Comanche


RAH-66 Comanche
Operational Requirements Document

  1. General description of operational capability
  2. Threat
  3. Shortcomings of existing systems
  4. Capabilities required
  5. Supportability and sustainment
  6. Infrastructure support and interoperability
  7. Force structure
  8. Schedule considerations
  9. Annexes
  10. Acronyms


1.  GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY.

a.  Overall Mission Area. Aviation capabilities add increased deployability, versatility, lethality, flexibility, mobility, extended coverage and sustainment to Maneuver, Fire Support, Air Defense, Command & Control, Intelligence, and Mobility/Counter-Mobility/Survivability mission areas. There is no specific Aviation mission area.

b.  Type of System Proposed. A need exists for a lightweight, low cost, advanced technology helicopter for U.S. military forces in the conduct of their mission. To effectively solve known deficiencies requires an aircraft with the capability to conduct armed reconnaissance and attack missions with embedded air combat capabilities. The success of the force is dependent upon the contributions of reconnaissance. Successful reconnaissance provides faster friendly tempo and more effective use of limited combat assets. An armed reconnaissance helicopter allows the force commander to quickly move or deploy interactive and interpretive intelligence collectors over great distances to gain and disseminate a timely picture of the battlefield. An armed reconnaissance helicopter provides security for the force, self-protection, and flexibility to quickly shift from a reconnaissance/counter-reconnaissance or security mission to an economy of force or attack mission. Increasing use of armed aerial platforms on the battlefield by the threat requires an air combat capability.

c.  Operational Concept. As the world order is changing, so is the posture of U.S. forces. Our nations military strategy for land warfare is transforming from reliance on forward deployed forces, reinforced from the U.S., to a CONUS based deployable and versatile force able to achieve a decisive victory. Military strength reductions, combined with recent experiences in contingency operations, entail development of a smaller quality force oriented on rapid response contingency operations. This force must be of the highest quality, able to deploy rapidly, fight, sustain themselves and win quickly with minimum casualties whenever deployed.

Achievement of credible deterrence requires rapid deployability, versatility, lethality, survivability and sustainment. In accomplishing these attributes, Comanche units will be employed as maneuver elements supporting the Corps and Division Commander's scheme of maneuver. Comanche will operate in all levels of conflict, providing reconnaissance and security to the total force. Comanche units will also provide light divisions with a highly mobile and lethal attack capability against personnel, ground, and air targets. Missions will be conducted during day and night, in Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) conditions, adverse weather, battlefield obscurants, and extreme environments across the spectrum of conflict from host nation support to major regional conflicts to high intensity battle.

d.  Support Concept. Comanche will be fielded under two levels of maintenance, user and depot. This concept maximizes repair by remove and replace and minimizes the requirements for off-aircraft test equipment and peculiar/special tools. The existing three-level retail supply system will provide supply support.

e.  Mission Need Statement (MNS) Summary. The Light Helicopter (LH) concept, and later the RAH-66 Comanche program, evolved from the Army Aviation Mission Area Analysis (AAMAA) conducted in 1981-1982. The requirement was included in the 1982 Battlefield Development Plan (BDP) and has been verified annually. This requirement has been reviewed in accordance with today's changing threat and remains valid. The Required Operational Capability (ROC) and Operational and Organizational (O&O) Plan were approved by Headquarters, Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), 11 March 1987. On 24 December, 1990, TRADOC approved an updated ROC. In anticipation of Milestone II decisions, two LH Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analyses (COEA) were conducted, March 1987 and March 1991. As a result of the 1990 Department of Defense (DoD) Major Aircraft Review (MAR), and approval by the DoD Joint Requirements Oversight Committee (JROC), the Secretary of Defense validated the requirement for RAH-66 Comanche as a replacement for the Army's current light helicopter fleet.

2.  THREAT.

With the demise of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact the world no longer faces the bipolar confrontational struggle which preoccupied military planners throughout the Cold War. The clarity of position and cautious respect accorded during that era no longer exists, requiring us to contend with less world order and greater instability. This situation is intensified by availability of sophisticated state-of-the-art technology systems in the international arms market.

Currently, over 50% of the world's nations have the ability to use high-technology weapons to escalate conflicts to, at least, the mid-intensity level. With further proliferation, the military threat will witness more small nations with the ability to elevate conflict.

Regional conflicts involving these nations are the most likely scenario which could involve U.S. forces. These conflicts range from counter-drug operations in South America, to peacekeeping in Yugoslavia, to counter-terrorist operations worldwide, and to DESERT STORM-type combat operations. Regardless of the location, with the proliferation and availability of affordable and effective high-technology weapons, future regional contingencies will present challenging and lethal threats.

See the RAH-66 Comanche Systems Threat Assessment Report (STAR).

3.  SHORTCOMINGS OF EXISTING SYSTEMS.

Current systems are tactically and technically incapable of performing armed reconnaissance, attack, and air combat; during day and night, in adverse weather, NBC conditions, battlefield obscurant conditions, and high/hot environments. The current light helicopter fleet of AH-1/OH-58A/C's are obsolete and must be replaced. These systems represent 30+ year old technology; are increasingly vulnerable, not survivable, are rapidly becoming insupportable and too costly to operate and maintain.

4.   CAPABILITIES REQUIRED.

a.  System Performance. RAH-66 Comanche shall be a fully integrated, two-pilot, advanced technology helicopter system to provide enhanced mission effectiveness by increasing deployability, versatility, lethality, survivability and supportability, while increasing operator and maintainer efficiency. It must be capable of single pilot operation from either crewstation. Sufficient endurance and range to accomplish mission profiles, using appropriate tactics, techniques and procedures, with internal fuel is required (See Annex B, Operational Mode Summary/Mission Profiles). Comanche must also have the capability for extended range combat missions. No normal function of a system will degrade the performance of another system. Limited operation from ships and the ability to rapidly stop the rotor from flight idle in a minimum amount of time (plus or minus 2.5 min) are required.

(1).  Deployability. Comanche must be deployable by sea and air vehicles. Also see paragraph 6.b.(1) Transportation.

(a).  Self-Deployability. Equipped with self-protection, Comanche must self-deploy at least 1,260 nautical miles with at least a 30 minutes fuel reserve. Strategic self-deployability must be accomplished with integral launchers, two Air-to-Air Missiles (ATAM), gun without ammunition, and all kits required for self-deployability. Total time to install all kits required for self-deployability shall not exceed 20 minutes with a five man crew, using minimal tools. Total time to remove all kits required to accomplish self-deployability, configure for combat operations, and refuel/arm must not exceed 35 minutes (Reconfiguration: 20 minutes with a crew of five, refuel/arm 15 minutes with a crew of three).

(b).  Air Transport Deployability. Comanche is required to be deployable using C-130, C-141, C-5, and C-17 US Air Force cargo aircraft. Embark or debark (fully-mission capable) time using a C-130/C-141B must be equal to or less than 30 min using eight or less soldiers and using a C-5/C-17, equal to or less than 30 min (equal to or less than 15 min desired), using five or less soldiers. Soldiers and equipment necessary to off-load and prepare aircraft to fight must accompany the deployment. When deployed by air transport, Comanche must be fightable in equal to or less than 45 minutes (30 mins for debark, 15 mins for refuel/arm) after arrival.

(c).  Sea Deployability. Comanche must be deployable by ships such as lash lighters, seabee barge/ship, roll-on/roll-off (RORO), and fast sealift ship (FSS).

(2).  Versatility. RAH-66 Comanche must have all systems fully operational within 3 minutes, excluding Longbow, FLIR and point chemical detector. FLIR should be fully operational on a hot desert day (520 C heat soaked day) within at least 12 minutes, at least 8 minutes in a degraded mode. An emergency 1 minute start-up time wherein a minimum number of systems (e.g., flight, communications, navigation and pilotage sensor (e.g., Imagery Intensification (I2)) are operational for safe day and night flight is required.

(a).  Target Acquisition System. The target acquisition system (TAS) must acquire moving and stationary, emitting (e.g., radio frequency (RF) and laser) and non-emitting targets of military value at sufficient range to support required response in less time than the threat engagement cycle while minimizing threat detection. The target acquisition system must allow the crew to detect, classify, recognize, and identify targets in adverse weather, battlefield obscurants, nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) environment, during night and day, in minimal time through use and integration of information from different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., visual, far and near infrared, millimeter wave, radio frequency, etc.).

1.  Sensors. The Electro-Optical System (EOS) (e.g., FLIR, and day TV) must allow the crew to manually detect, classify and recognize tank-size targets with at least the probabilities and ranges listed in the table below.

Electro-Optical System (EOS)
Manual Acquisition Range Requirements

 

NIGHT

DAY

 

OFFSET/HOT1

STATIONARY/COLD2

 
 

P%

Req

Des

P%

Req

Des

P%

Req

Des

Detect DATA REMOVED
Classify DATA REMOVED
Recognize3 DATA REMOVED

1 Offset targets are exercised (hot) X tank target crossing at least an equal to or greater than X offset and a X C target to background contrast, and X% atmospheric transmission.

2 Stationary targets are defined as cold soaked tank-size targets with no more than a X C target to background contrast, Xm x Xm presented area, and X% atmospheric transmission.

3 Recognition is desired.

The EOS, within a field of regard (FOR) of at least plus or minus X horizontal (plus or minus X desired), an up elevation of at least +X (+X desired), and depression of at least -X (-X desired), must be capable of automatically searching a crew selectable sector up to X horizontal (X with Longbow) by X vertical and begin auto tracking high priority targets within X seconds. A capability to rapidly clear displayed destroyed or false targets must be provided. All Comanche aircraft must be capable of incorporating high resolution, low probability of intercept radar sensors (e.g., Longbow), capable of X coverage. Data derived from these sensors must be automatically integrated with other Comanche sensor data to allow correlation of intelligence and targets on the same multi-function display. The sensor must provide timely updates to the Comanche fire control system for target engagement. Specific requirements are outlined in the Longbow Required Operational Capability (ROC) Document. This document shall prevail in case of discrepancies with the Longbow ROC. The pilotage sensors (e.g., FLIR and Imagery Intensification (I2)) must provide sufficient supplementary target acquisition capabilities to support simultaneous engagements. Warning receivers (e.g., Radio Frequency Interferometer (RFI), Laser Warning Receiver (LWR)/Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)) shall identify/direction find (DF) threat radio frequency (RF) and laser energy impinging the aircraft (passive ranging desired). The accuracy of the horizontal DF must be sufficient to allow the crew to acquire the emitter with the TAS in minimal time. A vertical bearing sufficient for minimal vertical search should be provided. This information must be rapidly integrated with onboard systems (e.g., flight control, fire control, map display, ASE, and other target acquisition sensors). A capability to accurately range and designate for precision guided munitions against stationary and moving targets must be provided.

2.  Operational. The crew must have the capability to acquire moving and stationary targets, within the stated sensor fields of regard, throughout the aircraft operational envelope. Manual and auto track of moving and stationary targets (selectable auto track initiation desired) and simultaneous track of X or more targets within a field of view (X desired) are required. The absolute target location error of tracked and lased targets must not exceed Xm. The TAS shall be capable of supporting concurrent Air to Ground Missile (ATGM) engagements of X or more targets. Total search, prioritization and display to allow the crew to detect and classify targets must occur within equal to or less than X seconds. The system must be programmable to automatically display the targets in an order of priority established by the crew. Automatic target reprioritization and display following crew intervention is required. The EOS must provide aided detection, with a minimum probability of equal to or greater than X percent and classification (recognition desired) of detected targets, with a minimum probability of equal to or greater than X percent, as a minimum, against fixed wing, rotary wing, tracks, wheeled, and emitting air defense units at equal to or greater than X percent Xkm (Xkm desired). At ranges equal to or greater than Xkm, the EOS Aided Target Detection/Classification (ATD/C) system shall be capable of detection and classification to its maximum range with a gradual degradation in probabilities as a result of range increases and/or environmental conditions. Specific Longbow acquisition requirements are outlined in the Longbow Required Operational Capability (ROC) Document. Moving target indications are required. A capability to store and immediately display EOS imagery must be provided. These images must be of sufficient quality to allow the crew to detect, classify, recognize and identify targets, independent of target definition or clutter, at ranges and in times comparable to those of real-time manual search at night. The imagery must be highlighted to cue the crewmember's search to high probability threat areas. A capability for crew controllable record and playback of TAS video, symbology and voice communications of the mission (two hours minimum) is required. Secure real-time video transmission and reception are desired. The Comanche must be capable of maintaining and storing timely and accurate targeting data for interface with C3I and fire control systems, as applicable, both onboard and offboard, for rapid handover of information to and from other members of the Combined Arms Team.

(b).  Command and Control (C2). The RAH-66 Comanche requires a communications capability to transfer, fuse and coordinate battlefield information. This communications capability requires: securable and automated systems which operate in voice and data modes, a retransmission (in-band and cross-band) capability, simultaneous transmission of two voice and one data systems, concurrent receipt of information over all communication systems (to include guard monitoring), low probability of detection/intercept, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication (airborne and ground), non-interference systems, combat identification capability, an ability to digitally transfer mission data over extended ranges within the Corps area of operations, and transmission and reception of digitized video data. Communications must be effective in all flight regimes and maximize crew efficiencies while reducing task loads. This capability must be compatible and interoperable with the combined arms, joint, allied and coalition services.

(c).  Situational Awareness.

1.  Navigation. A global navigation system which provides locational accuracy for intelligence information, quick response to changes in mission, engagement of targets, and use of civil and military airway and approach structures is required. A equal to or less than 15m spherical error probable (SEP) is required to support strategic, inter- theater/ intra-theater self-deployment. A self-contained backup system with an error of equal to or less than 0.5% of distance traveled is necessary to support these operations. The primary and backup systems must provide automatic update, computation, and display of distance, bearing, and time-to-go from aircraft to destination and/or waypoints.

2.  Pilotage. The pilotage system (primary and backup) must provide obstacle and spatial awareness in all flight modes; day, night and adverse weather capabilities; combined target and navigation displays; a scene providing detection of low contrast flight hazards, close-in threat, and other situation data and symbology in a spatially relevant manner; a field of vision and a field of view which optimize resolution and are acceptable for spatial awareness; a high confidence fault detection system; heads-up capability; integrated multiple sensors operating in different spectral bands with equivalent FOVs; and standard symbology in both crewstations is required. A pilotage field-of-vision of plus or minus 1200 horizontal by -52.50 to +47.50 vertical straight ahead, transitioning to -450 to +550 vertical at plus or minus 900 horizontal is required. A minimum pilotage field-of-view of 520 horizontal by 300 vertical (600 x 350 desired) is required. Aircraft and cockpit lighting shall be compatible with light intensification devices and systems.

3.  Electronic Map. An electronic map, overlaid with a tactical situation display, must be provided which is integrated into all MEP functions; displays plan and perspective views in near-real time using inflight crew selectable map sizes; interfaces with both internal and external data bases; displays threat, friendly, or other overlay information; and calculates intervisibilities to aid in enroute mission planning or threat avoidance. The crew and data link facilities (e.g. commo links, data transfer unit) must be able to update the aircraft data base in flight and on the ground. The system must use declutterable digital data base products and information derived from paper maps.

4.  Tactics Expert Function. Comanche must incorporate a tactics expert function.

(d).  Mission Management. Comanche aircraft and units require a mission planning and management system capable of pre-mission planning, data loading, mission preview with "fly through" capability over perspective view terrain, coordinating and reacting to mission change, directing the battle, and post mission update. Comanche must access near real-time intelligence and targeting systems, correlate and selectively filter tactical information and digitally relay pertinent data to other aircraft in the flight and ground forces. The aircraft and ground systems must be capable of transmitting and/or receiving updates to the data base in flight and on the ground. The capability to playback recorded TAS video, symbology and voice communications of the mission, either in the aircraft or independent of the aircraft, is required.

(3).  Lethality. RAH-66 Comanche must be employable against personnel, ground, and air targets. All munitions systems must be capable of concurrent operation and collectively provide for short and long range engagement of moving and stationary ground and air targets. RAH-66 Comanche must be capable of firing all munitions, limited only by individual armament system safety and performance constraints, throughout the operational flight envelope. The armament systems must be operable from either pilot station without degrading the capabilities of the munitions. The armament systems must have munitions to defeat and/or suppress threat systems in accomplishing the described mission profiles.

To successfully accomplish all mission profiles the RAH-66 Comanche must have at least six integral multifunction launch stations and a capability for four additional multifunction launch stations. Each of these launch stations must incorporate existing, and provide for growth features of, rockets, air-to-ground missiles, and air-to-air missiles. Each launch station must be capable of firing without degrading the inherent operational capabilities of the munitions or other Comanche systems.

Each launch station must have the capability to substitute the Hellfire family of missiles, HYDRA-70 family of rockets (at least 4 per launch station) or ATA Stingers (at least 2 per launch station).

Comanche requires an integral turreted gun system (TGS) for close-in, quick reaction, off-horizontal axis engagement of both aerial and ground targets. The TGS must have an ammunition capacity of at least 500 rounds and be able to engage aircraft, personnel, and vehicles. It must have an off-horizontal axis of at least 120 to each side of the aircraft nose. Up elevation must transition from 15-30 at -120, to equal to or greater than 80 from -20 to +20 azimuth, and transition to 15-30 at +120. Depression of 45-60 is required. The gun must suppress with a probability of hit (Ph) of X% from a hover/forward flight (0-80 kts), off-axis to 90 (equal to or less than X% degradation for off-axis angles >90 desired) at a range up to Xm in equal to or less than 2x20 round bursts against a moving/stationary X sized target traveling 0-30mph.

From hover/maneuvering flight, Comanche must be capable of sequentially engaging threat helicopters off-axis by up to 300 with a Ph of X% and a probability of an attrition kill (Pk) of X% (equal to or less than 5x20 round bursts per target desired). Engage X threat rotorcraft which are performing up to a 2.5g acceleration turn from equal to or less than Xm or engage X threat rotorcraft while performing up to a 1.5g acceleration turn from equal to or less than Xm.

The TGS must be capable of firing while the aircraft is on the ground.

(4).  Survivability. Detection of the RAH-66 Comanche must be minimized. If detected, it must minimize acquisition. If acquired, it must be difficult to hit. If hit, it must sustain minimal damage. If damage does not permit continued flight, it must be crashworthy. To maximize the potential self-protection capabilities of RAH-66 Comanche, the synergistic effects of the navigation, communication, target acquisition and armament systems must be integrated and optimized with other survivability and susceptibility features. Integration of these features must have minimal effect on other Comanche capabilities.

(a).  Susceptibility Reduction. All RAH-66 Comanche survivability characteristics shall be optimized, balanced, and integrated. It must employ the balance of passive signature reduction and active countermeasures necessary to close within sufficient range to successfully observe, acquire or engage targets in less time than required for them to successfully engage the Comanche. Susceptibility reduction (e.g., low glint canopy, infrared (IR) suppressing paint and materials, IR suppression of the exhaust gases, reduced visual and acoustic signature, reduced radar cross section) and passive countermeasures (CM) (e.g., radar, missile, laser warning and chemical detection) are required. Active CM (e.g., radar, IR jamming, flares, chaff) shall be applied as necessary to preserve the appropriate balance of passive and active systems necessary for susceptibility reduction. RAH-66 Comanche must meet susceptibility reduction requirements in Appendix F. Application of low observable features must not reduce maintainability and logistical standards.

A rear view capability is required.

Aircraft and cockpit lighting and markings shall be difficult to detect with light intensification devices and systems.

Visual detection of RAH-66 Comanche during ground or maintenance operations in the field must be minimized.

(b).  Maneuverability and Agility. If acquired, the RAH-66 Comanche must have the maneuverability and agility necessary to deter engagement or defeat attack.

1.  Flight performance must be met in the armed reconnaissance mission configuration (4 ATGM missiles, 2 ATA missiles, 320 rds of ammunition and any combat kits installed) at 4000 ft. pressure altitude (PA), 95 Fahrenheit (F) without the Longbow fire control radar (FCR) installed.

2.  To successfully accomplish its missions and survive, Comanche must be capable of:

A Vertical rate of climb (VROC) must be at least 500 feet per minute (fpm) (750 fpm desired) at equal to or less than maximum rated power (MRP) (intermediate rated power (IRP) desired). All vertical climbing requirements will be effected from a stabilized hover out-of-ground-effect (OGE), 0 wind condition.

At least 170 KTAS in level flight at IRP is required.

Maintaining an automatic stabilized hover in winds up to 25 kts with gust spreads up to 15 kts and be capable of automatic heading, altitude, and airspeed control.

At an out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover, turning 1800 (plus or minus 50) in winds up to 35 knots (kts) from any direction in equal to or less than 5 seconds and stop.

Masking in equal to or less than 2 seconds and laterally displacing equal to or greater than 100 meters (m) in equal to or less than 12 seconds.

Rapidly accelerating laterally to 20 KTAS, turn, align the fuselage with the flight path, continue accelerating to and maintain best maneuver air speed (Vbm).

From cruise air speed (maximum continuous power (MCP)), rapidly decelerating to and maintaining Vbm at a constant altitude.

At cruise air speed vertically avoid a 300ft (500 ft desired) obstacle within 6 seconds without exceeding a 15 ft overshoot and 25% (10% desired) air speed decrease.

(c).  System Hardening.

If engaged and impacted by a single Armor Piercing Incendiary (API) Xmm round from X meters range (X meters per second velocity) Comanche must have the system hardening and crew protection with the redundancy required to continue controlled flight. Damage effects from High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) must be minimized. Survivability features of vulnerability reduction, (i.e. ballistic, NBC, and hardening to laser and high power microwave (HPM) directed energy weapons (DEW)) must be integrated into Comanche. Crew low and high energy laser protection is required.

A protected anti-torque system, wheeled gear, wire strike protection (WSP) (detection desired), and fire detection, prevention and suppression/extinguishing are required.

Comanche must operate as effectively as possible in an NBC environment. To accomplish this the cockpit, avionic and electronic equipment compartments must be NBC hardened (including cockpit overpressure) to the extent the crew is able to operate in contaminated areas. Redundant and fault/damage tolerant systems must be provided. Aircraft electronics must be hardened for narrow and wide band EMP and EMI.

The Comanche crew must be warned when chemical agents are present externally and/or within the cockpit. A point chemical detection system is required. An ability to receive data indicating when preselected total radiation doses and dose rates have been reached, both with appropriate warning, is required. The ability to perform radiological survey and monitoring using onboard processing are required.

After exposure to or operations in NBC environments, decontamination of Comanche, with minimal damage, must be achieved. The Comanche must be decontaminated with negligible risk to soldiers in MOPP-4.

RAH-66 Comanche, with one engine inoperative (OEI) must be capable of: from nap-of-the-earth (NOE) airspeeds (equal to or greater than 40 kts), flying out to an air speed which maintains 100 fpm rate of climb; and in a self-deployment configuration, landing safely from any point in the mission profile (MP), returning to takeoff point, or continuing to destination. Jettison of fuel stores is permitted.

Comanche must have safe autorotational capabilities.

A dynamic crew restraint system is required (airbag system desired).

(d).  Crashworthiness.

A systems approach to air crew safety and crashworthiness is required. If unable to continue flight, Comanche must meet the crashworthiness requirements described in Aeronautical Design Standard (ADS) 36 except:

1.  Vertical impact velocity with landing gear extended shall be equal to or greater than 38 feet per second for a three point landing,

2.  Vertical impact velocity with landing gear retracted shall be equal to or greater than 27 feet per second with pitch and roll, and

3.  Landing gear energy absorption shall provide protection >20 feet per second. TGS contact and damage repairable IAW paragraph para 4.b.(2).(c), battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR), at unit level are acceptable between 15 and 20 feet per second.

(e).  Other.

Comanche must have flight data recording system with a crash survivable memory. A system that records internal and external aircrew communications is desired. Comanche must provide a means for emergency personnel evacuation.

b.  Logistics and Readiness.

(1). Logistics.

(a).  The RAH-66 Comanche must be able to conduct ground operations such as: continuous Mission Equipment Package (MEP) operations, mission preview, embedded training, extended maintenance actions and engine starting using either integral power or external power (commercial/aviation ground power unit).

(b).  RAH-66 Comanche shall be maintained using two levels of maintenance (user and depot).

(c).  The RAH-66 Comanche must incorporate a self-diagnostic system that identifies faults to the individual component/module level. The onboard diagnostics/prognostics system must provide the level of detection and/or isolation required to meet the Mean Time to Repair (MTTR).

(d).  Assemblies shall be easily removed and replaced using a minimum number of tools. Layering of components/modules shall be minimized. Damage as a result of removal of components/modules shall be minimized.

(e).  A flight and maintenance data recording system, capable of downloading aircraft data to the Army's automated logistics system (ULLS-A), is required.

(f).  Comanche must be refueled and rearmed, under adverse conditions, day and night, in equal to or less than 15 min, by equal to or less than 3 soldiers using no special ground equipment, minimal special tools, while using appropriate combat gear and while wearing protective clothing (e.g., arctic, MOPP 4). Shipboard rearm and refuel is required. It shall require equal to or less than 20 min to install and load the additional multifunction launchers using no peculiar ground support equipment and minimal special tools (no special tools desired).

(g).  Provisions for an external cargo hook rated at equal to or greater than 1814 kilograms (Kg) with normal and emergency jettison controls and cargo weight display/ indication for the crew must be provided.

(h).  Comanche must be recoverable by air, using standard Army aviation aerial recovery equipment (single point attachment desired), and ground methods.

(i).  Stowage for crew field equipment aboard the aircraft must be provided. Equipment stowage must not reduce crashworthiness or aircrew safety.

(j).  Operational and support (O&S) costs shall be less than the current light helicopter fleet.

(2). Readiness.

(a).  Comanche must meet the following Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) requirements:

1.  Reliability:

a.  Mean Time Between Mission-Affecting Failures (MTBMAF) must be equal to or greater than 8.5 hours.

b.  Mean Time Between Essential Maintenance Actions (MTBEMA) must be equal to or greater than 4.5 hours.

2.  Availability: Operational Availability (Ao) must be equal to or greater than 0.75 (wartime) and equal to or greater than 0.85 (peacetime), while maintaining an operational tempo of 6 hours per 24 hour period (2,200 flight hours (FH) per year) wartime, or 240 hours FH per year peacetime.

3.  Maintainability:

a.  Maintenance Ratio (MR) must be equal to or less than 2.6 maintenance man-hours per flight hour (MMH/FH) at the user level.

b.  Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) must be equal to or less than 1.0 hour.

(b).  Each main engine must be easily removed and replaced within one hour by equal to or less than two soldiers (plus one crane operator, if necessary).

(c).  The RAH-66 Comanche must use existing battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR) kits to the maximum extent possible. BDAR component/line replaceable module (LRM)/line replaceable unit (LRU) subsystem maximum times to repair shall not exceed three hours 95% of the time. BDAR repair shall be durable for equal to or greater than 100 hours of operation.

c.  Critical System Characteristics.

(1).  Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). The Comanche must have ECCM which shall defeat threat electronic warfare capabilities possessing the potential to degrade combat communications, identification, navigation, and weapons capabilities.

(2).  Wartime Reserve Modes (WARM). Comanche systems will have the capability to use WARM during conflict.

(3).  Survivability - See 4.a.(4). and Annex F Survivability.

(4).  Electromagnetic compatibility and frequency spectrum.

(a).  The Comanche must operate throughout the worldwide electromagnetic environment, including shipboard, without affect or disturbance to flight critical functions. Momentary upset is allowed in mission essential functions as long as the crew can continue to perform the mission. There shall be no damage to any system or loss of information as a result of operating in the worldwide electromagnetic environment.

(b).  Frequency spectrum capability for the communications system must be from 2 Mega Hertz (MHz) through 400 MHz.

1.  Modulation techniques must include, but not limited to, amplitude, frequency, frequency shift keying, and digital data.

2.  Required data protocols are advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFTDS), air force applications program development (AFAPD), and marine tactical systems (MTS).

3.  Comanche requires a data capability operable over all communication systems.

(5).  Mission capability. Comanche must successfully perform its missions worldwide across the spectrum of climates, weather and other environmental factors. Performance requirements, unless otherwise stated, are in the armed reconnaissance mission configuration at 4000 ft., 950F. Shipboard operations, including landing, takeoff, refueling and rearming, must be conducted up to Sea State 4. See Annex B, Operational Mode Summary/Mission Profiles (OMS/MP).

(6).  Safety. The design and construction of Comanche must minimize safety risks to operators, maintainers, and support personnel.

(7).  Security.

(a).  No classified data, information, or material will be permanently stored in Comanche on-board systems. Restricted access to, and protection of, classified information, before, during, and after operations, must be provided. A fail safe means of zeroizing or erasing all classified information is required. Once initiated the zeroization or erasing process must be self executing, nonreversible, and unstoppable to completion. RAH-66 Comanche must have the capability to operate (power on, operational flight program loaded) in both an unclassified and classified mode.

(b).  Secure voice communications and data transmissions are required (See 4.a.2.(b). Command and Control). The Comanche requires variable power output from the communications system to support mission operations.

(c).  The transfer of data between RAH-66 Comanche and the integrated mission planning equipment must safeguard requirements and prevent compromise of sensitive information.

(d).  The ability to perform maintenance and extract maintenance data, at user level, in an unclassified mode must be provided.

d.  Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P3I).

Sufficient design growth must be provided for all aircraft systems. RAH-66 Comanche must have the capability to incorporate emerging technologies which are projected to mature during RAH-66 Comanche's life cycle.

A capability to integrate sensor technologies and fuse information from different segments of the target acquisition system electromagnetic spectrum should be provided. No more than one false target within the scanned sector should be permitted.

The ability to incorporate future munitions must be considered.

It is desired Comanche be able to receive data from future intelligence sources. Consideration should be given to Aerial Common Sensor (ACS), tactical information broadcast system (TIBS), tactical related applications program (TRAP) and tactical data information exchange sub-system - broadcast (TADIXS-B).

A wire detection system is desired (passive desired).

The ability to accept engines with increased power and associated structural improvements must be considered.

Integration of a passive chemical sensor, with appropriate warning, is desired.

Comanche must eventually interface with the family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Initial consideration must be applied to receipt of UAV transmissions. Future consideration must be given to retransmission of UAV data and control of UAVs from designated Comanches.

5.   SUPPORTABILITY AND SUSTAINMENT.

a.  Maintenance Planning. Comanche will be fielded using two levels of maintenance, user and depot. On-board integrated diagnostics will be the primary tool for determining user level maintenance. Supply support will use the current three level retail supply system. Discard-at-failure components will be used where feasible, to effect repair by remove and replace. On-condition maintenance must be maximized and a prognostics system used to "soft life" Comanche major dynamic components. Depot level maintenance will not be limited by support equipment or automatic test equipment (ATE).

b.  Support Equipment. Comanche must be operated and maintained with minimal tools and ground support equipment. Comanche will make maximum use of standard Army aviation tools and support equipment. Peculiar ground support equipment (PGSE) must be minimized. No mainframe Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) shall be used at user level to achieve supportability goals.

c.  Human Systems Integration.

(1).  Integrated Training System (ITS). The ITS Training Support Requirements (TSR) Annex is summarized below. The complete TSR is provided at Annex E.

(a).  Training Constraints.

1.  The ITS course lengths must not increase over existing courses except where justifiable based on the consolidation of Military Occupational Specialties (MOS), the expansion of missions (e.g., scout, attack, air combat), or additional systems (e.g., Longbow, night vision devices).

2.  The ITS must be of sufficient quality and quantity to justify limitations in the need for in-flight training hours. In-flight training hours for the Aircraft Qualification Course (AQC) must not exceed 35 hours, and in-flight training hours for individual skill sustainment must not exceed 35 hours semiannually.

3.  Embedded Training (ET) capabilities must not adversely affect mission performance or safety of flight nor degrade the maintainability or component life of the aircraft systems.

(b).  Training Strategy. The ITS must be developed by the contractor concurrently with the aircraft and in accordance with (IAW) the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process. It must include all hardware, software, courseware, technical and training documentation and manuals, consumables, facilities, and instructor and support personnel necessary to train both Active Component (AC) and Reserve Component (RC) Operator, Maintainer, and Support (OMS) personnel at all skill levels to fully mission-ready proficiency. It must train 100 percent of the approved critical tasks identified for OMS personnel; must be available for Instructor and Key Personnel Training (IKPT); and must be fully tested, validated, verified, and ready for training (RFT) in the training base at Initial Operational Capability (IOC). Concurrence of the ITS with the aircraft must be maintained during design and development and throughout the life cycle of the system.

1.  Institutional Training. All qualification training must be conducted at a resident training base. Aircrew qualification training will be conducted in an AQC, instructor pilot training will be conducted in a separate Instructor Pilot Course (IPC), and maintenance test pilot training will be conducted in a separate Maintenance Test Pilot Course (MTPC). During the fielding period, maintainer transition training will be conducted for a period not to exceed five years. Technical inspector training will be conducted in the Basic Non-commissioned Officer Courses (BNCOC). If Comanche peculiar training is required to qualify non-Comanche specific support personnel (e.g., flight operations specialists, petroleum and ammunition handlers), appropriate training material must be developed and provided for incorporation into existing courses.

2.  Organizational Training. Standardized initial unit collective training will be conducted using a single site concept. Unit personnel will deploy to a single site for staff training, battalion/squadron level collective training, gunnery training, and conduct of their initial Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP). The single site will include adequate range facilities, on-site equipment sets, opposing force (OPFOR) resources, and simulation capabilities. Training will be tailored to the needs of the gaining unit.

3.  Sustainment Training. The ITS must be designed and developed IAW appropriate training doctrine to support sustainment and continuation training for qualified Comanche OMS personnel worldwide. It must include appropriate technical and training manuals, training guides, and training aids and adequate Computer Based Instruction (CBI) and simulation capabilities.

4.  Other Training. In addition to institutional, organizational, and sustainment training, the ITS must be designed, developed, and implemented to support Doctrine and Tactics Training (DTT), IKPT, test player training, exportable training, and professional development training. Use of New Equipment Training Teams (NETT) is not planned at this time. Qualification training will be accomplished through institutional training and initial unit collective training will be accomplished through organizational training.

(c).  Training Media Requirements. The ITS training media must support institutional, organizational, and sustainment training requirements. The types, quantities, mix, and fidelity of training media must be determined based on the SAT process, cost and training effectiveness analysis, and the Army Research Institute (ARI) "Guide for Early Embedded Training Decisions", 2nd Edition, April 1992 - March 1993. The ITS training media will include ET capabilities and training devices. The ET capabilities must provide individual, crew, team, functional, and force level training and must include a fully embedded Onboard Simulation (OBS) capability, a partially embedded and partially appended Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System/Air-to-Ground Engagement Simulation (MILES/AGES) capability, and an appended maintenance troubleshooting capability. Training devices must be provided to support procedure training, flight simulation training, and composite system training.

(2).  Manpower.

(a).  Force Structure. Comanche, to the maximum extent possible, should be supportable and maintainable within the current aviation force structure. It will be fielded in all Cavalry/Reconnaissance Squadrons, Light and Heavy Attack Aviation Battalions and Special Operations Forces.

(b).  End Strength. Total end strength shall not exceed current numbers; however, category (e.g., officers, warrant officers, enlisted) changes may be required.

(c).  Constraints. An increase in the officer category may be required to staff two pilots in the Comanche which is replacing OH-58A/C aircraft currently staffed as a one pilot system. The enlisted category may be decreased based on effective and economic maintenance for Comanche. Support personnel should remain relatively equal.

(3).  Personnel Constraints. The Logistics Support Analysis (LSA)/Logistics Support Analysis Record (LSAR) process will define logistics support and personnel task skills for operation, maintenance, and support of the system. Any unique skills, or Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), which might be created as a result of incorporation of Comanche technologies (i.e., composite repair) must be consolidated with, or replace a, comparable MOS (i.e., sheet metal repair).

(4).  Human Factors Engineering. The Comanche will integrate soldier performance to maximize mission accomplishment. All systems requirements defined in the ORD and system specifications must be met with the soldier in the loop. Overall design of the RAH-66 should promote ease of maintenance through ready accessibility of assemblies and subassemblies for servicing, maintenance, or removal and replacement. Design of controls, displays, symbology, and operating procedures must provide smooth and expeditious operation and promote error-free operation of the RAH-66; minimize fatigue; and eliminate high requirement drivers for training. The crewstations of the Comanche must accommodate a male/female population, defined by the 5th - 95th anthropometric male soldier, for accomplishment of the full range of its mission functions. Likewise, the RAH-66 must be designed to allow soldiers representative of the 5th - 95th anthropometric (male and female) percentiles to effectively maintain it while using appropriate combat gear and while wearing protective clothing (arctic, NBC).

(5).  System Safety. Hazards associated with material shortcomings, system performance, or predictable human error will be identified and eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels through engineering design and manufacturing.

(6).  Health Hazards. Health hazards which may be associated with mechanical forces or pressures, toxic substances, ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, noise, or other emissions from the RAH-66, either in its operation, maintenance, or support activities will be identified and eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels as prescribed by appropriate Government standards (including U.S. Army aeromedical standards).

d.  Computer Resources. Comanche must be supported by existing and/or planned common computer resources. The RAH-66 Comanche must be compatible with Unit Level Logistics System - Aviation (ULLS-A). The mission planning system must interface with Maneuver Control System (MCS) and ULLS-A.

e.  Other Logistics Considerations.

(1).  Provisioning Strategy. Comanche must use the established Army three level retail supply system. Commonality and interchangability must be maximized.

(2).  Facility and Shelter Requirements. No Comanche unique fixed facilities or shelters shall be required.

(3).  Special Packaging, Handling, Storage and Transportation. Packaging, handling, storage, and transportation must meet standard requirements and require no special, environmentally hazardous materials or procedures.

(4).  Data Requirements. No Comanche unique data requirements have been identified.

(5).  Publications. The RAH-66 Comanche shall have, to the maximum extent possible, a digital technical publications system. This includes the requirement for interactive paperless technical manuals and their delivery device.

6.  INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORT AND INTEROPERABILITY.

a.  Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I). The RAH-66 Comanche C3I must interface with existing or planned Army command, control, communications and intelligence systems. Direct and gateway interfaces and compatibility to Army C3I systems must allow Comanche access to near real-time targeting and survivability information. This requires Comanche have the capability to receive, correlate, filter and rapidly disseminate critical information from a variety of sources to other aircraft in the flight.

b.  Transportation and Basing.

(1).  Transportation. RAH-66 Comanche is required to be ground, sea and air (to include C-130 Cargo aircraft) transportable. Minimum special tools and equipment are required (none desired). Comanche must have military standard lifting and tiedown provisions. Comanche must be ground transportable and recoverable by rail or US Army truck. It must meet US and NATO highway limits. Comanche is required to be air transportable by C-130, C-141, C-5, and C-17 USAF cargo aircraft. Embark or debark (fully-mission capable) time using a C-130/C-141B must be _30 min using eight or less soldiers and using a C-5/C-17, equal to or less than 30 min (equal to or less than 15 mins desired), using five or less soldiers. Soldiers and equipment necessary to off-load and prepare aircraft to fight must accompany the deployment. When deployed by air transport, Comanche must be fightable in equal to or less than 45 minutes (30 mins for debark, 15 for rearm/refuel) after arrival. Comanche must be recoverable by medium lift helicopter (US Army CH-47 and UH-60L) using standard Army aerial recovery kit (single point attachment desired). Comanche must be transportable by sea using naval ships such as roll on, roll off (RORO), light assault ship helicopter (LASH) lighter ships, sea bee barge/ships, sea train ship, and fast sealift ship (FSS).

(2).  Basing.

(a).  Operational. RAH-66 Comanche will operate, train and be based worldwide. No specific operational basing or facilities requirements have been identified.

(b).  Individual. Individual Comanche training will occur, to the maximum extent possible, at the U.S. Army Aviation Center (USAAVNC), Fort Rucker, AL. Modification and/or new construction to basefields, stagefields, operator and maintenance training facilities and storage space will be required. No additional space or facilities requirements have been identified to support operator and/or maintenance training should they be conducted elsewhere. See Annex E., Training.

c.  Standardization, Interoperability, and Commonality. The terms of applicable standardization agreements to include STANAGS, QSTAGs and Air Standards will be incorporated into the design criteria for Comanche. Other services and allied nations are encouraged to collaborate/ participate in development and production. The Comanche must be designed to the metric system of measurement. Displayed measurements must be capable of being selected in either metric or U.S. standard units. Existing systems integrated into Comanche may use their current measurement standard. The aircraft must operate with JP-8 fuel.

d.  Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy. The use of digital terrain products to provide terrain elevation and feature data for the digital map system are required. Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED), Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG), Tactical Terrain Data (TTD), Digital Feature Analysis Data (DFAD), and Interim Terrain Data (ITD), produced by Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) will be the method of establishing common terrain data bases between RAH-66 Comanche, Maneuver Control System (MCS), and Forward Area Air Defense system (FAADS) command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I). Where digital terrain products are not available, Topographic Line Maps (TLM) and Joint Operations Graphics (JOGS) paper maps must be digitized for the Comanche map system and the mission planning station.

e.  Environmental Support. Aviation weather and astrogeophysical support requirements are detailed in the U.S. Army Intelligence Center "Tactical Weather Support - Weather and Environmental Data Requirements" document. Comanche has no unique aviation weather or astrogeophysical requirements.

7.  FORCE STRUCTURE. To fill the Total Army Analysis (TAA-99) force structure of 4 corps and 20 divisions necessitates a buy of 1571 Comanches. This incorporates quantities for Component 1, 2, 3, and the CADRE divisions. The aircraft breakdown includes 1225 Table of Organization and Equipment (TO&E), 230 Table of Distribution and Allowance (TDA)/Training, and 116 for Operational Readiness Float (ORF)/Repair Cycle Float (RCF), and attrition. 431 of these Comanches will also incorporate Longbow Fire Control Radars (FCR).

8.  SCHEDULE CONSIDERATIONS. Acquisition strategy includes Demonstration/ Validation - Prototype, engineering manufacturing and development (EMD) and production. Based on this program strategy and continued funding for EMD and production, the dates listed below can be supported.

a.  First Unit Equipped (FUE). FUE is the date the system and agreed upon support elements are issued to the initial operational capability (IOC) unit, and training specified in the new equipment training plan has been accomplished. FUE can occur as early as June, 2002.

b.  Initial Operational Capability (IOC). IOC is achieved when the first unit fielded has received all manuals, training, and equipment, and support/test equipment is in place and the unit can successfully perform all mission essential tasks in an operational environment. IOC can occur as early as January, 2003.

ACRONYMS

 

A2C2 Army Airspace Command and Control
AAMAA Army Aviation Mission Area Analysis
ACS Aerial Common Sensor
ADRG Arc Digitized Raster Graphics
AFTDS Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System
AFAPD Air Force Applications Program Development
AH Attack Helicopter
AIT Advanced Individual Training
ALDT Administrative and Logistics Downtime
AQC Aircraft Qualification Course
API Armor Piercing Incendiary
ASE Aircraft Survivability Equipment
ATD/C Aided Target Detection/Classification
ATE Automatic Test Equipment
ATGM Air To Ground Missile
BDAR Battle Damage Assessment and Repair
BDP Battlefield Development Plan
BNCOC Basic Non-Commissioned Officer’s Course
BSTF Base Set Test Facility
C Centigrade
CARDS Catalogue of Approved Requirements Documents
CBI Computer based instruction
C3I Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence
CEOI Communications, Electronics Operating Instructions
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
COEA Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis
CONUS Continental United States
DFAD Digital Feature Analysis Data
DMA Defense Mapping Agency
DoD Department of Defense
DTED Digital Terrain Elevation Data
E3 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects
ECCM Electronic counter-countermeasures
EETF Electronics Equipment Test Facility
EMD Engineering Manufacturing and Development
EMI Electro Magnetic Impulse
EMP Electro Magnetic Pulse
ET Embedded Training
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAADS Forward Area Air Defense System
FCR Fire Control Radar
FH Flight Hours
FMC Fully Mission Capable
FOC Full Operational Capability
FPM Feet Per Minute
FSS Fast Sealift Ship
FY Fiscal Year
GR/CS Guardrail Common Sensor
GSE Ground Support Equipment
HEI High Explosive Incendiary
HEL High Energy Laser
HF Hellfire
HPM High Power Microwave
IAW In Accordance With
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IERW Initial Entry Rotary Wing
IFF Identification Friend or Foe
IFV Infantry Fighting Vehicle
ILS Integrated Logistics Support
IOC Initial Operational Capability
IPC Instructor Pilot Course
IR Infrared
ITD Interim Terrain Data
ITS Integrated Training System
JOGS Joint Operations Graphics
JROC Joint Requirements Oversight Committee
KTAS Knots True Airspeed
Kg Kilograms
LASH Light Assault Ship Helicopter
LBE Load Bearing Equipment
LH Light Helicopter
LOS Line-Of-Sight
LRM Line Replaceable Module
LRU Line Replaceable Unit
LSA Logistics Support Analysis
LSAR Logistics Support Analysis Record
MANPRINT Manpower and Personnel Integration
MAR Major Aircraft Review
MCA Military Construction Army
MCS Maneuver Control System
METL Mission Essential Task List
MEF Mission Essential Function
MEP Mission Equipment Package
MH Modified Helicopter
MHz Mega Hertz
MILES/AGES Multiple Integrated LASER Engagement System / Air - Ground Engagement System
MMH/FH Maintenance Man Hours per Flight Hour
MNS Mission Need Statement
MOS Military Occupational Specialty
MOPP Mission Oriented Protective Posture
MRP Maximum Rated Power
MTBMAF Mean Time Between Mission-Affecting Failures
MTBEMA Mean Time Between Essential Maintenance Actions
MTPC Maintenance Test Pilot Course
MTS Marine Tactical Systems
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NBC Nuclear, Biological, Chemical
NM Nautical Mile
NOE Nap-Of-Earth
NLOS Non Line Of Sight
OEI One Engine Inoperative
OGE Out of Ground Effect
OH Observation Helicopter
OMS Operator, Maintainer, and Support
O&O Organizational and Operational Plan
ORD Operational Requirements Document
ORF Operational Readiness Float
O&S Operational and Support
PA Pressure Altitude
PGSE Peculiar Ground Support Equipment
PHS Packaging, Handling and Storage
POI Programs of Instruction
RAH Reconnaissance Attack Helicopter
RCF Repair Cycle Float
RFI Radar Frequency Interferometer
RFT Ready For Training
ROC Required Operational Capability
RORO Roll On, Roll Off
(S) Secret
SAL Semi-Active Laser
SAT Systems Approach to Training
SMMP System MANPRINT Management Plan
SOI Security Operating Instructions
STAMIS Standard Army Information Management System
STAR Systems Threat Assessment Report
TACSAT Tactical Satellite
TADIXS-B Tactical Data Information Exchange Sub-System - Broadcast
TDA Table of Distribution and Allowance
TGS Turreted Gun System
TIBS Tactical Information Broadcast System
TLM Topographic Line Maps
TDME Test, Diagnostic, and Measurement Equipment
TOC Tactical Operations Center
TO&E Table of Organization and Equipment
TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command
TRAP Tactical Related Applications Program
TTD Tactical Terrain Data
TR Technical Report
TV Television
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
ULLS-A Unit Level Logistics System - Aviation
U.S. United States
USA United States Army
USAAVNC U.S. Army Aviation Center
USAF United States Air Force
USMC United States Marine Corps
Vbe Velocity - Best Endurance Speed
Vcr Velocity - Cruise Speed
Vbm Velocity - Best Maneuver
VROC Vertical Rate of Climb
WARM Wartime Reserve Modes