News

hard.copy Update 09/18/98

ARTICLE CITATIONS FROM COMMERCIALLY PUBLISHED JOURNALS AND NEWSLETTERS.

 

Iraq Hides Ballistic Missile In Pieces, Ritter Says. Aerospace Daily, Sep 17, 1998, p 443

Former UN Weapons Inspector Scott Ritter says that Iraq is hiding ballistic missiles in pieces, not as whole weapons. In addition, he says, chemical agents are being stored in stainless steel boxes, often hidden under concrete floors of buildings.

Descriptors, Keywords: Iraq Ballistic Missiles Parts Pieces Hiding WMD Chemical Agent Storage

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 01

 

US, Israeli Commission To Review Missile Threats. Aerospace Daily, Sep 14, 1998, p 413

The US Congress - Israeli Knesset Interparliamentary Commission On National Security will meet today for the first time to examine missile threats facing Israeli citizens and American troops stationed in the Persian Gulf.

Descriptors, Keywords: US Congress Israeli Knesset Interparliamentary Commission National Security Missile Threat American Troops Persian Gulf

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 02

 

Cohen Makes Final Plea To Appropriators For FY 99 Funds. Aerospace Daily, Sep 14, 1998, p 416

SecDef Cohen asked for approval of $1.8B supplemental appropriation funds, in part for restoration of proposed weapons cuts for FY 99. Program cuts included Global Combat Support System, GPS User Equipment and Joint Stars. Cohen also said he was troubled by proposed information technology program budgets, particularly affecting system upgrades for Y2K conversion and battlefield digitization.

Descriptors, Keywords: Y2K Battlefield Digitization SecDef Cohen FY99 Appropriation Weapon Cuts Global Combat Support System GPS JSTARS

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 03

 

Third Stage Of North Korean Missile Was Solid Fuel Type. Aerospace Daily, Sep 16, 1998, p 434

The third stage of the North Korean missile launched over Japan was solid fuel type, the first ever flown by Pyongyang. The use of three stages means that North Korea has advanced substantially toward developing a missile with a much longer range capability.

Descriptors, Keywords: North Korea Taepo Dong I Missile Solid Fuel ICBM

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 04

 

Gingrich Calls For Space-Based Missile Defense. Aerospace Daily, Sep 16, 1998, pp 431, 434

According to House Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-GA), the US should abandon the ABM Treaty and move aggressively forward with BMD, including placement of interceptors as lasers in space. These remarks were made at a Washington seminar for missile defense hosted by the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies.

Descriptors, Keywords: Gingrich ABM Treaty BMD Space Based Interceptors SBL Seminar

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 05

 

US, Israel To Expand Missile Defense Cooperation. Aerospace Daily, Sep 15, 1998, pp 421-422

Members of the US Congress and Israeli Knesset meeting on September 14, agreed to expand cooperative efforts in the area of BMD, citing the need for effective BMD to protect Israeli and US troops in that region.

Descriptors, Keywords: US Israel BMD cooperation BPI Arrow TMD THAAD

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 06

 

Arrow Missile In Successful Test. Aerospace Daily, Sep 15, 1998, p 422

An Arrow missile successfully completed an open loop fly-out against a simulated target at Palmachim Test Range, 97 seconds after launch.

Descriptors, Keywords: Arrow missile test evaluation Palmachim success

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 07

 

ABL Laser Module Exceeds Power Output Expectations. Aerospace Daily, Sep 15, 1998, p 422

The Boeing, TRW, Lockheed Martin team building the Air Force's ABL, demonstrated that the system's laser module exceeds design margins for laser power output, producing 110% of power output.

Descriptors, Keywords: ABL Power Output Test Evaluation

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 08

 

US - Israel Commission Declares Need For Boost Phase Intercept. Aerospace Daily, Sep 18, 1998, pp 449-450

Members of the US Congress and Israeli Knesset agreed to 'intensify efforts' to develop systems capable of intercepting ballistic missiles in their boost phase

Descriptors, Keywords: US Israel BPI Ballistic Missiles

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 09

 

High Altitude Endurance UAVs Will Cost About $13 Million Each. Aerospace Daily, Sep 17, 1998, p 444

The Pentagon Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration developing the DarkStar and Global Hawk UAVs is leading to systems that would cost $13M each.

Descriptors, Keywords: DarkStar Global Hawk UAV Cost Increase

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 10

 

US Offers Standard Missiles To Netherlands, Spain. Aerospace Daily, Sep 18, 1998, p 452

In separate military sales, the US has offered standard missiles to the Netherlands and Spain. The Netherlands would get 24 Standard Missile-2 Block IIIA missiles for $24M; Spain would get 112 missiles of the same type for $105M.

Descriptors, Keywords: SM-2 Standard Missile Sale Netherlands Spain US

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 11

 

Washington Outlook: Try, Try Again. Aviation Week & Space Technology. James R. Asker, Sep 14, 1998, p 25

Republican fans of missile defenses aren't disheartened by the Senate's second rejection in five months of an antimissile deployment. They think they might yet prevail if November's congressional elections go their way. By the same margin as last spring, 51-49, the Senate failed last week to clear the way for floor consideration of the "American Missile Protection Act," which called for deployment of the NMD system "as soon as technology permits."

Descriptors, Keywords: Senate American Missile Protection Act

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 12

 

US Doubts Korean Space Launch Claim. Aviation Week & Space Technology. David A. Fulghum, Sep 14, 1998, pp 58-59

North Korean official say they tried to launch its first satellite into orbit. Air Force analysts who continue sifting through the data collected by the service's land, air and satellite based sensor "can't find anything," a USAF official said. "If they tried to launch a satellite, we can't see that it got into orbit. Intelligence agency analysts thought they saw something, but we can't find anything now." One of the Air Force's two RC-135S Cobra Ball aircraft was on station to observe the launch. It picked up no data, indicating "it was anything other than a normal theater ballistic missile test," another service official said.

Descriptors, Keywords: North Koran Taepo Dong 1 Test Firing Cobra Ball

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 13

 

TRW Has Achieved Full Power Output. Aviation Week & Space Technology, Sep 14, 1998, p 22

The chemical oxygen iodine laser produced 10% beyond-the-design power output, while running at the design flow of chlorine, indicating it is also 10% more efficient than expected, according to John Waypa, TRW Airborne Laser (ABL) program manager. The flight-weighted laser module (FLM) produced "hundreds" of kilowatts of optical output, and 14 modules are to be connected in series on a common beam to produce megawatt-class output for an operational ABL. The full power test at Capistrano Test Site lasted "tens of seconds."

Descriptors, Keywords: ABL Laser Module Full Power Test

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 14

 

Young Asks For Presidential Support For More Defense Funds. Defense Daily. Sheila Foote, Sep 15, 1998, p 5

In a September 11 letter, Rep Bill Young (R-FL) urged President Clinton to work with a growing movement in Congress to add more funds to the FY99 defense budgets.

Descriptors, Keywords: Clinton Young Congress FY99 defense budget funds Appropriations

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 15

 

US-Israel Complete Successful Arrow Missile Test. Defense Daily, Sep 15, 1998, p 3

US and Israel successfully completed the first fully-integrated flight test of the Arrow antimissile system at the Palmachim Range in Israel. The test was an "open-loop" flight test against a simulated target. The test utilized all elements of the Arrow system, including key command and control systems for the first time.

Descriptors, Keywords: US Israel Arrow missile test technology deployment

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 16

 

Senator Expects DoD To Announce THAAD Decision Next Week. Defense Daily. Sheila Foote, Sep 15, 1998, p 1

Sen Jon Kyl (R-AZ), a key proponent of missile defense, said recently that he expects DepSecDef John Hamre to announce soon a decision on modifying the Army's THAAD. Kyl said he favors "serious modifications" to THAAD but stopped short of calling for cancellation of the program. "I don't think any of our missile systems should be canceled," he said.

Descriptors, Keywords: Kyl THAAD Hamre modification

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 17

 

Israeli Defense Leaders Call For Preemptive ABM Systems. Defense Daily. Sheila Foote, Sep 15, 1998, pp 1-2

Members of Congress and Israel's parliament, the Knesset, met for the first time ever during a hearing held by the HNSC's Military R&D Subcommittee to explore mutual cooperation to defeat the threat of ballistic missiles.

Descriptors, Keywords: US Israel Congress Knesset HNSC threat ballistic missiles cooperation Arrow

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 18

 

US Must Grapple With New Nuclear Status In South Asia. Defense News. Tariq Rauf, Sep 07, 1998, p 43

Washington says that because India and Pakistan overtly have demonstrated their nuclear weapon capabilities, what has been tested cannot be untested; hence the United States must reach a deal under which India and Pakistan would commit to: signing the CTBT, banning all further nuclear detonations; not openly deploy nuclear forces in the short run, but could manufacture and store nuclear weapons; show restraint in the production of weapon-grade plutonium and uranium, and join in negotiations at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and commit to not export sensitive nuclear or missile technology to other countries.

Descriptors, Keywords: nuclear technology weapons plutonium uranium CTBT comprehensive test ban treaty Washington Clinton India Pakistan administration

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 19

 

N Korea Missile Underscores US Missile Vulnerability. Defense News. Frank Gaffney, Sep 18, 1998, pp 33, 48

At this writing, the White House is said to be ready to unveil its first substantive response to North Korea's recent demonstration of its ability to attack US forces, bases and allied population centers through much of Northeast Asia. It may cancel the Army's most mature ground-based theater missile defense program, the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) System.

Descriptors, Keywords: theater high altitude area defense system THAAD antimissile North Korea Antiballistic missile treaty ABM Desert Storm

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 20

 

Navy To Use CRC Missiles For Firing System Tests. Defense News, Sep 14, 1998, p 17

The US Navy is going to test its radar fire control system - the system that decides when to launch missiles and controls them in flight - on five ballistic missiles from Coleman Research Corp. (CRC) said CRC's vice president of business development Frank Krens.

Descriptors, Keywords: missiles ballistic threat medium range system

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 21

 

What Missile Defense? Despite Effort, Funding, Protection Is Years Away. Defense News. Eugene Fox, Stanley Orman, Sep 14, 1998, p 33

Missile defense is back as a major news item. Every day brings forth another view of how dangerous the world has become, as more nations demonstrate they are acquiring the capability to project power well beyond their borders. It borders on dishonesty to keep promising the nation a level of security that is undoubtedly needed, one that the public purse has well supported, yet remains almost as distant as the day Reagan proposed it in 1983.

Descriptors, Keywords: protection national missile defense theater wide deployment treaty Congress theater high altitude area defense THAAD CEC

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 22

 

Blessings From N Korea. Defense News, Sep 14, 1998, p 32

Whether it was a broadcast satellite, as North Korea now claims, or an intermediate-range Taepo-Dong 1 ballistic missile that was launched earlier this month across the Sea of Japan, the act itself is a blessing in disguise for the US-Japan strategic alliance.

Descriptors, Keywords: Taepo Dong a strategic ballistic missile intermediate range satellite terror program weapon Patriot PAC-3

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 23

 

British Air-To-Air Missile Competition Intensifies. Defense News. Douglas Barrie, Sep 14, 1998, p 10

With more than $1b of missile sales on the table and much more to follow, two giants of the air-launched missile sector in Europe and the United States are battling to be prime contractor for Great Britain's next generation air-to-air missile.

Descriptors, Keywords: missile sector United States Europe AIM-120 AMRAAM advanced medium range air missile motor boosts rocket target weapon propellant deploy

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 24

 

Republicans See Cracks In Missile Defense Resistance. Defense News. Lisa Burgess, Sep 14, 1998, p 36

The mounting crisis surrounding US Pres Bill Clinton may enable Republicans to overturn Democrat resistance to accelerating development of a national missile defense.

Descriptors, Keywords: national missile defense NMD antiballistic missile treaty ABM START II strategic arms reduction treaty ratification parliament Lyles Duma

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 25

 

Minuteman Missile Motors May Lift Research Payloads. Defense News. Warren Ferster, Sep 07, 1998, p 62

USAF will seek permission from DefSec William Cohen to conduct a second orbital launch of a new rocket powered by Minuteman 2 missile motors. Other potential low-cost launch options reviewed by conference participants included a new payload deployment mechanism for NASA's space shuttle, larger and more powerful sounding rockets and a mammoth air gun that literally would shoot small satellites into orbit.

Descriptors, Keywords: Minuteman 2 missile motor orbit air gun Orbital Suborbital Program OSP Minotaur vehicle rockets shuttle satellites MightSat Super Strypi Earth flights

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 26

 

Joint Chiefs Remain Cautious About NMD. Defense News, Sep 14, 1998, p 2

Although the Joint Chiefs of Staff are concerned that nations continue to develop missiles capable of reaching the United States, they are not prepared to increase funding for a national missile defense (NMD) program that is not yet technologically feasible, according to Army Gen Hugh Shelton.

Descriptors, Keywords: national missile defense NMD chairman programs technologically

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 27

 

BMDO Reins In Missile Projects: Joint Requirements Order Sets Acquisition Policy Across Services For Antimissile Efforts. Defense News. Lisa Burgess, Sep 07, 1998, pp 3, 74

The Pentagon's Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) is marching to new joint requirements orders designed to prevent compatibility problems among the ballooning number of antimissile programs.

Descriptors, Keywords: antimissile Theater Ballistic Missile Defense Capstone Requirement combat services USACOM US Atlantic Command mission operations interservice committee joint battle management

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 28

 

GOP Seeks Missile Defense Pledge. Defense News. Lisa Burgess, Sep 07, 1998, pp 3, 74

US Senate Republicans plan to try again this week to break the Democratic filibuster against a bill to guarantee deployment of a US national missile defense system. Yet Republicans Senate aides said 1 September, that the filibuster may be difficult to break, because relatively little time has passed since Senate Democrats pledged their allegiance to their party's filibuster strategy.

Descriptors, Keywords: filibuster senate republicans democrats national missile defense NMD deploy aides development strategy bill congressional

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 29

 

Litton Unit To Supply AMRAAM Component. Defense News, Sep 14, 1998, p 30

A division of Litton Industries Inc., will continue to provide a component for the AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) after winning a recompeted contract.

Descriptors, Keywords: AIM-120 advanced medium range air missile AMRAAM contract component radar system

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 30

 

BMDO Faces Tighter Deadline For Year 2000 Computer Fixes. Defense News. Lisa Burgess, Sep 14, 1998, p 48

Newly tightened deadlines to protect computers from a possible year 2000 crash have pressed the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) to keep pace, according to the officer in charge of the agency's year 2000 program.

Descriptors, Keywords: 2000 computers NMD THAAD MEADS PAC-3 Y2K DoD programs

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 31

 

Israel Officials Hint At Cracks In Nuclear Code Of` Silence. Defense News. Barbara Opall-Rome, Sep 14, 1998, p 6

The heavy shroud of secrecy around Israel's 40-year-old nuclear weapon program is beginning to rustle, giving hints of imminent changes in Israeli nuclear policy and strategic planning.

Descriptors, Keywords: nuclear strategic secrecy Israel weapon plutonium stockpiles political national security military leaders

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 32

 

ATACMS 2000 Plan Would Cut Unit Cost Of Missile. Defense News. George I. Seffers, Sep 14, 1998, p 48

Under a plan being worked out by the US Army and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems, the service will save up to $200,000 per unit on the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS), industry and Army sources say. The ATACMS 2000 concept, which already has received $2.5m in Army funding and likely will receive more, seeks to redesign or purchase off-the-shelf guidance, electronic and mechanical products. The initiative will lower costs by up to one-third, depending on the missile variant, according to industry estimates.

Descriptors, Keywords: Army Tactical Missile System ATACMS Navy Tactical Missile System Land Attack Standard Missile LASM Global Positioning System critical guidance design

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 33

 

North Korean Missile Launch Spurs Japan. Defense News, Sep 14, 1998, p 2

Japanese officials are considering launching a 1-meter-resolution satellite, along with other options for bolstering the country's defense capabilities, following the Aug 31 flight of North Korea's new Taepo Dong-1 missile over the Japanese mainland.

Descriptors, Keywords: North Korea Japan Taepo Dong 1 missile defense satellite

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 34

 

Military Leaders To Ask Clinton For More Funding. Defense Week. David Ruppe, Sep 14, 1998, p 3

Senior Pentagon officials are preparing to ask the administration and Congress to increase the military budget topline, which last summer's 'balanced budget agreement' had capped at no real annual growth.

Descriptors, Keywords: JCS military leaders funding Clinton Congress balanced budget

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 35

 

Reporters Notebook: Missing Numbers. Defense Week, Sep 14, 1998, p 4

LtGen Lyles, Director of BMDO, earned the wrath of several reporters from major US publications at a recent press breakfast when he could not say how much the troubled THAAD program has cost to date nor what it ultimately would cost to acquire.

Descriptors, Keywords: THAAD Lyles press breakfast reporters cost

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 36

 

When Terrorism Goes High Tech, Can Peace Result?. Defense Week. Llewelyn King, Sep 14, 1998, p 2

Technology is quickly changing the nature of terrorism: increasing its reach, decreasing its predictability and altering its weapons of choice. Ballistics are on the way out and chemicals and biological agents are on the way in. Technology is changing terrorism in a way that may make it so fearful that even countries that do not like each other will have to cooperate to control it.

Descriptors, Keywords: technology terrorism chemical biological weapons WMD weapons mass destruction peace Middle East

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 37

 

CIA Worried About Russian Chem-Bio Programs. Defense Week. John Donnelly, Sep 14, 1998, pp 1, 12

According to the latest assessment from the US intelligence community, long after the Soviet Union's demise, Russia's chemical and biological weapons programs appear to be alive and well, in possible violation of international treaties and despite Moscow's pronouncements to the contrary.

Descriptors, Keywords: CIA DIA assessment Russia chemical biological weapons

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 38

 

US Says North Korea Used Three-Stage Rocket In Failed Satellite Launch. Inside The Pentagon, Sep 17, 1998, pp 19-20

Clinton Administration officials are concerned about North Korea's recent Taepo Dong I launch, which indicates that the country's missile program is far more advanced than previously thought. At least two successful revelations are recognized by DoD: first, North Korea fired a multi-stage missile which successfully separated; second, the missile's third stage used solid fuel, while the first two used liquid fuel.

Descriptors, Keywords: North Korea Taepo Dong I Missile Launch Success Advance Multi Stage Missile Separated Solid Fuel Liquid Fuel

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 39

 

Former UN Arms Inspector Says Iraq Moving Mass Destruction Weapons Every 30 Days To Foil Inspections. Inside The Pentagon, Sep 17, 1998, pp 1,18

According to Scott Ritter, Iraq moves its WMD and missile components every 30 days to avoid detection by UN inspectors.

Descriptors, Keywords: Ritter UN Iraq WMD Missile Parts Move

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 40

 

Key Army, Navy, Marine Arguments All But Dismissed: Joint Staff Backs Air Force In Stance On Air And Missile Defense. Inside The Pentagon, Sep 17, 1998, pp 1,12-13

In an effort to settle significant disagreements that have hampered final approval of joint doctrine for handling air and missile threats, the Joint Staff has turned aside attempts to limit the role of the AF in missile defense. Also, the JCS are leaning toward adopting a JP 3-01 command relationship language used in previously approved doctrine. Includes a memo by Joint Staff Director Vadm Dennis C. Blair.

Descriptors, Keywords: JCS JP 3-01 AF Missile Defense Doctrine Blair

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 41

 

China Shows New AWACS Killer Missile. Jane's Defence Weekly. Clifford Beal, Sep 16, 1998, p 13

According to officials from China's CPMIEC design bureau, the PLA has begun fielding a new SAM system designed to engage radiating aircraft, such as AWACS. The FT-2000 system comprises a truck launcher similar in appearance to the Antey S-300 SAM. It utilizes a passive, anti-radiation missile with a slant range of 12km to 100km and an altitude of up to 20km to engage enemy aircraft. Detection is in the 2GHz to 18GHz range. The length of the missile is 6.8m and it has a total weight of 1,300kg.

Descriptors, Keywords: China FT-2000 SAM System

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 42

 

USA And N Korea Set To Resume Missile Talks. Jane's Defence Weekly. Robert Karniol, Sep 16, 1998, p 12

US and North Korea are set next month to resume bilateral missile talks as controversy continues to surround Pyongyang's alleged Taepo Dong 1 missile test conducted on 31 August. Bilateral missile talks with US were suspended by North Korea a year ago and will be revived on 1 October following a flurry of preparatory meetings held in New York between 21 August to 5 September.

Descriptors, Keywords: US North Korea Bilateral Talks

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 43

 

US Navy Examines Long Range Radar For Theater Missile Defense. Jane's International Defense Review, Sep 01, 1998, p 12

US Navy's Program Executive Office for Theater Air Defense/Surface Combatants has allocated $18m of FY98 funding for initial work on a High Power Discrimination (HPD) radar for possible use in TMD as part of the Navy Theater Wide (NTW) system. The radar would operate in conjunction with the SM-3 missile for exoatmospheric intercepts. It may be an adjunct to the existing AN/SPY-1 Aegis radar, or an upgrade to that sensor providing greater sensitivity.

Descriptors, Keywords: Navy Theater Wide NTW High Power Discrimination HPD Radar

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 44

 

N Korea Satellite Either Failure Or Fraud. Military Space, Sep 14, 1998, pp 1, 3

According to Charles P. Vick of the Federation of American Scientists, the TD-1 appears to have a modified ND-1 aluminum first stage, derived from either the Soviet SS-4 IRBM or the SS-N-5 submarine launched missile. The second stage of the TD-1 is a Scud. Vick believes the total liftoff mass of the TD-1 is near the 25,000 kg range. He also believes that the North Koreans possibly added a liquid or solid propellant SAM-based third stage.

Descriptors, Keywords: North Korea TD-1 Taepo Dong 1 Federation of American Scientists

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 45

 

DoD Approval Sought For Minuteman Motors: New Rocket Would Lift Research Satellites. Space News. Warren Fester, Sep 07, 1998, p 14

USAF will seek permission from DefSec William Cohen to conduct a second orbital launch of a new rocket powered by Minuteman 2 missile motors. Other potential low-cost launch options discussed at the conference included a new payload deployment mechanism for NASA's space shuttle, larger and more powerful sounding rockets and a mammoth air-gun that literally would shoot small satellites into orbit.

Descriptors, Keywords: orbit Minuteman satellite rockets missile motors NASA payload gravity flight Congress

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 46

 

US Russia Agree To Share Early Warning Data. Space News. Warren Ferster, Sep 14, 1998, p 15

A US-Russian agreement to share missile early warning data will be the first step in what could become a wider effort designed to reduce the possibility of an accidental nuclear war between the two countries.

Descriptors, Keywords: missile early warning data nuclear war Congressional Budget Office CBO financial technical United States satellite forces military

UPDATE: Sep 18, 1998, No. 47