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Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle

The Marine Corps plans to replace the amphibious assault vehicle with 1,013 advanced amphibious assault vehicles for $6.7 billion, including a $456-million increase due to a 2-year procurement delay. With a water speed of 23 to 29 miles per hour, the new vehicle could be launched from amphibious ships 25 miles or more offshore and reach shore far more quickly than the current vehicle. This improved mobility would reduce the risk to Navy ships from missiles, aircraft, boats, and mines. Until the new vehicle is fielded, beginning in 2008, the Marine Corps anticipates spending more to maintain the current vehicle.

The Marine Corps is developing the AAAV to replace the AAV as its primary combat vehicle for transporting troops on land and from ship to shore. The AAAV must satisfy many operational requirements, which will provide increased capabilities compared to the AAV and improve the ship-to-shore movement, thus allowing the Marine Corps and the Navy to more effectively implement OMFTS. Table 3.1 compares selected AAAV requirements with the AAV's current capabilities.


  
                Comparison of Selected AAAV Requirements
                    With AAV's Current Capabilities

Function                        AAAV requirement    AAV capability
------------------------------  ------------------  ------------------
Water speed                     23-29 miles per     6-8 miles per hour
                                hour

Cross-country land speed        Keep up with main   15-20 miles per
                                battle tank, which  hour
                                travels at about
                                30 miles per hour

Range on water                  65 miles            45 miles

Range on land                   300 miles           300 miles

Troop-carrying capacity         18 combat-          18 combat-
                                equipped troops     equipped troops

Survivability (armor            Survive 14.5mm      Can only survive
protection)                     bullets without     14.5mm bullets if
                                attaching enhanced  enhanced armor
                                armor plating to    plating has been
                                vehicle's hull      attached to
                                                    vehicle's hull

Lethality (main armament)       Defeat light        40mm and .50
                                armored combat      caliber machine
                                vehicles of 2005-   guns, which cannot
                                2025 time frame     defeat light
                                during day and      armored combat
                                night while moving  vehicles of today


This is the U.S. Marine Corps only acquisition category (ACAT) I acquisition program. The Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) represents the signature mission of the USMC. A truly amphibious vehicle that will replace the USMC's aging current system and provide the capability to maneuver, combat loaded with a Marine rifle squad, at 20-25 knots in the water and maneuver cross country with agility and mobility equal or greater than that of the M1 Main Battle Tank (MBT). The AAAV will virtually revolutionize every facet of USMC combat operations. It is one of the most capable all-around weapon systems in the world. The technology to meet these requirements has been demonstrated, and the plan to procure this system represents the most operationally effective solution for meeting USMC requirements.

The AAAV will allow the Navy and Marine Corps to seamlessly link maneuver in ships and maneuver ashore enabling Operational Maneuver From The Sea (OMFTS). The AAAV will be the principal means of armored protected land and water mobility and direct fire support for Marine infantry during combat operations. Based on this unique mission profile, the AAAV must leverage state of the art advances in water propulsion, land mobility, lethality and survivability. Lightweight components and structures that are cost and operationally effective and supportable together with a significantly more powerful engine are the primary technical challenges for the AAAV. There are currently 1,322 USMC Assault Amphibious Vehicles (AAV7A1 ) which will be replaced by 1,013 AAAVs beginning late in the first decade of the next century.

The Marine Corps has a requirement to procure 1,013 AAAVs. Prior to December 1994, the cost to develop and procure AAAVs was estimated at $7.2 billion (then-year dollars). Due to budget constraints, DOD reduced AAAV funding in the FYDP by $189 million in December 1994. As a result, the Marine Corps extended the demonstration and validation phase 22 months and delayed procurement by 2 years, which increased the program's cost by $456 million, to $7.6 billion. As a result, low-rate initial production has been delayed from fiscal year 2003 to 2005; initial operational capability from fiscal year 2006 to 2008; and full operational capability--fielding all required AAAVs to the active assault amphibian battalions and the maritime prepositioning squadrons--from fiscal year 2012 to 2014.

Weight Empty: 62,880 Pounds (Less Fuel, Ammo, Crew, Infantry)
Combat Equipped: 74,500 Pounds (Full Fuel, Ammo, Crew, Infantry)
Reserve Buoyancy 30%
Center of Gravity: Longitudinal: 131 Inches Aft of Final Drive
Transverse: +/- 1.0 Inch of Vehicle Centerline
Vertical: 20.7 Inches Above Final Drive
Mean Transition Sea Water Draft : 80 Inches (Appx.)
Mean High Speed Configured Draft: 58 Inches (Appx.)
Freeboard at Bow : 16 Inches (Appx.)
Freeboard at Stern : 14 Inches (Appx.)
Unit Ground Pressure Soft Soil: 8.9 psi
Hard Surface: 24.4 psi
Fuel Capacity 400 Gallons
PERFORMANCE Horsepower (Sea) to Weight Ratio (Combat Equipped): 69.1 HP/Ton
Horsepower (Land) to Weight Ratio (Combat Equipped): 22.8 HP/Ton
Drawbar Pull 43,500 Pounds on Level, Firm Terrain
(Maximum at Stall Tractive Effort):
Range Cruising Range - Land at 25 MPH: 300 Miles
Water at 20 knots: 65 Nautical Miles
Speed Cruising Speed - Land: 20 to 30 MPH
Water: 20 Knots
Maximum Speed Forward - Land: 45 MPH
Water, High Speed: 25 Knots
Water, Transition Speed: 10.5 Knots
Maximum Speed Reverse - Land: 15 MPH
Water: 4.5 MPH
Obstacle Ability 8-Foot Trench Span, 3-Foot Vertical Wall
Maximum Forward Grade (Combat Equipped): 60%
Maximum Side Slope (Combat Equipped): 40%
Ground Clearance (Combat Equipped): 16 inches
Minimum Turning Radius Land: Pivot
Water, High Speed: 328 feet at 80% of top speed
Water, Transition: Pivot
Objective Surf Transit Negotiate 8-Foot Plunging Surf Maintain Planing Speed in 3 Foot Significant Wave Height
ENGINE Make: MTU
Model: MT883
Type 4 Cycle, 12 Cylinder, 90° Vee,
Water Cooled, Turbocharged Bore: 5.7 Inches
Stroke: 5.5 Inches
Displacement: 1669 Cubic Inches
Compression Ratio: 12.5:1
Fuel Multi-fuel
Rated Horsepower - Land : 850 @ 2600 RPM
Sea: 2575 @ 3300 RPM
Rated Torque - Land: 2626 ft-lbs @ 1700 RPM
Sea: 4098 ft-lbs @ 3300 RPM
Oil Capacity 33.3 Gallons, 15W-40 Oil
Engine Coolant Capacity 40 Gals., 50/50 Ethylene Glycol/Water
POWER TRAIN Transmission: Allison Six Speed Transmission
Type: Hydrokinetic with Infinitely Variable Steering, HD World Transmission (WT), Packard Electronic Controls
Maximum Converter Torque Multiplication: 2.27:1
Gear Ratios Forward First Speed: 6.370:1
Second Speed: 3.002:1
Third Speed: 2.074:1
Fourth Speed: 1.357:1
Fifth Speed: 1.037:1
Sixth Speed: 0.911:1
Equal Forward and Reverse Speeds
Final Drive Ratios: 4.1176:1
Overall Maximum Torque Ratio (Engine to Sprocket): 59.5:1
Transmission Oil Capacity: 10 Gallons 15W-40 Oil
Power Transfer Module Capacity: 10 Gallons 15W-40 Oil
Final Drive Capacity: 1.8 Gallons Each, 15W-40 Oil
MARINE DRIVE TRAIN Water Jet Pumps:
Thrust: 22,794 Pounds Maximum (total)
Quantity: 2
Location: Port and Starboard, Aft
Steering and Reverse by Jet Deflectors
RUNNING GEAR Type: Hydropneumatic Suspension, Front Sprocket, Raised Rear Idler
Number of Wheels: 7 Rubber Tired, Dual per Side, 24 Inch Dia.
Number of Return Idlers: 3 per Side
Sprocket Number of Teeth: 11
Feet per Revolution 5.5
Number of Damped Stations: 3 per Side
Number of Undamped Stations: 4 per Side
Track: Aluminum, Double Pin, Rubber Bushed, with Replaceable Pads
Number of Blocks: 103 Maximum per side
Pitch: 6 Inches
Weight per Block: 26.1 Pounds Maximum
Weight per Side: 2688 Pounds Maximum
Hub Capacity: 14 oz of 15w-40 Oil
ELECTRICAL Nominal Voltage: 28VDC
Generator: 1000 Amp, 28VDC
Battery: Volts: 24 V Battery Packs (2x12V in Series)
Type: OPTIMA 800U
Quantity 2 Packs
COMMUNICATION VEHICLE SYSTEM:
Radio: 3 VHF
1 Multi-band (Incl. SATCOM)
Intercom: Wireless headset
PROTECTION 14.5 mm AP at 300 Meters
155/152 mm Fragments at 15 Meters
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Automatic Fire Sensing and Suppression System (AFSSS)
Number of Cylinders: 2, Engine/APU/Transmission Compartment
3, Crew Compartment
Capacity: 8 lbs each for Engine/APU/Transmission
One 10 lb, and Two 7 lb each for Crew
Number of Sensors: 14
Portable Fire Extinguishers:
Number: 2
Capacity: 2.5 lbs each Location: Behind Driver and Turret
VISION AND SIGHTING REQUIREMENT Commander/Gunner: 360 Field of Vision Infantry Commander (IC): 120 Field of Vision Driver: 120 Field of Vision Combined IC and Driver: 270 Field of Vision Driver’s Ground Intercept: 10 meters 
CAPACITY

Cargo Space Volume: 350 Cubic Feet
5,000 lbs Cargo Capacity (in lieu of Marines)
PERSONNEL COMPLEMENT Crew 3 (Commander, Gunner, Driver)
Combat Equipped Marines: 17 (285 lbs person and gear)
ARMAMENT AND AMMUNITION
Main Bushmaster II 30 mm Cannon
Main-AP:
Objective Ready Rounds: 50
Objective Stowed Rounds: 100
Main-HE:
Objective Ready Rounds: 150
Objective Stowed Rounds: 300
Traverse: 360° Continuous Elevation: +45° , -10°
Secondary: M240 Machine Gun, 7.62 mm Coax
Objective Ready Rounds: 800
Objective Stowed Rounds: 1600
Full Solution Fire Control
NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT Position Locating Reporting System (PLRS) AN/VSQ-1
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Compass
Smoke Grenade Launchers: Hull: 16
Turret: 16
OTHER Auxiliary Power Unit:
30 Horsepower Water Cooled Diesel:
10 KW Electric

3.5 GPM Hydraulic
NBC/Climate Control Overpressure
Micro-Climate/Macro-Climate Cooling
Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR)

Hydraulic Capacity: 35 gals, MIL-H-46170

Air Conditioning Coolant: R-134a




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