Appendices

Table A: U.S. Arms Transfers to Turkey, 1992 - Present

Table B: Turkey's Deals in the Works

Table C: Coproduction and Offset Deals with Turkey

Introduction to Table A

Table A (below) covers several different categories of weapons systems, including: 1) Aircraft; 2) Missiles; 3) Naval Ships; 4) Armored Vehicles/Tanks; and 5) Small Arms/Ammunition. The table documents orders by the Turkish armed forces of U.S. military equipment in the following quantities:

Aircraft: 605 military aircraft, including 240 Lockheed Martin F-16 fighters, 95 Sikorsky (division of United Technologies) utility helicopters, 74 Bell-Textron attack helicopters, 50 Fairchild (now supported by Northrop Grumman) A-10A support planes, 44 Northrop Grumman T-38 aircraft, and 40 McDonnell Douglas F-4E fighters.

Missiles: 4,215 missiles, including 1,857 Raytheon TOW anti-armor missiles, 1,010 Raytheon Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, 264 Raytheon AMRAAM air-to-air missiles, 190 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas Harpoon anti-ship missiles, 132 Raytheon Seasparrow surface-to-air missiles, and Lockheed Martin ATACMS surface-to-surface missiles.

Naval Ships: 24 naval ships, including 8 Perry Class frigates and 8 Knox Class frigates.

Armored Vehicles/Tanks: 4,300 armored vehicles and tanks, including 1,698 FMC Corporation armored combat vehicles, 1,258 M-60A3 main battle tanks, 550 M-113A1/2 armored personnel carriers, and Cadillac Gage/Textron V-150 Commando armored personnel carriers.

Small Arms/Ammunition: Massive quantities of guns, explosives, and ammunition, including 463,862 rounds of 40mm ammunition, 40,400 rounds of 5/37 ammunition, 24,000 rounds of 20mm ammunition, and 952 M85 machine guns.

Note: Most of the orders documented below were placed since 1992, but several large long-term deals that were concluded prior to 1992 are also included. Not all orders result in final deliveries, but where information on deliveries is available it has been provided. For a rundown on current U.S. systems that are already in the inventory of the Turkish armed forces, see the summary on page18 above, under "Measuring Dependency: The Role of U.S. Weapons in the Turkish Armed Forces."

Appendix Table A:

U.S. Arms Transfers to Turkey, 1992 - Present
Date of Notice Quantity Description of Equipment Transfer Type Price in $ Source Inventory as of

'98/99 (Source)

AIRCRAFT
08/13/93 37 Bell-Textron AH-1P Attack Helicopter (Fort Worth, Texas) EDA free FAS (EDA BBS) 37 (MB)
1992 22 Bell-Textron AH-1P Attack Helicopter (Fort Worth, Texas) EDA free FAS (NSIAD-93-164FS)
1993 15 Bell-Textron UH-1H Iroquois Helicopter (Fort Worth, TX) FMS GAO/NSIAD-95-100 94 (MB)
1996 4 Boeing CH-47D Chinook Helicopter (Philadelphia, PA) SIPRI 1997
03/10/95 2 Boeing KC-135R Tanker Aircraft (Seattle, WA) 3 year lease $9,800,000 FAS (HIRC) 7 (AW, MB)
1994 10 Boeing KC-135 Tanker Aircraft, refurbished to KC-135R (Seattle, WA) EDA GAO/NSIAD-95-100
1992 6 Cessna O-2 Observation/Light Attack Aircraft (division of Textron, Wichita, Kansas) EDA free FAS (NSIAD-93-164FS) 3 (MB)
1993 50 Fairchild A-10A (now supported by Northrop Grumman) Thunderbolt II Close Support Plane, spares, support, and training (15 delivered in 1993) (Republic, NY) EDA deal worth $160,000,000 SIPRI 1994
08/05/94 12 Kaman SH-2F Anti-Submarine Warfare Helicopters (Bloomfield, CT), 6 spare engines, spares and support FMS $115,000,000 FAS
11/12/93 2 Lockheed Martin C-130B Aircraft (Marietta, Georgia) EDA free FAS (EDA BBS) 13 (AW, MB)
1992 8 Lockheed Martin C-130B Aircraft (Marietta, Georgia) EDA free FAS (NSIAD-93-164FS)
1984* 240 Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighter Aircraft (Fort Worth, TX) (160 delivered between 1987-93 with the final 80 delivered between 1996-99) FMS JDW 175 (MB)
1991* 40 McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom II Fighter (St. Louis, MO) (40 delivered between 1991-93) EDA free SIPRI 1994

FAS (NSIAD-93-1645)

178 (MB)
11/10/93 1 Northrop Grumman T-38 Aircraft (Los Angeles, CA) EDA free FAS (EDA BBS) 70 (MB)
1993 3 Northrop Grumman T-38 Aircraft

(Los Angeles, CA)

EDA deal worth $800,000 SIPRI 1994

FAS

1992 40 Northrop Grumman T-38 Aircraft (Los Angeles, CA) EDA deal worth $11,000,000 SIPRI 1994 FAS (NSIAD-93-164FS)
1991* 10 Robinson Helicopter Inc., R-22 Utility Helicopter (Torrance, CA) (10 delivered in 1992) SIPRI 1993 9 (AW)
06/14/99 50 United Technologies Corp., Sikorsky S-70 Black Hawk Utility Helicopters (Startford, CT) (10 delivered through 6/99) $561,000,000 FAS
1992 45 United Technologies Corp., Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk Utility Helicopters (Stratford, CT) (45 delivered in 1993) deal worth $1,100,000,000 SIPRI 1994
09/21/98 4 United Technologies Corp., Sikorsky S-70B Sea Hawk Helicopters, spare parts, ground support equipment, and logistical support (Stratford, CT) DCS FAS
07/23/97 4 United Technologies Corp., Sikorsky S-70B Sea Hawk Helicopters equipped with AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, spare parts, ground support (Stratford, CT) DCS $120,000,000 SIPRI 1998

FAS

9 (S-70A) (MB)
ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT SPARE PARTS (combined sales)
04/13/99 Major airframe items for Lockheed Martin F-16s, subassemblies, subcomponents, and subsystems to Turkey for production of F-16s DCS $50,000,000 or more FAS
10/09/97 20 Lockheed Martin Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night (LANTIRN) Targeting Pods (for F-16s) DCS >$50,000,000 FAS
06/02/97 9 Boeing KC-135R in-flight refueling booms (Seattle, WA) 3 year lease $98,614 FAS
05/21/96 Spare parts for Lockheed Martin C-130 (Marietta, GA), McDonnell Douglas RF/F-4E (St.Louis, MO), Northrop Grumman RF/F-5 (Los Angeles, CA), Lockheed Martin F-104, Lockheed Martin T-33, Cessna T-37(Wichita, KS), and Northrop Grumman T-38 aircraft (Los Angeles, CA) FMS $80,000,000 FAS
09/10/96 Logistical support, spare parts, upgrades for Lockheed Martin F-16 fighters FMS $125,000,000 FAS
05/17/96 209 external fuel tanks and pylons for Lockheed Martin F-16 aircraft EDA lease FAS (HIRC)
10/07/94 Spares for McDonnell Douglas RF/F-4E, Northrop Grumman T-38, Lockheed Martin C-130, F-16 (Fort Worth, TX), F-104, T-33 and Cessna T-37 aircraft, support FMS $110,000,000 FAS
09/13/94 McDonnell Douglas F-4 spares EDA free FAS (EDA BBS)
08/22/94 2 Northrop Grumman T-38 cockpit simulators (Los Angeles, CA) EDA free FAS
MISSILES
05/18/98 30 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas Harpoon Missiles, other defense articles and services (St. Louis, MO) FMS $43,000,000 FAS 138 (MB)
03/22/95 16 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas Harpoon Ship to Ship Missiles and support (St. Louis, MO) FMS $28,000,000 FAS
1994 16 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas RGM-84A Harpoon Ship to Ship Missiles (St. Louis, MO) SIPRI 1997
1993 32 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas RGM-84A Harpoon Ship to Ship Missiles for 4 Knox Class Frigates (32 delivered in 1993) (St. Louis, MO) deal worth $170,000,000 SIPRI 1994
1991* 32 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas RGM-84A Harpoon Ship to Ship Missiles for 2 FPB-57 Type (Yildiz Class) FAC(M)s (32 delivered between 1994-95) (St. Louis, MO) SIPRI 1998
1990* 40 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas RGM-84A Harpoon Ship to Ship Missiles (40 delivered between 1995-96) (St. Louis, MO) deal worth $62,000,000 SIPRI 1997
1993 24 Boeing/McDonnell Douglas UGM-84A Sub Harpoon Surface to Ship Missiles for 4 type-209/1400 (Preveze Class) submarines (12 delivered between 1994-96) (St. Louis, MO) SIPRI 1998
01/25/95 515 British Aerospace Rapier Missiles with 14 launchers (Ex US Air Force) EDA FAS (EDA BBS)
1996 72 Lockheed Martin ATACMS Surface to Surface Missiles (Dallas, TX) (completed delivery in April 1998) FMS deal worth $47,900,000 SIPRI 1998
1993 100 Raytheon AGM-88A HARM Air to Surface Missiles for F-16 fighter aircraft (100 delivered between 1994-95) (Lewisville, TX) SIPRI 1996
1994 500 Raytheon AIM-9M/Sidewinder Air to Air Missiles (Bedford, MA) including 30 training missiles deal worth $55,000,000 SIPRI 1998
1992 200 Raytheon AIM-9M/Sidewinder Air to Air Missiles (Bedford, MA) (100 delivered in 1996) deal worth $23,000,000 SIPRI 1998
1990* 310 Raytheon AIM-9M/Sidewinder Air to Air Missiles (Bedford, MA) including training missiles (310 delivered between 1993-95) deal worth $30,000,000 SIPRI 1996
01/25/95 130 Raytheon/Ford AIM-7E/ Seasparrow Surface to Air Missiles (Tucson, AZ and Bedford, MA) EDA free FAS
1994 2 Raytheon/Ford Seasparrow Surface to Air Missiles for 2 Meko 200 Type (Barbaros Class) Frigates (Tucson, AZ and Bedford, MA) SIPRI 1998
1997 126 Raytheon AIM-120/Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM) missiles (Tucson, AZ and Bedford, MA) FMS $58,000,000 Sec 655 report FY97
10/10/97 138 Raytheon/Hughes AIM-120B AMRAAM, 120 LAU-129A/A launchers (Bedford, MA) FMS $62,000,000 FAS
1998 1144 Raytheon TOW Anti-armor missiles (Tucson, AZ) FMS $20,900,000 Sec 655 report FY98
1997 7 Raytheon TOW Anti-armor missiles (Tucson, AZ) FMS $1,300,000 Sec 655 report FY97
1996 686 Raytheon TOW Anti-armor missiles (Tucson, AZ) FMS $14,000,000 Sec 655 report FY96
1993 10 Raytheon TOW Anti-armor missiles (Tucson, AZ) FMS GAO/NSIAD-95-100
1992 10 Raytheon TOW Anti-armor missiles (Tucson, AZ) FMS GAO/NSIAD-95-100
03/29/96 75 SM-1 Standard anti-aircraft missiles *The SM-1 was made by General Dynamics and later by Hughes Missile Company EDA free FAS
NAVAL SHIPS
11/16/98 3

8

FFG-7 Perry class frigates

(Currently leased) FF 1052 Knox class frigates, 20,000 rounds of 20mm cartridges, spares, training, and support

FMS $205,000,000 FAS 3 (MB)
09/16/98 1 USS Thomas C. Hart Frigate FF-1092 and associated equipment lease $8,061,818 FAS
09/16/98 1 USS Donald Beary Frigate FF-1085 and associated equipment lease $7,125,619 FAS
07/24/97 3 Knox class frigates and associated equipment lease FAS 8 (MB)
07/24/97 3 Perry class frigates EDA free FAS
03/29/96 2 Perry class frigates EDA free FAS
05/24/95 3 Guided Missile Frigates: Clifton Sprague (FFG-16), Antrim (FFG-20) and Flatley (FFG-21) EDA free FAS
10/08/96 Ship spare parts EDA free FAS
ARMORED VEHICLES/TANKS
03/04/98 24 M110 8-inch howitzers and M578 armored recovery vehicles EDA free FAS
08/22/94 9 refueling trucks EDA free FAS
02/03/94 113 trucks and trailers EDA free FAS
08/23/93 478 miscellaneous military vehicles EDA free FAS (EDA BBS)
1991-93 264 M-60A1 Main Battle Tanks CFE free FAS 274 (MB)
1991-93 658 M-60A3 Main Battle Tanks CFE free FAS 658 (MB)
1992-93 600 M-60A3 Patton Main Battle Tank EDA Southern Region amendment aid program SIPRI 1994
1991-93 250 M-113A2 Armor Personnel Carriers CFE free FAS 2,813 A1/A2 (MB)
1990* 300 M-113A1 APC (300 delivered between 1992-93) EDA SIPRI 1994
1991-93 72 M-110 Artillery CFE free FAS
08/11/94 270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) rocket pods, spares and support FMS $32,000,000 FAS
1993 24 MLRS 227mm MRL including 1772 rocket pods, spares, and support deal worth $289,000,000 SIPRI 1996
1988* 120 MLRS 227mm MRL including 36,000 rockets (16 delivered between 1991-92) SIPRI 1993
1992 124 Cadillac Gage/Textron V-150 Commando Armored Personnel Carriers (124 delivered between 1992-94) SIPRI 1995
1988* 1,698 FMC Corporation Armored Combat Vehicles (1,500 delivered between as of 08/98) SIPRI 1994
SMALL ARMS/AMMUNITION
07/24/97 300

24,000

rounds of 40mm high explosives

rounds of 20mm ammunition, preparation, support, and services for transfer of 3 Perry class frigates listed above

FMS $75,000,000 FAS
1997 10 subcaliber weapons FMS $153,000 FAS
09/30/96 30 M85 machine guns EDA free FAS
09/13/94 88,000 rounds of 40mm ammunition EDA free FAS
02/03/94 110

1314

M85 machine guns and ammunition

rounds 105mm ammunition

EDA free FAS (EDA BBS)
1992 383,862 rounds of 40mm ammunition EDA free FAS (NSIAD-93-164FS)
1992 40,400 rounds of 5"/37 ammunition EDA free FAS (NSAID-93-164FS)
1993 4 127mm/54 Mk-45 Mod-9 Naval Gun on 4 Knox Class Frigates

(4 delivered in 1994)

SIPRI 1995
1992 2 127mm/54 Mk-45 Naval Gun for 2 Meko 200 Type (Barbaros Class) frigates SIPRI 1996
1990* 2 127mm/54 Mk-45 Naval Gun for 2 Meko 200 Type (Barbaros Class) frigates (1 delivered in 1995) SIPRI 1996
12/28/92 822 M-85 .50 caliber machine gun EDA free FAS (EDA BBS)
OTHER MISCELLANEOUS
11/10/97 4 Hughes AN/TPG-36(V)9 FIREFINDER radar sets with support equipment, spares, and program support FMS $26,000,000 FAS
10/29/97 HAWK Phase II Equipment EDA free FAS
05/14/97 58 ASROC rocket motors and containers EDA free FAS
02/06/97 Manufacturing license agreement for Rockwell to provide design details, test results, and production methods to Turkey for manufacture of the Ranger 2000 DCS N/A FAS 2 (MB)
04/23/96 523 BLU-107 Durandel anti-runway munitions EDA free FAS
09/13/94 ASROC launcher, HAGAN trainer, Phalanx maintenance trainer EDA free FAS
03/23/94 10

4

GRN-19A transponders

GRA-111 control monitors

EDA free FAS
1993 4 AN/SPG-53 fire control radar for 4 ex-US Navy Knox Class frigates

(4 delivered in 1994)

SIPRI 1995
1993 4 AN/SPS-10 surveillance radar for 4 ex-US Navy Knox Class frigates

(4 delivered in 1994)

SIPRI 1995
1993 4 AN/SPS-40B surveillance radar for 4 ex-US Navy Knox Class frigates

(4 delivered in 1994)

SIPRI 1995
1995 2 AN/SPS-49 surveillance radar on 2 ex-US Navy FFG-7 Class frigates SIPRI 1997
1992 5 AN/TPQ-36 tracking radar deal worth $28,000,000 SIPRI 1997
1995 13 Blindfire fire control radar (13 delivered in 1996) EDA SIPRI 1997
1995 2 Phalanx Close-In-Weapon-System (CIWS) on 2 ex-US Navy FFG-7 Class frigates SIPRI 1997
1993 4 Phalanx CIWS for 4 ex-US Navy Knox Class frigates (4 delivered in 1994) SIPRI 1995

Transfer Type Abbreviations:

DCS - Direct Commercial Sale

EDA - Excess Defense Article

FMS - Foreign Military Sale

Source Abbreviations:

AW - Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 11, 1999.

EDA BBS -the Pentagon's computerized bulletin board system on Excess Defense Articles.

FAS - Federation of American Scientists, www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/turkey_weapons.html.

GAO/NSIAD-93-164FS "Security Assistance: Excess Defense Articles for Foreign Countries," March 1993.

GAO/NSIAD-95-100 "Greece and Turkey: U.S. Assistance Programs and Other Activities," April 17, 1995.

HIRC - House International Relations Committee of the U.S. Congress.

JDW - Jane's Defense Week, August 19, 1998. MB - The Military Balance, 1998/99.

Section 655 Report FY 1996, 1997, 1998.

SIPRI - Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Yearbook 1993-98.

Note: * denotes weapons that were ordered before 1992 but delivered after 1992.

Appendix Table B:

Turkey's Deals in the Works
145 Attack Helicopters
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
Boeing Company - US AH-64D "Apache Longbow"
Bell-Textron - US AH-1Z "King Cobra"
Kamov - Russia Ka-50/52 "Black Shark"
Agusta - Italy A129-I "Mangusta"
Eurocopter - France and Germany UHU-HAS "Tiger"
Notes: In May of 1997 the Turkish military issued a "request for proposals" for the sale of 145 attack helicopters. The $3.5-4.5 billion deal has brought bids from the five companies listed above. The US State Department has approved the marketing license for the two US companies, but has informed Turkey that "significant progress" must be made in human rights before the US will approve the final export license. All five companies have been included on the short list. Turkey announced that it will reject any US proposal that does not include the transfer of the aircraft's advanced fire-control software. Final offers are to be submitted to prime contractor Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) by September 30th with a decision to be made in spring of 2000. However, due to financial constraints in the aftermath of Turkey's August 17th earthquake, Defense News reported that the Turkish Army may seek the direct purchase of 20-25 attack helicopters to meet the services urgent needs. (DN 5/17/99 and 10/4/99)
50 Black Hawk Utility Helicopters
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., division of United Technologies - US S-70 Black Hawk
Notes: The Turkish Land Forces Command has signed a $561 million contract for the direct purchase of 50 Sikorsky Black Hawk utility helicopters. Defense News reported that despite the SSM's insistence on coproduction, Turkey will go ahead with the deal because of "urgent" operational needs against the Kurdish rebels. In a tentative agreement between Turkey and Sikorsky, local companies TAI, Akinci, and Askeri Elektronik Sanayii (Aselan) will be given related subcontract work valued at $110 million. The deal is to be financed under a reactivated Export-Import Bank loan guarantee that was issued in 1990. Nearly $700 million in loan guarantees remain available. Turkey has already received 10 Black Hawks with the entire delivery to be completed in early 2001. (DN 1/18/99 and JDW 6/30/99)
8 Sea Hawk Naval Helicopters
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., a division of United Technologies - US SH-60 Sea Hawk
Notes: Turkey is awaiting the delivery of the first 4 of 8 Sea Hawks ordered. Jane's noted that the $250 million deal is part of Turkey's modernization of its current anti-submarine warfare helicopter fleet and over the horizon capability. Turkey plans to purchase up to 30 of the Sea Hawks equipped with short-range anti-ship missiles. (JDW 4/7/99)
84 Hellfire Laser Guided Missiles
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
Hellfire Systems (a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed) - US AGM-114 Hellfire 2 Laser-Guided Missile
Notes: An export license has been granted to Hellfire Systems under a $6.7 million contract to produce 84 missiles equipped with high-explosive blast fragmentation warheads. The contract includes training missiles, spares, and support equipment. The missiles are to be mounted on the Sea Hawks mentioned above. Originally Turkey had sought Norwegian Penguin missiles (known to be superior to the Hellfire because of its medium-range air-to-surface capabilities) but Norway has continued to support an arms embargo against Turkey in protest of ongoing operations against the Kurds. (JDW 4/7/99)
8 Heavy Lift Helicopters
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., division of United Technologies - US CH-53E Super Stallion heavy-lift helicopters
Boeing Co. - US CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift helicopters
Rostvertol - Russia Mi-26T Halo
Notes: Turkey has decided to open the bid for 8 heavy lift helicopters worth an estimated $150 million rather than purchase them from Sikorsky as previously planned. A final decision is expected in late 1999 or early 2000. Jane's has reported that Sikorsky has cut its bidding price in half following talks between the US company and the Turkish Ministry of Defense. The helicopters will be used in cross-border operations against the Kurdish militants in northern Iraq. (JDW 9/8/99 and DN 5/17/99)
4 Airborne Early Warning (AEW) Aircraft
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
Boeing Co. - US 737
Airbus Industries - a joint venture between Raytheon (US) and Israel Aircraft Industries Airbus A310
Notes: Turkey plans to directly purchase 4 AEW aircraft, worth between $800 million and $2 billion, to be used in monitoring neighboring countries' military movements. The two companies above have been short-listed with the final offers to be submitted within the next few months and a winner to be announced next year. Local Turkish companies, Havelsan and Milsoft, are competing for a $50 million or more subcontract for all software work. Delivery is to take place by 2003. (JDW 8/19/98 and DN 6/21/99)
18 Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
Bidding Company and Country Weapon System Offered
General Atomic - US GNAT family of vehicles, possibly the Prowler II
Israel Aircraft Industries - Israel IAI would not disclose the UAV proposed, but it is likely to be the Searcher or Hunter platforms
China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation (CATIC) - China ASN-206 reconnaissance unmanned air vehicle
Notes: Turkey originally planned to purchase 37 UAVs (one system is comprised of 6 aircraft plus ground control equipment), but has decided to reduce the number requested to18 due to budgetary constraints. Turkey plans on using the UAVs for reconnaissance purposes but is considering using armed versions in the future. TAI has been selected as the prime contractor. The project is estimated to cost between $350-$500 million and is scheduled to be completed in 2005. Delays are expected due to companies having to revise their original proposals. (JDW 1/20/99 and DN 5/31/99)
Long-Range Oblique Photography (LOROP) Systems
Bidding Company and Country
Lockheed Martin - US
El-Op - Israel
Notes: The Turkish Air Force Command is planning on using the LOROP system on 42 RF-4 Phantom reconnaissance aircraft. The direct purchase is the first stage of an overall program to modernize Turkish airspace control. The second stage includes the purchase of UAVs mentioned above, and the third stage is to acquire satellite reconnaissance capability. More than $45 billion has been allocated for the Air Force modernization over the next 25 to 30 years. (JDW 3/17/99)
40 F-15 Eagle Fighter Aircraft
Bidding Company and Country Weapon Systems Offered
Boeing Co. - US F-15 Strike Eagle
Notes: US officials have briefed Turkish officers and procurement officials on the performance, range and payload of the Boeing F-15 Strike Eagle, however, as of yet there has been no official offer made. Turkey's decision to acquire 40 F-15s worth close to $2 billion comes as a countermeasure to Greece's efforts to buy the same aircraft. Both countries currently have Lockheed Martin's F-16 in their inventories, but the F-15 is known for its superior maneuverability and combat capabilities. (TDN 2/10/98 and DN 2/22/99)
48 Helicopters
Bidding Company and Country Weapon Systems Offered
Bell Helicopter Textron - US Bell 427, 430, or 412 and Bell 407
Boeing - US MD-900 and MD-800
Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., division of United Technologies - US S-76
Agusta - Italy AB-109 and AB-119
Pzlswidnik - Poland TZL-Sokols
Eurocopter - France and Germany EC-135 or EC-155 and HA-120
Notes: The Turkish police are launching a $300 million international tender for 48 helicopters of various sizes and characteristics. Contractors are preparing proposals for 10 lightweight single-engine helicopters to be directly purchased and 30 intermediate twin-engine helicopters that are to be co-produced at TAI. The remaining 8 cargo helicopters are to be obtained from Eurocopter which is currently producing the AS-532 Cougars under license at TAI. Training, logistical support and spare-part production are also being provided. Turkey is requesting 50% in direct and indirect offsets. The firms are also required to come up with financing packages for the project. The deal is expected to be made by the end of the year. (TDN 2/3/99)
Maritime Patrol Aircraft
Bidding Company and Country
Boeing - US
Raytheon - US
Tracor (US) and Marconi Electronic Systems (UK)
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Germany
DCN International - France
Thomson-CSF - France
Elbit - Israel
Notes: Requests for proposals were sent to the companies listed above for Turkey's $150 million program to configure nine CN-235 transports as maritime patrol aircraft. Turkish Aerospace Industries will be the main domestic contractor with other local Turkish companies playing a major role in the program as well. (JDW 9/8/99)
F-5 Upgrades
Bidding Company and Country
Northrop Grumman - US
Notes: Northrop Grumman Corporation's Integrated Systems and Aerostructures Sector has been awarded a $1.8 million contract to upgrade 50 F-5 tactical fighters originally acquired by Turkey in the 1960s. The contract calls for delivery of 34 upper cockpit, nine lower cockpit and 20 dorsal longerongs beginning in May 2000. The structural replacement parts will allow the Turkish Air Force to extend the life of their F-5 fleet for another decade or more. (DD 9/15/99)
Helicopter Decoy Dispensers
Bidding Company and Country
Tracor - US
Thomson-CSF - France
Israeli Military Industries (IMI) - Israel
Notes: Turkey is seeking the co-production of helicopter chaff-and-flare decoy dispensers. Both Tracor and IMI plan to work with the local Turkish company Aselan, and Thomson has planned to work with local company Mikes. The $50 million contract would involve the production of about 300 decoy dispensers. (JDW 1/13/99)
1,000 Main Battle Tanks (MBTs)
Bidding Company and Country Weapon Systems Offered
General Dynamics - US Abrams M1A2
GIAT Industries - France Leclerc
Krauss-Maffei - Germany Leopard 2
Iveco and Auto Breda - Italy C1 Ariete
Ukrspetsexport - Ukraine T-84
Notes: The above companies have been short listed from the10 foreign companies competing for the local production of 1,000 MBTs. The $7 billion deal is an effort on Turkey's part to obtain the highest possible technology transfer in order to establish a tank-building infrastructure. General Dynamics, however, is likely to come up against opposition in Washington because of the unprecedented technology transfer the deal will entail. In addition, General Dynamics and Israeli Military Industries have joined forces in order to increase their chances of winning both of Turkey's tank projects. Under the agreement, IMI withdrew from the tank production project while General Dynamics will do the same for the tank modernization project (detailed below). A winner is expected to be announced in 2002. (TDN 6/16/99 and AFP 9/10/99)
Upgrade of 1,000 M60 A1 and A3 Tanks
Bidding Company and Country Weapon Systems Offered
General Dynamics Land Systems - US the M60 2000 is an upgraded M60 series chassis with a MIAI Abrams turret armed with a 120mm M256 smoothbore gun
Israeli Military Industries - Israel the Sabra retains the existing hull and chasis with many modifications and is fitted with the IMI 120mm smoothbore gun as fitted to the Merkava 3 MBT which is also being offered to Turkey
Notes: Turkey is planning on upgrading nearly 1,000 of its M60 A1 and A3 MBTs. As with the tank deal above, Turkey wants maximum contribution from Turkish industry and hopes that the prime contractor will be a local company. The tank modernization program will make the Turkish Land Forces the strongest army of NATO in the 21st century. Estimated cost is about $1.5 billion. (JDW 1/6/99 and TDN 6/16/99)
140 Armored Vehicles
Bidding Company and Country Weapon Systems Offered
General Dynamics - US Armored Personnel Carriers and Crowd Control Vehicles
Notes: The sale of 80 armored personnel carriers and 60 crowd control vehicles to the Turkish Police, a deal worth $45 million, marked a modest win for human rights groups and non-governmental organizations. Due to human rights abuses committed by some of the Turkish units that were to receive the vehicles, General Dynamics was unable to use Ex-Im Bank to finance the entire deal. Instead, the State Department decided the loan guarantee could be used in financing 101 of the vehicles going to 32 provinces, but could not be used to finance 39 vehicles destined for 11 provinces where there exists credible evidence of human rights abuses. General Dynamics will finance the remaining vehicles. (Wpost 12/31/98)

Sources:

AFP - Agence France Press

DD - Defence Data Ltd., http://defence-data.com/current/page5249.htm

DN - Defense News

JDW - Jane's Defense Week

TDN - Turkish Daily News

Wpost - Washington Post

Appendix Table C:

Coproduction and Offset Deals with Turkey
Quantity and Equipment Type U.S. Company Turkish Company Status and Details
Aircraft and Components
240 F-16 fighters Lockheed Martin Corp. Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) This is Turkey's first and largest co-production program that was started in 1984 and marked the development of a significant industrial infrastructure. Under the Peace Onyx I program TAI co-produced 152 of 160 Lockheed Martin F-16s that were delivered to the air force between 1987 and 1995. Peace Onyx II began in mid-1996 with 48 of the 80 F-16s ordered already delivered. Production of the 240 F-16s is due to end next year. 80 of the planes are being financed by a $2.5 billion fund set up by the U.S., Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait in return for Turkey's cooperation in the Gulf War. Lockheed Martin owns 49% of TAI.

(JDW 8/19/98)

F-110-GE-100 Engine for F-16 fighters General Electric TUSAS Engine Industries (TEI) TEI was established in 1985 to manufacture engine components and assemble the F110-GE-100 engine for the TAI F-16 production line. TEI is a Turkish-American joint stock company. (DISAM)
ALQ-178 V5 radar warning and electronic countermeasures for use on F-16 fighter planes Lockheed Martin Corp. MIKES MIKES produced the ALQ-178 V3 for the first batch of 160 co-produced F-16s, which was worth $325 million. Lockheed Martin owns 49% of MIKES. (JDW 11/18/98)
components for F-16 fighters and night vision equipment for infantry vehicles Texas Instruments and Litton Aselsan Aselan is also collaborating with Philips (Netherlands) on this project. (HRW)
Armored Vehicles and Tanks
1,698 Armored Combat Vehicles (ACV) FMC Corporation Nurol SS The U.S. company FMC entered into a joint venture with Turkish Nurol Savunma Sanayii to form the company FNSS. Nurol SS has been assembling the first part of the order under license. The plan calls for 1,698 vehicles of various configurations based on a FMC design, worth an estimated $1.3 billion, to be produced over an eight-year period in four variations (Infantry Fighting Vehicle, Armored Personnel Carrier, Mortar Vehicle, and TOW Vehicle). As of August 1998 the TLFC had received 1,500 vehicles with the complete delivery expected by the end of 1999. In September 1999, Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit approved the acquisition of an additional 655 Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicles from FNSS (valued at $450 million). (JDW 8/19/98 and 9/15/99)
components and parts for the 1,698 ACV's Texas Instruments Aselan Texas Instruments has a contract through Aselan to produce optical sights. The U.S. companies Alison Transmission, Detroit Diesel, and Cadillac Gage are also supplying parts. (DISAM)
upgrading M-113s and producing components for the F-16 Sergant Fletcher Kayseri Werkplaats Sergant Fletcher (US), Kayseri Werkplaats (Turkey), SIAI-Agusta (Italy) and MBB (Germany) are engaged in joint ventures. (HRW)
Missiles
Euro-Stinger project Raytheon Rokestan AS This is a joint venture between Turkey, Germany, Greece, and the Netherlands to develop a European version of the U.S. Stinger shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missile licensed by the U.S. company Raytheon. Turkey is producing around 4,800 missiles. Assembly of the final product is taking place at both the German plant Dornier and the Turkish plant Rokestan AS. Rokestan was formed in 1988 and produces rocket motors and propellants for the Raytheon Stinger missile. (HRW and DISAM)
Small Arms/ Ammunition
anti-aircraft artillery, rocket launchers, machine guns, and ammunition General Defense Corporation MKEK MKEK is also working with Oerlikon Contraves (Switzerland), Heckler&Koch (Germany), Rheinmetall (Germany), Eurometaal (Netherlands) and GIAT (France).

(HRW)

Source Abbreviations:

AW - Aviation Week

DISAM - Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management Journal, Spring 1995

HRW - Human Rights Watch publication Weapons Transfers and Violations of Laws of War in Turkey

JDW - Jane's Defense Weekly

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