduced on March 27 by Cochran and 38 co-sponsors, states that it is US policy "to deploy as soon as is technologically possible an effective (NMD) system capable of defending the territory of the United States against limited ballistic missile attack (whether accidental, unauthorized, or deliberate)". China Launch Controversy Expands To Larger Issues. Aviation Week & Space Technology. James R. Asker, Joseph C. Anselmo, Jun 22, 1998, p 24-25 In the article Henry Sokolski, the executive director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, offers an assessment of exactly what missile launch technology might have been lost to the Chinese. He lists five specific Long March missions and his evaluation of what China learned from each. US Experts Urge New Tactics Against Bio-War Threat. Defense News. David Mulholland, Jun 22, 1998, p 9 While the US military is spending billions to fight an unlikely large-scale conventional war, experts at a recent conference said it is ignoring the gravest threat to national security: biological weapons. THAAD Backers Try To Pump Life Into Program. Defense News. Lisa Burgess, Jun 22, 1998, pp 4, 18 Pentagon officials are fighting a two-front battle to save the troubled Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program. US Navy Touts Global Missile Deterrent Capabilities. Defense News. Robert Holzer, Jun 22, 1998, p 12 With US government officials newly worried about a potential nuclear war in South Asia, Navy officials are touting the service's planned missile defense capabilities as a significant deterrent to missile-borne weapons. US Sanctions Policy Offers Dual-Use Item Loopholes. Defense News. Barbara Opall-Rome, Jun 22, 1998, pp 3, 18 US sanctions guidelines released last week do not automatically prohibit businesses from exporting to India and Pakistan sensitive dual-use technology, such as supercomputers, precision machinery and other items of potential military benefit. Smith Stands Firm On ABL Procurement Fund Cut. Defense News. Lisa Burgess, Jun 22, 1998, p 4, 18 Gen Michael Ryan, US Air Force chief of staff, may have wasted a trip when he traveled to the office of Sen Robert Smith, (R-NH), on June 15 to smooth hard feelings over the service's $11b Airborne Laser (ABL) program. But Smith said that he stands firm behind its decision to cut $57m from the $292m request for ABL, and to shift $40m from ABL's procurement budget to improve testing in the program. Nuclear War Of Words Builds: Pakistan Diplomat Accuses Israel Of Aiding India Tests. Defense News. Orly Azoulay, Barbara Opall-Rome, Jun 22, 1998, p 3, 19 Pakistan's top diplomat, Foreign Minister Gohar Ayud Khan, has accused Israel of providing India with electronic activating devices used in New Delhi's recent round of nuclear weapon tests, a charge forcefully denied by Indian and Israeli officials. US Still Unready For Bio-Terror Disaster, Experts Say. Defense Week. Patrick Kelly, Jun 22, 1998, p 5 At a conference sponsored by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, government, industry and scientific experts said the US will be seriously unprepared to prevent the agonizing sickness and death potentially of tens of thousands of citizens if a successful biological weapons attack is launched against a major city. US, ICBMs No Longer Target China, Expert Says. Defense Week. John Donnelly, Jun 22, 1998, pp 1, 15 President Clinton's aides are trying to reach an agreement with Beijing under which the two nations would no longer target each other with nuclear-tipped missiles. However, according to Bruce Blair of the Brookings Institution, ICBMs have not been pre-programmed to strike targets in China for roughly 15 years. HAC Approves $1.6 Billion Add For Y2K. Defense Week. Patrick Kelly, Jun 22, 1998, p 5 The House Appropriations Committee Wednesday kept faith with its national security subcommittee and approved emergency funding of $1.6b for the Pentagon to ensure that its computers are ready for the year 2000 change-over and to beef up computer security. OSD Eyeing FOTT, M1A2 In First Look At Army POM. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 25, 1998, p 9 Senior Defense Department officials will take their first hard look at the Army's 2000-2005 spending plan this week, and Pentagon sources believe the service's decision to cancel the Follow-On-To-TOW missile and stop producing M1A2 tanks and other platforms will not be easily or quickly accepted. Treaty May Limit Ability To Help Safeguard India, Pakistan Nuclear Devices. Inside the Pentagon. Keith J. Costa, Jun 26, 1998, pp 13-14 Any action the United States may seek to take to help India and Pakistan safeguard their nuclear devices against accidental or unauthorized launch would be limited under the 1968 Nonproliferation Treaty, or NPT, according to a key administration official and arms control experts outside government. Special Report: Report On Excerpts Of House Appropriations FY99 Defense Spending. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 25, 1998, p 1-24 Appropriations for most military functions of the DoD are provided for in the accompanying bill for the fiscal year 1999. Recommendations include: $3+b, BMDO; $3+m, MLRS; ER rockets; $90+m, Joint STARS; initiate product improvement plan on Predator UAV; $77+m, GPS; $136+m, Minuteman III GRP; $303+m, Patriot PAC 3. House Appropriators Raise Possibility Of Rapid Response Predator. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 26, 1998, p 11 The House Appropriations Committee is encouraging the Air Force to consider creating a rapid response Predator UAV system to provide surveillance vehicles in an emergency without taxing the limited number of operational air vehicles already in high demand, Inside the Air Force reports. International Incident. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 26, 1998, p 17 Foreign Military sales, in an era of declining US defense budgets, have become more crucial than ever for manufacturers trying to keep their production lines open and up to capacity. Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles maker Stewart & Stevenson is no exception; at a briefing for reporters last week, company officials discussed at some length their plans and expectations for FMS. In A Finding Sure To Reinvigorate Missile Defense Debate: Rumsfeld Panel To Say Intel Estimates Overlook Potential Pop-Up Threats. Inside the Pentagon. Elaine M. Grossman, Jun 25, 1998, pp 1, 6-7 A panel charged by Congress to examine the nature and magnitude of current or potential ballistic missile threats to the United States is preparing to issue a report next month saying there exists one or more potential pop-up threats the US intelligence community has overlooked. As Rumsfeld Commission Report Nears: Some Experts See Shortcomings In Intelligence Estimate Process. Inside the Pentagon. Elaine M. Grossman, Jun 25, 1998, pp 5-6 Following a recent visit to Russia, the commander of the US Strategic Command, Air Force Gen Eugene Habiger, is insisting he has proof positive it would take at least 10 minutes for the Russian Strategic Rocket Forces to load target coordinates in the United States into their nuclear missiles. Although the time period is short, US leaders suggest the delay could allow sufficient time for "red phone" contacts between US and Russian leaders to head off an impending nuclear holocaust. House Appropriators Raise Possibility Of Rapid Response Predator. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 26, 1998, p 11 The House Appropriations Committee is encouraging the Air Force to consider creating a rapid response Predator UAV system to provide surveillance vehicles in an emergency without taxing the limited number of operational air vehicles already in high demand. Lockheed Martin's Response To DoD THAAD Letter Not Yet Approved. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 25, 1998, p 10 Lockheed Martin's proposed changes to the Theater High Altitude Area Defense program have not been officially approved by the government as contract personnel work on issues related to the company's contribution to flight failure costs. Turf Wars. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 26, 1998, p 17 There are plenty of people worried that Russia's nuclear arsenal isn't nearly as secure as it needs to be. But Gen Eugene Habiger, the outgoing chief of the US Strategic Command, isn't one of them. House Appropriators Cut JSOW Unitary, Advise New Low-Cost Munition. Inside the Pentagon, Jun 26, 1998, p 12 House Appropriators have recommended terminating the development of a unitary variant of the Joint Stand-off Weapon, following a push by Navy requirements officials to cancel that version of the glide bomb and divert a significant amount of money planned for research and development and production of the munition to other accounts. Indian-Pakistani Flashpoint Garners Heightened Concern . . . Senate, House Resolutions Ask UN Envoy To Help Resolve Kashmir Dispute. Inside the Pentagon. Keith J. Costa, Jun 26, 1998, p 12-13 An amendment offered by Sen Tom Harkin (D-IA) to the FY99 Senate defense authorization bill calls on the United Nations to focus international attention on tensions in the Kashmir region, a hotly contested area between India and Pakistan, and enlist the services of a mediator to help the two nations resolve their longstanding territorial dispute. Labor Costs, Access To Markets Drive Demand for China's Launch Services. Inside the Pentagon. Keith J. Costa, Jun 26, 1998, pp 15-16 As Congress conducts a series of investigations to determine if US national security interests have been placed at risk by the export of US commercial satellites for launch on Chinese rockets. Industry officials and space policy analysts interviewed this week indicated a wide array of factors driving an international demand for China's launch vehicle services. USAF High-Energy Laser Module Scores Success. Jane's Defence Weekly. Bryan Bender, Jun 24, 1998, p 9 The 'first light' test of the flight weighted module, a multi-hundred-kilowatt-class chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), was conducted on 3 June at TRW's Capistrano Test Site near San Clemente in CA. "This 'first light' testing is the latest in a series of risk reduction activities by Team ABL that has kept the ABL program on cost and on schedule without encountering any technical show stoppers," said Col. Mike Brown, ABL Program director. Antey-2500 Missile System Will Be Deployed Around Moscow. Jane's Defence Weekly. Nikolai Novichkov, Jun 24, 1998, p 11 It is thought that five Antey-2500 batteries will be deployed to provide protection from the threat of aircraft, tactical missiles and theater ballistic missiles. According to Rosvoorouzhenie arms trading company's general designer, Veniamin Yefremov, the Antey-2500 is a new generation system capable of effectively combating aircraft, tactical missiles and theater ballistic missiles. It is capable of simultaneously engaging 24 air-breathing targets, including stealth targets, or 16 ballistic targets. US Approves Extra Patriot Sales To Bolster Israeli Defenses. Jane's Defence Weekly, Jun 24, 1998, p 17 Israel is set to get an estimated $73m worth of Patriot components, including three AN/MPQ-53 radar sets; three AN/MSQ-104 engagement control stations; three M983 tractors; and nine M931A2 trucks. Modification kits, generators, shop and tool equipment, spare and repair parts, test equipment, training and other logistics support is also included in the deal, the Pentagon said. Industry Outlook; Piezoelectric Motors. Jane's Defence Weekly. Paul Proctor, Jun 24, 1998, p 15 Aerotech Engineering and Research Corp. is seeking commercial applications for ultrasonic motor technology it refined under contract to BMDO. The motors, which have potential military applications as lightweight missile actuators, use a piezoceramic material, lead zirconium titanate (PZT), which changes size when stimulated by an electric signal. The small displacements translate motion to a rotor connected to an output shaft, according to Suman Saripalli, Aerotech R&D engineer. The motors exhibit fast response and high torque at low rpm for their small size.