Index

Battlefield Automation: Army Needs to Update Fielding Plan for First
Digitized Corps (Letter Report, 07/25/2000, GAO/NSIAD-00-167).

Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Army's acquisition
of Category 2 weapons systems.

GAO noted that: (1) the analysis of the acquisition status of the 56
Category 2 systems indicates that about 30 percent of the systems are
already fielded or likely to be ready by the 2004 fielding milestone,
about 50 percent may not be ready, and about 20 percent will not be
ready; (2) the systems that are likely to be ready include a small
number of systems already fielded and others expected to be fielded by
2004; (3) other systems may not be ready because development schedules
are not consistent with the year 2004 milestone, operational testing has
not been performed, or interoperability demonstrations have not been
completed; (4) also, there are systems that will not be ready because of
funding shifts or development schedules that are not matched to the
fielding milestone; (5) based on Army projections, the 56 Category 2
systems will require signigicant investment--total estimated development
and procurement funding needs are $4 billion for fiscal year 2001 and
$4.4 billion for fiscal year 2002; (6) because of the uncertain
availability of most of the 56 Category 2 systems by 2004, GAO is
concerned that organizational decisions are being made on the assumption
that these systems will be ready by 2004; and (7) for example, GAO
observed that the Army had already made decisions to reduce the number
of soldiers needed to fulfill missions, based on the expected benefits
of some of the 56 Category 2 systems, even though these systems are
still only being developed or tested.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

 REPORTNUM:  NSIAD-00-167
     TITLE:  Battlefield Automation: Army Needs to Update Fielding Plan
	     for First Digitized Corps
      DATE:  07/25/2000
   SUBJECT:  Army procurement
	     Operational testing
	     Defense capabilities
	     Weapons research and development
	     Weapons systems
	     ADP procurement
	     Command control communications systems
IDENTIFIER:  Army Digitization Master Plan
	     Army Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below Program
	     Abrams Tank
	     Bradley Fighting Vehicle
	     Paladin Howitzer
	     Army Tactical Command and Control System

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GAO/NSIAD-00-167

Appendix I: Fiscal Years 2001 and 2002 Funding Estimates for
Category 2 Systems

20

Appendix II: Comments From the Department of Defense

36

Table 1: The Army's Near-Term Digitization Milestones 6

Table 2: Category 2 Systems, by Availability 8

Table 3: Fielding Status of Category 2 Systems That Should
Be Ready by 2004 9

Table 4: Acquisition Status of Category 2 Systems That May Not
Be Available by 2004 11

Table 5: Category 2 Systems With Scheduled Operational Tests 12

Table 6: Category 2 Systems Not Available by 2004 15

National Security and
International Affairs Division

B-285268

July 25, 2000

The Honorable Jerry Lewis
Chairman, Subcommittee on Defense
Committee on Appropriations
House of Representatives

Dear Mr. Chairman:

Over the next decade, the Army plans to field dozens of new and improved
battlefield systems through its "digitization" initiative. Digitization
involves the application of information technologies to acquire, exchange,
and employ timely information on the battlefield. Use of digitization on the
battlefield is expected to increase the Army's survivability, lethality, and
tempo of operations.1 The Army plans to equip its first digitized division
by December 2000, its first digitized corps2 by the end of 2004, and its
remaining active and reserve divisions and corps by 2015. The Army plans to
invest about $17.4 billion for digitization from fiscal year 2001 through
fiscal year 2005.

The Army's first digitized corps will be III Corps, which consists of the
4th Infantry Division, the 1st Cavalry Division, and the 3rd Armored Cavalry
Regiment. The 4th Infantry Division is scheduled to become the Army's first
digitized division through the fielding of 16 high-priority systems to the
division by December 2000. These high-priority systems are designated
"Category 1" systems, and can generally be described as command, control,
and communications systems that support decision-making by commanders
located in tactical operations centers.3 By December 2003, the Army plans to
equip its second digitized division (the 1st Cavalry Division) with both
Category 1 systems and as many "Category 2" systems as are available.
Fifty-six systems have been designated as Category 2. These systems are
considered to be lower in priority than Category 1 systems and generally
involve the fielding of new or enhanced battlefield platforms, such as the
Crusader self-propelled howitzer, Abrams tank, and Bradley Fighting Vehicle.
The final phase of the first digitized corps fielding plan is scheduled for
completion in 2004, when all III Corps units are fielded with Category 1 and
available Category 2 systems.

Last year, we provided the Subcommittee with a report on the acquisition
status of the Category 1 systems.4 This report responds to the
Subcommittee's request that we examine the acquisition status (schedule and
cost) of the Category 2 systems.

Our analysis of the acquisition status of the 56 Category 2 systems
indicates that about 30 percent of the systems are already fielded or likely
to be ready by the 2004 fielding milestone, about 50 percent may not be
ready, and about 20 percent will not be ready. The systems that are likely
to be ready include a small number of systems already fielded and others
expected to be fielded by 2004. Other systems may not be ready because
development schedules are not consistent with the year 2004 milestone,
operational testing has not been performed, or interoperability
demonstrations have not been completed. Also, there are systems that will
not be ready because of funding shifts or development schedules that are not
matched to the fielding milestone. Based on current Army projections, the 56
Category 2 systems will require significant investment: total estimated
development and procurement funding needs are $4 billion for fiscal year
2001 and $4.4 billion for fiscal year 2002. Because of the uncertain
availability of most of the 56 Category 2 systems by 2004,we are concerned
that organizational decisions are being made on the assumption that these
systems will be ready by 2004. For example, we observed that the Army had
already made decisions to reduce the number of soldiers needed to fulfill
missions, based on the expected benefits of some of the 56 Category 2
systems, even though these systems are still only being developed or tested.

To provide decisionmakers within the Army with a detailed understanding of
the impact the availability of Category 2 systems will have on other
decisions, we are recommending that the Army prepare an annual acquisition
status report that identifies when each Category 2 system is expected to be
fielded and alternative fielding strategies focused on what is needed to
successfully establish the first digitized corps by the end of 2004. DOD and
the Army agreed with our recommendation and will implement it as part of an
existing Army reporting process.

Throughout the next decade and beyond, the Army plans to continue to
modernize its forces. Included within the modernization objectives is the
integration of information technologies to acquire, exchange, and employ
timely information needed for battle. The integration of information
technologies objective is referred to as digitization and will be
implemented within the Army through the development, production, and
fielding of over 100 individual systems. The Army's digitization effort
includes high-priority systems (designated by the Army as Category 1),
lower-priority systems (known as Category 2), and other systems without a
priority ranking. For example, the Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and
Below system, which is intended to provide enhanced information to the
lowest tactical level--the individual soldier--and a seamless flow of
command and control information across the battlefield, is a high-priority
system. The Battlefield Combat Identification System, which is intended to
provide a high probability of identifying friendly forces on the battlefield
so that fratricide rates can be reduced, is a lower-priority system. The
Javelin antitank weapon system and the Gun Laying Positioning System are not
designated as priority systems but rely to a great extent on the use of
information technology.

In general, information technologies needed to conduct a battle are
available only to Army commanders in tactical operations centers, where
commanders (of units ranging in size from 500 to 100,000 soldiers) and their
staffs prepare, monitor, and alter the execution of battle plans. Providing
information technologies to the thousands of soldiers operating outside the
tactical operations centers--in the battlefield--will allow them to know
precisely where they are located on the battlefield, where friendly forces
are located, and where enemy forces and obstacles are located. The Army
expects this information to increase the lethality, survivability, and
operational tempo of its forces.

In August 1997, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans announced
that the 4th Infantry Division would be the first digitized division and
that, at a minimum, fielded equipment would include the Army Training and
Doctrine Command's list of Category 1 systems. There are 16 Category 1
systems, and the scheduled fielding date for the Fort Hood units of 4th
Infantry Division is December 2000. The Deputy Chief of Staff also announced
that the Army's second digitized division would be the 1st Cavalry Division
and that fielded equipment would include the Category 1 systems and those
Category 2 systems ready for fielding by the end of 2003. The final phase of
the first digitized corps fielding plan is scheduled for completion in 2004
when all III Corps units are expected to be fielded with Category 1 and 2
systems. Table 1 summarizes the Army's fielding milestones.

 Date         Major III Corps units                Fielding objective

 December 20004th Infantry Division brigades       16 Category 1 systems
              based at Fort Hood, Texas
                                                   16 Category 1 systems
 December 20031st Cavalry Division based at Fort
              Hood, Texas                          As many Category 2
                                                   systems as are ready
              4th Infantry Division brigade based
              at Fort Carson Colorado 3rd Armored  16 Category 1 systems
 December 2004Cavalry Regiment based at Fort
              Carson, Colorado, and all other III  As many Category 2
              Corps units                          systems as are ready

Digitization, under way since the mid-1990s, is proceeding at the same time
that profound structural changes to the Army's fighting components are being
considered. The Army considers III Corps a "heavy" force because the
predominate battlefield platforms within the Corps are armored vehicles such
as the Abrams tank, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and the Paladin
self-propelled howitzer. Six of the 10 divisions within the active Army are
considered mechanized or heavy divisions. "Light" forces such as the XVIII
Airborne Corps complement the heavy forces; together these two forces
constitute most of "the Army." Light forces rely on mobility and such weapon
systems as mortars and towed howitzers. There are four light divisions
within the active Army. Light forces can be mobilized and deployed in a
relatively short period of time; at the same time, the length of their
initial missions generally does not exceed 4 days. It takes longer to
mobilize and deploy heavy forces, but their initial missions can be long in
duration. In October 1999, the Army Chief of Staff announced that the Army
would evolve into a "medium-weight" force by making heavy forces more
strategically deployable and more agile and by making light forces more
lethal, survivable, and tactically mobile. These objectives are nearly
identical to the expected benefits of digitization, and it is likely that
the design of the Army's medium-weight force will depend on the expected
benefits of digitization. Every element of the medium-weight force is
envisioned to generate combat power and contribute decisively to the fight.
Completion of the medium-weight force design is scheduled for 2003.
Notwithstanding this medium-weight force initiative, the Army is committed
to fielding its first digitized corps by the end of 2004.

Uncertainties Associated With Their 2004 Availability

Our analysis of the acquisition status of the 56 Category 2 systems
indicates that about 30 percent of the 56 Category 2 systems are likely to
be ready,
50 percent may not be ready, and 20 percent will not be ready by 2004. The
systems that are likely to be ready include a small number of systems
already fielded and others expected to be fielded by 2004. Other systems may
not be ready because development schedules are not consistent with the year
2004 milestone, operational testing has not been performed, or
interoperability demonstrations have not been completed. Also, there are
systems that will not be ready because of funding shifts or development
schedules that are not matched to the fielding milestone. In completing our
analysis, we relied on data provided by Army officials. While different Army
organizations were able to offer analyses based on their unique perspective
(test and evaluation, user, or material developer), a comprehensive overview
analysis that included each of the 56 Category 2 systems was lacking. Table
2 summarizes our analysis of the individual Category 2 systems and
identifies those on schedule for fielding, those that may not be ready, and
those that will not be ready by 2004. We estimate that in fiscal year 2001,
the 56 Category 2 systems will require $1.6 billion in development funding
and $2.4 billion in procurement funding and that in fiscal year 2002
development and procurement funds will be $1.9 billion and $2.5 billion,
respectively. These estimates are consistent with prior Army estimates.
Appendix I provides funding estimates for each of the Category 2 systems for
fiscal years 2001 and 2002.

 18 systems already        26 systems with
 fielded or expected to be uncertain availability 12 systems that will not
 fielded by 2004           by 2004                be ready by 2004
                           Development schedule
                           indicates may not be
                           ready by 2004

                           Airborne
                           Communications Node

                           Battle Command Vehicle

                           Ground-Based Common
                           Sensor-Heavy/Prophet
                           Ground

                           Joint Tactical Radio
                           System

                           Joint Warning and
                           Reporting Network
 Already fielded
                           Land Warrior
                                                  Terminated
                           Personal
 Linebacker                Communications System

 Sentinel                  Smart Cards            Command and Control
                                                  Vehicle
 Trojan Spirit
                                                  Grizzly Engineering
                           Require operational    Vehicle
                           testing
 Expected to be fielded                           Wolverine Heavy Assault
                                                  Bridge

                           Aviation Mission
 Analysis Control Team     Planning System
 Enclave                                          Restructured
                           Battlefield Combat
 AH-64D Apache             Identification System

 Aviation Tactical         Bradley Fire Support   Crusader
 Operations Centers        Team Vehicle (M7)
                                                  Future Scout and Cavalry
 Avenger Slew-to-Cue       Defense Message        System
                           System/Tactical
 Common Ground             Message System         Prophet Air
 Station/Ground Station                           intelligence/electronic
 Module                    Global Combat Support  warfare system
                           System-Army
 Contact Maintenance Truck
                           Lightweight Laser
 Digital Topographic       Designator Rangefinder Development schedule
 Support System                                   indicates system will not
                           Long Range Advanced    be ready by 2004
 Firefinder                Scout Surveillance
                           System
 Integrated Meteorological
 System                    M1A2 Abrams tank with  Army Airborne Command and
                           system enhancements    Control System
 M93A1 Fox
                           M2A3 Bradley Fighting  Palletized Loading
 OH-58D Kiowa Warrior      Vehicle                System-Enhanced-Driver
                                                  Viewer Enhanced
 Paladin                   Medical Communications
                           for Combat Casualty    Raptor Intelligent Combat
 Palletized Loading        Care/Joint Theater     Outpost
 System-Enhanced-Movement  Medical Information
 Tracking System           Program                Tactical Interactive
                                                  Ground Equipment
 Standard                  Mobile Integrated
 Installation/Division     Tactical               Wireless Local Area
 Personnel System 3        Terminal/Division      Network
                           Tactical Exploitation
 Tactical Operations       System                 RAH-66 Comanche
 Centers
                           Mortar Fire Control
                           System

                           Multiple Launch Rocket
                           System

                           Radio Frequency Tags

                           Striker (M707)

                           Tactical Airspace
                           Integration System

                           Tactical Unmanned
                           Aerial Vehicle

                           Transportation
                           Coordinators Automated
                           Information for
                           Movement System II

Note: Three systems (Digital Topographic Support System, Integrated
Meteorological System, and Tactical Airspace Integration System) have their
own individual acquisition status but are also required to complete
interoperability testing. This issue is discussed later in this report.

Source: GAO analysis of acquisition status of each Category 2 system.

Our analysis of the current acquisition status of the 56 Category 2 systems
indicates that 18 systems are already fielded to the first digitized corps
or are on schedule for fielding. Those that have already been fielded are
Linebacker, Sentinel, and Trojan Spirit. The fielding schedules for the
remaining systems appear in table 3.

                System                            Fielding status
                                        The All Source Analysis System
                                        remote workstations used in the
 Analysis Control Team Enclave          Analysis Control Team Enclave have
                                        completed operational testing, and
                                        all units should be fielded by the
                                        end of 2000.
                                        Fielding to the first digitized
                                        corps is expected to be completed
                                        by May 2004. However, the improved
                                        data modem, which performs as the
                                        Internet controller for aviation
 AH-64D Apache Longbow                  assets, will have limited
                                        capabilities through the Division
                                        Capstone Exercise in April 2001. An
                                        enhanced version of the modem is
                                        eventually expected to have full
                                        capabilities.
 Aviation Tactical Operations Center    See Tactical Operations Centers.
                                        Fielding of Avenger to the first
 Avenger Slew-to-Cue                    digitized corps is expected to be
                                        completed by 2002.
                                        The first digitized corps will
                                        require about 25 Common Ground
                                        Stations; production of all 100
                                        Common Ground stations is scheduled
 Common Ground Station/Ground Station   to end in 2001. An enhanced version
 Module                                 of the Common Ground Station, which
                                        shares data with the Army Tactical
                                        Command and Control System, is
                                        scheduled to participate in the
                                        April 2001 Division Capstone
                                        Exercise.
                                        Fielding of the Contact Maintenance
 Contact Maintenance Truck              Truck to the first digitized corps
                                        is expected to be completed by
                                        September 2000.
                                        The objective fielding
                                        configuration is the Digital
                                        Topographic Support System-Light on
 Digital Topographic Support System     a single high-mobility,
                                        multipurpose, wheeled vehicle.
                                        Fielding to the first digitized
                                        corps is scheduled for completion
                                        by the end of 2004.
                                        A new software version (12) for the
                                        Firefinder radar system is
 Firefinder                             scheduled to be tested at the end
                                        of fiscal year 2000. Firefinder
                                        hardware is on schedule for the
                                        first digitized division and corps.
                                        The Integrated Meteorological
                                        System with Army Battle Command
                                        System software version 4.3 is
                                        being fielded throughout the Army.
                                        The objective Category 2 fielding
 Integrated Meteorological System       goal is to field the system with
                                        Army Battle Command System version
                                        6.0. The first operational
                                        assessment of this configuration is
                                        scheduled for the Division Capstone
                                        Exercise in April 2001.
                                        While the fielding of 20 M93A1
                                        Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical
                                        Reconaissance Systems to most III
 M93A1 Fox                              Corps units was completed in June
                                        1999, another 8 units are scheduled
                                        for fielding to III Corps in
                                        December 2002.
                                        The Army plans to upgrade the OH-58
                                        A and C versions to D versions
                                        through a Safety Enhancement
                                        Program. Aircraft fielded to III
 OH-58D Kiowa Warrior                   Corps units will have limited
                                        digital capability. This will be
                                        upgraded in a two-phase effort to
                                        provide full aviation messaging
                                        capability for the first digitized
                                        corps by 2004.
                                        Paladin is already fielded to III
                                        Corps units. However, an
                                        improvement program is under way to
                                        integrate a Force XXI Battle
                                        Command, Brigade and Below
 Paladin                                capability into the platform. The
                                        integration effort will be
                                        evaluated at the Division Capstone
                                        Exercise in April 2001 and the
                                        Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade
                                        and Below initial operational test
                                        and evaluation in November 2001.

 Palletized Loading System-Enhanced     The system is scheduled to be
 Movement Tracking System               fielded to most III Corps units in
                                        fiscal year 2001.

 Standard Installation/Division         The system is scheduled for
 Personnel System 3                     fielding to III Corps units by June
                                        2000.
                                        Fielding to the first digitized
                                        corps is expected to be completed
                                        by 2004. The Centers being fielded
 Tactical Operations Centers            include the Aviation Tactical
                                        Operations Center, which was
                                        identified as a separate system on
                                        the Training and Doctrine Command's
                                        list of Category 2 systems.

Note: The Digital Topographic Support System and the Integrated
Meteorological System need to demonstrate that interoperability objectives
have been met. This issue is discussed later in the report.

Source: Data provided by Army program management officials.

Our analysis of the current acquisition status of 56 Category 2 systems
indicates that as many as half of the systems may not be ready for fielding
by the end of 2004. We have identified three main causes. First, the
development schedules for eight systems fall somewhere between the likely to
be ready and not ready categories. The systems could be available; if the
acquisition schedule is delayed, they will likely not be ready. Second, over
a dozen Category 2 systems require operational testing before they are
scheduled for production and fielding. Since the outcome of operational
testing is unknown at this point, it is uncertain whether these systems will
be fielded as scheduled. Third, three Category 2 systems need to demonstrate
that they can share data automatically with critical Army command and
control systems. This interoperability among systems is key to maximizing
the potential of digitization.

Schedule Data Indicate Eight Systems May Not Be Ready for Fielding

Given the development schedules of eight Category 2 systems, it is still too
early to tell whether the systems can be fielded to all III Corps units by
the end of 2004. For example, the Prophet Ground Program has replaced the
Ground-Based Common Sensor-Heavy Program. Prophet Ground is scheduled for
initial operational testing early in fiscal year 2004 and for production in
fiscal years 2004 and 2005. As a result, the Army is not sure that this
system can be fielded by 2004.

Table 4 discusses the acquisition status of the Category 2 systems that may
or may not be fielded to all III Corps units by the end of 2004.

 System                              Acquisition status
                                     The Army is supporting a
                                     high-capacity, line-of-sight radio
                                     relay during an unmanned aerial
                                     vehicle flight demonstration in
                                     September 2001. The needs for the
 Airborne Communications Node        ground link to the Airborne
                                     Communications Node are being studied.
                                     Since the Army is still exploring the
                                     concept of an airborne communications
                                     node, no production schedules or
                                     fielding plans have yet been
                                     established.
                                     The vehicle was developed for use
                                     during the Task Force XXI Advanced
 Battle Command Vehicle              Warfighting Experiment in 1997. The
                                     program is still in the concept
                                     exploration phase and has no budget,
                                     milestones, or fielding plans.
                                     The Prophet Ground program has
                                     replaced the Ground-Based Common
                                     Sensor-Heavy program. Prophet Ground
 Ground-Based Common                 is scheduled for initial operational
 Sensor-Heavy/Prophet Ground         testing early in fiscal year 2004 and
                                     production in fiscal years 2004 and
                                     2005. As a result, III Corps units may
                                     or may not receive the system in 2004.
                                     The Joint Tactical Radio System is
                                     described as the Department of Defense
                                     radio of the future. Prototype radios
                                     are being designed. The 4th Infantry
 Joint Tactical Radio System         Division has received the Army
                                     Near-Term Data Radio, a Category 1
                                     system. The 1st Cavalry Division is
                                     scheduled to receive the Joint
                                     Tactical Radio System, if available,
                                     in fiscal year 2003.
                                     All Joint Warning and Reporting
                                     Network fielding dates depend on the
                                     release of Army Battle Command System
                                     software, version 6.1. Fieldings for
 Joint Warning and Reporting Network various phases of the system are
                                     scheduled in fiscal years 2000, 2002,
                                     and 2004. If the Army Battle Command
                                     software is delayed, fielding to the
                                     first digitized corps could also be
                                     delayed and extend beyond 2004.

 Land Warrior                        Fielding is scheduled to begin in 2004
                                     at the earliest.
                                     The overall objective of this program
                                     is to develop commercially available
                                     wireless cellular telephone technology
 Personal Communications System      for secure mobile satellite services
                                     and terrestrial applications. There is
                                     no validated requirement or funding
                                     for this system.
                                     The Smart Cards system is not
 Smart Cards                         scheduled to be fielded until 2004 at
                                     the earliest.

Note: To explore new concepts, such as use of the Battle Command Vehicle,
the Army acquired and installed sufficient quantities of new equipment to
field a brigade-sized experimental force in June 1996. The experimental
force used the equipment in an Advanced Warfighting Experiment, which
culminated in March 1997 during a 2-week deployment to the National Training
Center at Fort Irwin, California.

Source: Data provided by Army program management officials.

Eighteen Systems Must Undergo Operational Testing

Eighteen of the Category 2 systems must still undergo operational testing.
The unknown outcome of operational testing and the potential introduction of
schedule delays cause a degree of fielding uncertainty. For example, the
M1A2 Abrams tank, with system enhancements (a Category 2 system), was
scheduled for a follow-on operational test and evaluation in July 1999.
Mainly as a result of an unsuccessful effort to embed Force XXI Battle
Command, Brigade and Below software into the tank's data processing system,
the follow-on test and evaluation has been rescheduled for October 2000.

Table 5 identifies the Category 2 systems that must undergo operational test
and evaluation before production and fielding plans can be finalized.

              System               Operational test event    Scheduled time
                                                                 frame
                                                            2nd quarter
 Aviation Mission Planning System Initial operational test
                                  and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2000
                                                            3rd quarter
 Battlefield Combat               Initial operational test
 Identification System            and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                                            3rd quarter
 Bradley Fire Support Team        Initial operational test
 Vehicle (M7)a                    and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2000
                                                            2nd quarter
 Defense Message System/Tactical  Initial operational test
 Message System                   and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
 Global Combat Support System                               Fiscal years
 − Army                     Module testing            2000-2003
                                                            1st quarter
 Lightweight Laser Designator     Initial operational test
 Rangefinder                      and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                                            3rd quarter
 Long-Range Advanced Scout        Follow-on operational
 Surveillance System              test and evaluation       fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                                            1st quarter
 M1A2 Abrams Tank with system     Follow-on operational
 enhancements                     test and evaluation       fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                                            1st quarter
 M2A3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle    Initial operational test
                                  and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
 Medical Communications for                                 1st quarter
 Combat Casualty Care/Joint       Initial operational test
 Theater Medical Information      and evaluation            fiscal year
 Program                                                    2001

 Mobile Integrated Tactical                                 2nd quarter
 Terminal/Division Tactical       Initial operational test
 Exploitation System              and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2002
                                                            4th quarter
 Mortar Fire Control System       Initial operational test
                                  and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                                            3rd quarter
 Multiple Launch Rocket System    Initial operational test
 (M270A1)                         and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                  As part of Global Combat  1st quarter
 Radio Frequency Tags             Support System- Army
                                  operational test and      fiscal year
                                  evaluation                2001
                                                            3rd quarter
 Striker (M707)                   Initial operational test
                                  and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2000
                                                            3rd quarter
 Tactical Airspace Integration    Initial operational test
 System                           and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001
                                                            3rd quarter
 Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Initial operational test
                                  and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2001

 Transportation Coordinators                                4th quarter
 Automated Information for        Initial operational test
 Movement System II               and evaluation            fiscal year
                                                            2000

Notes: Even if the Bradley Fire Support Team Vehicle and the Striker
successfully complete their initial operational test and evaluation, these
systems are not scheduled to be available to all III Corps units by the end
of 2004. As discussed later in this report, the Tactical Airspace
Integration System also needs to demonstrate that interoperability
objectives have been met.

aTest schedule may slip due to inadequate funding for testing.

Source: Data provided by Army program management officials.

Three Systems Need to Demonstrate Interoperability

Three Category 2 systems and five Category 1 systems5 making up the Army
Tactical Command and Control System, need to demonstrate that they can share
data automatically through a common database. Two of the Category 2
systems--the Digital Topographic Support System and the Integrated
Meteorological System--are presently being fielded, and the third--the
Tactical Airspace Integration System--is still under development. While the
systems can be fielded individually, the benefits of digitization will not
be optimized until they can share data through a common database.

At present, when a change is made to an individual system's database,
component systems' databases are not automatically updated. Instead, the
updates are done manually, either through inputs to other related databases
or through an electronic message to the databases. For example, if the
Integrated Meteorological System database is changed to show new weather
information, the change would have to be manually entered or done through a
message to the Digital Topographic Support System or Tactical Airspace
Integration System databases.

The Army intends to automate database updates and database sharing with the
development and fielding of a software package called the Army Battle
Command System software. It is developing a new version of the system
software (designated version 6.0), which will be followed by version 6.1 for
use in September 2000, version 6.2 for use in April and November 2001, and
version 7.0, which is scheduled to be fielded throughout the Army. However,
Army officials stated that problems associated with version 6.0 place all of
these scheduled events in jeopardy. Until these three Category 2 systems
demonstrate interoperability, the Army cannot exploit the full potential of
the Army Tactical Command and Control System.

Our analysis of the current acquisition status of the 56 Category 2 systems
indicates that 12 of the systems will not be ready for fielding by the
Army's milestone, the end of 2004. We have identified two main causes.
First, the Army's medium-weight force initiative led to the termination and
restructure of six Category 2 systems. Second, the development schedule for
six systems indicates that even if they progress as currently scheduled,
they will not be ready for fielding by 2004.

Medium-Weight Force Initiative Led to the Termination and Restructure of Six
Systems

To fund or otherwise support the medium-weight force initiative, the Deputy
Secretary of Defense made a program budget decision6 that resulted in
adjustments to dozens of Army programs during fiscal years 2001-2005. For
example, the decision provided for funding in fiscal years 2000 and 2001 to
establish two initial brigades at Fort Lewis, Washington, and it increased
funding for the development of a family of Future Combat System vehicles to
replace a portion of the current tank force. The decision also resulted in
the restructure of three Army programs and the termination of six others.
The three restructured programs and three of the six terminated programs are
Category 2 digitization systems.

The three restructured digitization programs are the Crusader self-propelled
howitzer, the Future Scout and Cavalry System, and the Prophet Air
intelligence/electronic warfare system. All will require more development
time before they are ready for production and fielding. None of the systems
will be available to III Corps units by the 2004 digitization fielding
milestone.

The three terminated Category 2 programs are the Command and Control
Vehicle, the Grizzly Engineer Vehicle, and the Wolverine Heavy Assault
Bridge. Since Grizzly and Wolverine were identified as the solutions to
serious engineering equipment deficiencies 9 years ago, after Operation
Desert Storm, officials at the 4th Infantry Division told us that loss of
Grizzly and Wolverine posed a significant drawback to the achievement of
their operational performance goals. This is because obsolete engineer
equipment was ranked among the top five problems for that operation.
According to the 4th Infantry Division officials, termination of the program
adversely affects operational performance. That is (1) without the Grizzly
Engineering Vehicle, combat power is reduced because one third of the main
battle tanks must be used as mine rollers and mine plows and
(2) lacking the Wolverine, the momentum of operations will be reduced
because the Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles will have to rely on
an old bridge system.

Six Category 2 Systems Will Not Be Ready Because Development Schedules Are
Inconsistent With Fielding by the End of 2004

The development schedules for six other Category 2 systems are not
consistent with the 2004 fielding milestone. Table 6 discusses the Category
2 systems that will not be fielded to all III Corps units by the end of 2004
and their schedules for fielding.

 System                                Fielding schedule

 Army Airborne Command and Control     The system is to be fielded to the
 System                                1st Cavalry Division in 2005 and to
                                       III Corps in 2006.
 Palletized Load                       Funding is not expected to be
 System-Enhanced-Driver Viewer         available until fiscal year 2006 at
 Enhanced                              the earliest.
 Raptor Intelligent Combat Outpost     Fielding is scheduled to begin in
 System                                fiscal year 2007.
                                       Fielding to III Corps is scheduled
 RAH-66 Comanche                       to begin in 2005 with the delivery
                                       of eight aircraft to the 1st Cavalry
                                       Division.
                                       This concept has not yet matured
                                       beyond the planning phase because of
 Tactical Interactive Ground Equipment concerns about the amount of
                                       bandwidth needed for continuous
                                       real-time updates.
                                       Two wireless local area networks for
                                       Tactical Operations Centers are
 Wireless Local Area Network           scheduled for delivery to the 4th
                                       Infantry Division in June 2000 for
                                       experimentation. Operational systems
                                       will not be available before 2004.

Source: Army program management officials.

The Army has already made and is continuing to make decisions on structural
changes based in part on the capabilities to be derived from digitization,
including those from Category 2 systems, even though the battlefield systems
involved are still being developed and tested. For example, the Army has
changed the composition of the 4th Infantry Division because it expects that
digitization will reduce the number of soldiers needed to fulfill missions.
This redesign has resulted in the elimination of entire units, a reduction
of major fighting platforms (Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles),
and a decrease in the number of soldiers within the division from 18,069 to
15,719. In addition, the Division's expected area of operations has grown
from 10,000 square kilometers to 24,000 square kilometers on the basis of
the capabilities expected from digitization. A comparable redesign of III
Corps units is under way; it is likely that the redesign will assume the
availability of individual Category 2 systems.

Although the Army plans to field as many Category 2 systems that are
available by the end of 2004 to the first digitized corps, many of the 56
Category 2 systems may not be available for fielding. Only 18 of the
systems, or about 30 percent, are already fielded or will be fielded by
2004, 26 systems may not be ready based on their development and production
schedules, and 12 will not be ready for various reasons, including the fact
that some systems have already been canceled. Yet, Army officials continue
to base decisions on the expected benefits of digitization, generally on the
assumption that most of the 56 Category 2 systems will be ready for fielding
by the end of 2004. Such decision-making is hampered by the absence of a
comprehensive analysis of where individual Category 2 systems stand
regarding the projected end of the 2004 milestone and how each contributes
to digitization goals. Without such an analysis, decisionmakers do not have
a complete view of the impact other decisions, such as the termination of
the Grizzly Engineering Vehicle and Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge programs,
might have on its digitization goals.

To provide decisionmakers within the Army with a detailed understanding of
the impact the availability of Category 2 systems will have on other
decisions, we recommend that the Secretary of the Army direct the
preparation of an annual acquisition status report that identifies (1) when
each Category 2 system is expected to be fielded and (2) alternative
fielding strategies focused on the successful establishment of the first
digitized corps by the end of 2004.

In written comments on a draft of this report, DOD agreed with the findings
of the report and concurred with our recommendation. In its comments, DOD
stated that it supports increased efforts to track the acquisition status of
the Army's Category 2 systems as we recommended. In this regard, the Army
has agreed to include the acquisition status of the Category 2 systems with
its recurring Brigade Set Fielding reporting process. The Army believes this
reporting concept will obviate the need for an additional report to meet
this new requirement. We believe this approach will satisfy the intent of
our recommendation. DOD's comments are printed in their entirety in appendix
II.

To determine the acquisition status of the Category 2 systems and to
identify any cost or schedule uncertainties that could confront the Army
when its first digitized corps is fielded, we began by reviewing the
objectives of the Army XXI and Army After Next initiatives, the fielding
plans for III Corps units, and individual system cost and schedule data. We
obtained briefings from program managers, testers, and users. We also
analyzed the acquisition strategy of each Category 2 program, critical
program milestones, and the relationship between critical program milestones
and fielding plans for the first digitized corps. We used an August 1999
listing of 56 Category 2 systems as the starting point for our analysis; we
met with Training and Doctrine Command officials in September 1999, and they
confirmed that the list was accurate. In May 2000, during our exit
conference, Army officials informed us that there had been some minor
changes to the Category 2 systems listing we used throughout the assignment.
For example, the Tactical Interactive Ground Equipment and Wireless Local
Area Network were no longer considered Category 2 systems. Since these
changes did not materially alter our results, we decided to report on the 56
Category 2 systems we used as the starting point for our analysis.

We also reviewed the test and evaluation schedules of each Category 2
system. We then compared these schedules with the fielding schedule for the
first digitized corps. We also analyzed the impact of the medium-weight
force initiative on the digitization initiative. We reviewed the overall
objectives of major digitization validation events, including Army Tactical
Command and Control System interoperability objectives, and plans to use new
and upgraded versions of communication equipment, weapons platforms
(including Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Vehicles with embedded Force
XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below software), and tactical operations
centers during the tests and exercises. We reviewed the revised Army test
and evaluation plan for the Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below
system.

In the course of our work, we interviewed program officials and examined
program management and budget documents, system requirements, test plans,
acquisition plans, and other program documentation. We performed our work
primarily at the Army Digitization Office, Arlington, Virginia; the Army
Tank-automotive and Armaments Command, Warren, Michigan; the Army
Communications and Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; the Army
Aviation and Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama; and program
management offices located at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, Edgewood
Arsenal, Maryland, and Fort Belvoir, Virginia. We also gathered data from
the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation, Arlington, Virginia; the Army
Training and Doctrine Command, Norfolk, Virginia; the Army Test and
Evaluation Command, Alexandria, Virginia; and the III Corps, 4th Infantry
Division, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas.

We performed our review from August 1999 to March 2000 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards.

We are sending copies of this report to Representative John P. Murtha,
Ranking Minority Member of the Subcommittee; Representative C.W. Bill Young,
Chairman, and Representative David R. Obey, Ranking Minority Member, House
Committee on Appropriations; and other interested congressional committees.
We are also sending copies of this report to the Honorable William S. Cohen,
Secretary of Defense; the Honorable Louis Caldera, Secretary of the Army;
and General James L. Jones, Commandant of the Marine Corps. Copies will also
be made available to others upon request.

If you have any questions regarding this report, please contact Charles F.
Rey at (202) 512-4174 or Paul G. Williams at (617) 565-7468. Key
contributors to this report were Robert J. Dziekiewicz and Subrata Ghoshroy.

Sincerely yours,
Allen Li
Associate Director
Defense Acquisitions Issues

Fiscal Years 2001 and 2002 Funding Estimates for Category 2 Systems

(Continued From Previous Page)

                                 Funding estimate fiscal Funding estimate fiscal
                                          year                     year
                                          2001                    2002
 Acquisition status and purpose Research and             Research and
     of Category 2 systems      development  Procurement development  Procurement
 1. The Army Airborne Command
 and Control System (A2C2S) is a
 helicopter-hosted (UH-60 Black
 Hawk) command and control
 system that will serve as a
 highly mobile command post for
 corps, division, or maneuver
 brigade commanders. The
 commanders will be provided
 voice and data equipment
 equivalent to a tactical
 command post or battle command $16.5        0           $9.2         $26.2
 vehicle. The system is still in
 the engineering and
 manufacturing development
 phase. An initial operational
 test and evaluation is
 scheduled for April 2002. The
 second digitized division (1st
 Cavalry Division) is scheduled
 to be fielded in fiscal year
 2005 and the first digitized
 corps in fiscal year 2006.
 2. The Analysis Control Team
 (ACT) Enclave mainly consists
 of two All Source Analysis
 System (ASAS) remote
 workstations in a
 communications shelter mounted
 on a high-mobility,
 multipurpose wheeled vehicle.
 The ACT Enclave allows the
 brigade combat team to
 integrate, process, and
 interpret near real-time sensor
 and broadcast reports from     0            $25.9       0            12.1
 remote intelligence sources via
 a common ground station and to
 merge the information with the
 brigade's organic
 reconnaissance. The ACT will be
 located at the brigade level.
 The remote workstation has
 already completed operational
 testing and all first digitized
 division ACT Enclave units
 should be fielded by the end of
 2000.
 3. The Airborne Communications
 Node (ACN) is a Defense
 Advanced Research Projects
 Agency demonstration project
 that is intended to package a
 communications link on an
 airborne platform. Expected
 benefits include a beyond
 line-of-sight communications
 capability, command and control
 "on the move," and
 communications in areas that
 cannot accommodate fixed
 Warfighter Information Network
 (WIN) equipment. The Army,
 through its WIN-Terrestrial    12.5         0           38.1         0
 program, has agreed to support
 a High-Capacity Line-of-Sight
 radio relay during the Phase II
 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
 flight demonstration in
 September 2001. The needs for
 the ground link to the ACN are
 currently being studied. (Note:
 the indicated funding for
 fiscal year 2002 is for
 Information Integration
 Systems, which includes ACN.
 The comparable figure for
 fiscal year 2001 is $49.7
 million.)
 4. The Apache Longbow (AH-64D)
 is a two-crew member, tandem
 cockpit-configured aircraft
 that incorporates major
 improvements and upgrades to
 the earlier AH-64A version. The
 Longbow Weapon System will
 provide automatic target
 detection, classification,
 prioritization, and a
 fire-and-forget engagement
 capability, greatly increasing
 weapon system effectiveness and
 aircraft survivability. AH-64D
 fielding to the first digitized17.4         621.2       38.4         748.4
 corps is scheduled to be
 completed by May 2004. However,
 the improved data modem, which
 performs as aviation's Internet
 controller and tactical
 Internet, will have limited
 command and control and
 situational awareness
 capabilities in version 5.0 at
 the Division Capstone Exercise
 in April 2001. Version 5.1 is
 expected to have full
 capabilities.
 5. The Aviation Mission
 Planning System (AMPS) is a
 mission
 planning/battle-synchronization
 tool that automates aviation
 mission planning tasks,
 including route generation,
 performance planning,
 communications planning,
 terrain analysis, data
 transfer, and mission
 rehearsal. It will provide
 connectivity to the Army
 Tactical Command and Control   0            9.0         0            7.1
 Systems, transfer mission
 planning data to aircraft, and
 disseminates maps to the
 platforms. An initial
 operational test and evaluation
 is currently scheduled for
 February 2001. However, AMPS
 has been widely fielded in
 support of Army aviation, and
 fieldings to the digitized
 units are well in advance of
 the overall Army timeline.
 6. The Advanced Quick Fix (AQF)
 is also known as Prophet-Air.
 The Prophet components (air,
 ground, and control) are
 intended to electronically map
 the battlefield by detecting,
 identifying, locating, and
 tracking radio frequency
 emitters and then graphically
 depicting these emitters.
 Originally, the AQF sensor was
 to have been placed on a
 helicopter, as was the Quickfix
 (AN/ALQ-151) sensor package.
 The airborne platform has
 changed and will now be a
 dedicated UAV. Although Prophet7.0          0           8.0          0
 Air is listed as a "program
 termination" in the Program
 Budget Decision (PBD) 745
 narrative, it appears to be a
 restructure with a shift in the
 acquisition phase from
 engineering and manufacturing
 development to
 demonstration/validation. The
 Prophet Air schedule now shows
 an engineering and
 manufacturing development
 milestone decision in fiscal
 year 2003 and a production
 milestone III decision at the
 end of fiscal year 2005.
 7. The Avenger Slew-to-Cue
 (STC) is an upgrade to the
 Avenger, a lightweight, highly
 mobile and transportable
 surface-to-air missile and
 machine gun system that
 includes Stinger missiles and a
 .50 caliber machine gun mounted
 on a heavy high mobility
 multipurpose wheeled vehicle
 (HMMWV). Its mission is
 short-range air defense for
 division and corps. It is
 designed for stationary or
 shoot-on-the-move defense
 against UAVs, cruise missiles, 0            6.8         2.0          9.4
 helicopters, and fixed-wing
 aircraft in all weather
 conditions. The STC upgrade
 accepts data from the Forward
 Area Air Defense Command,
 Control and Intelligence System
 (FAADC2I) and automatically
 moves the Avenger turret,
 placing targets in the gunner's
 field of view. Fielding of
 Avenger STC to the first
 digitized corps is expected to
 be completed by fiscal year
 2002.
 8. The Aviation Tactical
 Operations Center (AVTOC) is
 included in the Tactical       0            0           0            0
 Operations Center summary.
 9. The Battlefield Combat
 Identification System (BCIS) is
 a millimeter wave "question and
 answer system" intended to
 provide a high probability
 (greater than 95 percent) of
 identifying friendly platforms
 on the battlefield so that
 fratricide rates can be
 reduced. A low-rate initial    2.4          18.8        0            18.8
 production contract was awarded
 in December 1999. An initial
 operational test and evaluation
 is scheduled for the third
 quarter of fiscal year 2001. A
 full-rate production decision
 is scheduled for the second
 quarter of fiscal year 2002.
 10. The Battle Command Vehicle
 was developed for use during
 the Task Force XXI Advanced
 Warfighting Experiment in 1997.
 It is a command and control
 vehicle (Bradley derivative)
 improved with additional
 radios, Applique, Mobile
 Subscriber Equipment, Maneuver
 Control System, two additional
 computer workstations, and a   0            0           0            0
 21-inch flat panel display. The
 purpose of the vehicle is to
 facilitate command and control
 at the brigade and battalion
 levels. The program appears to
 still be in the concept
 exploration phase; we could not
 identify any budget,
 milestones, or fielding plans.
 11. The Bradley Fire Support
 Team (BFIST) Vehicle provides
 enhanced surveillance, target
 acquisition, and target
 tracking information for use by
 field artillery assets. There
 are two BFIST models: the M7
 BFIST is based on the Bradley
 A2 Operation Desert Storm
 chassis and the A3 BFIST is
 based on the Bradley A3
 chassis. An initial operational
 test and evaluation of the M7
 BFIST vehicle is scheduled for
 Fort Stewart from January
 through May 2000; however, the
 funding for the initial        2.2          28.5        0            32.0
 operational test and evaluation
 is questionable. The initial
 operational test and evaluation
 may have to be delayed. M7
 BFIST vehicles are scheduled to
 be fielded to the 1st Cavalry
 Division and the 3rd Armored
 Cavalry Regiment by the end of
 fiscal year 2004, but the 4th
 Infantry Division is not
 scheduled to receive its A3
 BFISTS until 2005. The initial
 fielding of the M7 BFIST
 vehicles will be to the 3rd
 Infantry Division at Fort
 Stewart.
 12. The Command and Control
 Vehicle is an armored vehicle
 intended to ensure a mobile,
 responsive, survivable command 0            0           0            0
 and control capability for the
 heavy force. The program has
 been canceled through PBD 745.
 13. The Common Ground
 Station/Ground Station Module
 (CGS/GSM) receives and displays
 data from a variety of sources,
 including Joint STARS, the
 Hunter UAV, satellite
 intelligence broadcast reports,
 and the Apache Longbow.
 Operationally, the Analysis
 Control Team within a tactical
 operations center analyzes CGS
 data and other intelligence
 data to provide commanders with
 an integrated "red picture" of
 the battlefield. The first
 digitized corps will require
 about 25 CGSs; the last        13.4         72.1        11.4         27.8
 contract award date, which will
 complete the buy of 100 CGSs
 for the Army is scheduled for
 fiscal year 2001. A program
 executive officer development
 initiative is endeavoring to
 export the CGS's Joint STARS
 "live overlay" into the Army
 Tactical Command and Control
 System (ATCCS) Joint Common
 Database, and export Joint
 Common Database products to the
 CGS. The CGS is scheduled to
 participate in the April 2001
 Division Capstone Exercise.
 14. The Contact Maintenance
 Truck (CMT) is a
 self-contained, multicapable
 light repair system in an
 enclosure, mounted on a heavy
 HMMWV chassis. It performs
 organizational to direct
 support level repair for
 wheeled vehicles and equipment.
 The CMT is a nondevelopment
 item. Fielding to the III Corps0            9.7         0            9.9
 units is scheduled for
 completion by September 2000.
 No Force XXI Battle Command,
 Brigade and Below (FBCB2)
 capability is currently
 scheduled for this vehicle, but
 it will have a Global
 Positioning System receiver on
 the vehicle dash.
 15. The Crusader weapon system
 is a 155-mm self-propelled
 howitzer and resupply vehicle
 that will support the maneuver
 force for Army XXI and Army
 After Next. The 1999 schedule
 showed an engineering and
 manufacturing development (EMD)
 milestone decision in the
 second quarter of fiscal year
 2001 and a full-rate production355.5        0           446.9        0
 decision in the first quarter
 of fiscal year 2006. The first
 unit was to have been fielded
 in 2005. However, PBD 745
 provided for a major
 restructure of the program. EMD
 is now scheduled for fiscal
 year 2003, low-rate initial
 production in 2006, and the
 first unit equipped in 2008.
 16. The mission of the Defense
 Message System (DMS) is to
 integrate a modernized command
 and control messaging
 capability, including joint and
 coalition interoperability, for
 all Department of Defense (DOD)
 locations. The Defense
 Information Systems Agency
 (DISA) is the responsible
 executive agent for developing
 the system. The Army segment of0            18.8        0            19.8
 DMS is intended to provide
 global messaging for the Army
 from the battlefield to the
 sustaining base. While DMS has
 been at Fort Hood units since
 1997, a DMS subsystem, the
 Tactical Message System, is
 scheduled to undergo an initial
 operational test and evaluation
 in the second quarter of fiscal
 year 2001.
 17. The Digital Topographic
 Support System (DTSS) automates
 terrain analysis and will
 provide digital maps and
 updates to commanders and
 weapon platforms in support of
 mission planning, rehearsal,
 and execution. The objective
 fielding configuration is the  0            20.0        0            4.5
 DTSS-Light on a single HMMWV.
 The DTSS-Light was type
 classified in January 1998.
 Fielding to first digitized
 corps units is scheduled for
 completion by the end of fiscal
 year 2004.
 18. The Future Scout and
 Cavalry System (FSCS) will
 replace the current ground
 scout systems in the platoon,
 company, battalion, brigade,
 and division levels. FSCS will
 conduct continuous,
 all-weather, area, zone, and
 route reconnaissance to provide
 real-time, man-in-the-loop
 intelligence to the tactical
 commander. PBD 745 provides for
 a restructuring of the FSCS    68.9         0           72.4         0
 program and essentially removes
 funding for the engineering and
 manufacturing development phase
 from fiscal year 2002 onward.
 (Note: funding indicated for
 fiscal year 2002 is for
 Advanced Combat Vehicle
 Technology, which includes
 FSCS. The comparable figure for
 fiscal year 2001 is $104.7
 million.)
 19. Firefinder is a
 phased-array radar that tracks
 incoming and outgoing
 artillery, rockets, missiles,
 and mortars. Data is sent to
 the Fire Detection Center
 which, in turn, is linked via
 the Advanced Field Artillery
 Tactical Data System (AFATDS)  37.4         18.5        26.8         30.4
 to counter-fire batteries. A
 new software version (12) is
 scheduled to be tested at the
 end of fiscal year 2000.
 Firefinder hardware is on
 schedule and within budget for
 the first digitized division
 and corps.
 20. The Ground-Based Common
 Sensor-Heavy (GBCS-H) is
 evolving to the Prophet-Ground
 HMMWV-based system. The Prophet
 components (air, ground, and
 control) are intended to
 electronically map the
 battlefield by detecting,
 identifying, locating, and
 tracking radio-frequency
 emitters and then graphically
 depicting these emitters.
 Prophet-Ground is intended to  0            4.9         0            4.9
 have on-the-move direction
 finding and signals
 exploitation capabilities.
 Prophet-Ground will replace the
 fielded Trailblazer system.
 Prophet-Ground is scheduled for
 initial operational test and
 evaluation early in fiscal year
 2004 and production in fiscal
 years 2004 and 2005. The Army
 has not yet established the
 fielding priorities.
 21. The Grizzly (M1 Breacher)
 Engineering Vehicle is an
 armored combat support system
 designed to integrate
 countermine and counterobstacle0            0           0            0
 capabilities into a single
 survivable system. The program
 has been canceled through PBD
 745.
 22. The Global Combat Support
 System−Army (GCSS-A)
 supports the Combat Service
 Support functions of manning,
 fixing, fueling, moving, and
 sustaining soldiers and their
 systems. The GCSS-A is being
 fielded through the
 introduction of various product
 line modules: supply/property,
 maintenance, integrated
 material management,           74.4         30.0        94.9         52.1
 management, supply support
 activity, and ammunition. Each
 module requires operational
 testing and will be fielded
 between fiscal year 2000 and
 2003. Units at Fort Hood will
 be among the first to receive
 each module after the
 completion of its respective
 operational test.
 23. The Integrated
 Meteorological System (IMETS)
 is a mobile, tactical automated
 weather data receiving,
 processing, and dissemination
 system. The Army acquires the
 units and uses the data, but
 the systems are actually
 staffed with Air Force
 personnel; the Air Force
 develops global weather data
 from Offut Air Force Base,     1.8          7.0         1.9          2.5
 Nebraska. IMETS with Army
 Battle Command System (ABCS)
 software version 4.3 is being
 fielded throughout the Army.
 The goal of the "Category 2
 IMETS" is to integrate IMETS
 with ABCS version 6.0. The
 first operational assessment of
 "IMETS/ABCS 6.0" will be at the
 Division Capstone Exercise
 scheduled for April 2001.
 24. The Raptor Intelligent
 Combat Outpost (ICO) is a suite
 of munitions, sensors,
 communication systems, and
 software that enable the
 commander to protect the
 battlespace. It is envisioned
 that it will consist of four
 components: air deliverable
 acoustic sensors, an artificial
 intelligence platform (the
 gateway), a ground control
 station, and an attack
 munition. Raptor is scheduled  12.8         0           11.4         0
 to be developed in two phases:
 Phase One Core Raptor, will be
 capable of completing the user
 threshold requirements and
 Phase Two, Ultimate Raptor,
 will fulfill the user's
 objective requirements. Raptor
 is currently in the concept
 exploration phase of the
 acquisition cycle. The first
 unit is scheduled to be
 equipped for Core Raptor in
 fiscal year 2007.
 25. The overall intent of the
 Joint Tactical Radio System
 (JTRS) initiative is to develop
 a family of affordable,
 high-capacity tactical radios
 to provide both line-of-sight
 and beyond line-of-sight
 communications capabilities to
 the warfighters. JTRS is
 described as the DOD radio of
 the future and has the goal of
 migrating today's legacy
 systems to systems compliant
 with the JTRS architecture.
 Recently, the JTRS joint
 program office issued a broad
 agency announcement to acquire
 prototype radios designed to
 provide a secure data
 networking capability between  90.7         0           159.3        0
 mobile users, such as tactical
 operations centers, for the
 dissemination of data from
 command and control systems
 operating throughout all
 echelons and major subordinate
 units from division to
 battalion levels. A selection
 of one or more industry designs
 for the prototype radios was
 expected by the end of February
 2000. The production radios
 will be used by the first
 digitized corps to achieve a
 Near-Term Data Radio (NTDR)
 equivalent capability. NTDRs
 are being fielded to the first
 digitized division only.
 26. The Joint Warning and
 Reporting Network (JWARN)
 integrates nuclear, biological,
 and chemical (NBC) warning,
 reporting, analysis, and
 response software with NBC
 sensors to minimize the effects
 of hostile NBC attacks or
 accidents/incidents. The Marine
 Corps is the lead service for
 the joint program. JWARN will
 be fielded in phases, with
 phase I scheduled for the      7.3          9.0         7.3          11.7
 fourth quarter of fiscal year
 2000. Phase I involves
 integration with the Maneuver
 Control System and the ABCS
 software. All JWARN schedule
 dates depend on the release of
 ABCS version 6.1. Phase II is
 scheduled for fielding in
 fiscal year 2003. It is not
 clear which fielding is the
 objective fielding for the
 first digitized corps.
 27. The Land Warrior System is
 intended to significantly
 improve the lethality,
 mobility, survivability,
 command and control, and
 sustainability of infantry
 soldiers by integrating a
 variety of components and
 technologies. Land Warrior
 includes a computer/radio,
 software, integrated headgear, 60.1         0           36.4         0
 including an imaging display,
 weapon subsystem, and
 protective clothing and
 equipment to be integrated on
 the individual soldier. The
 development program was
 recently restructured, and Land
 Warrior production is not
 scheduled to begin until fiscal
 year 2004, at the earliest.
 28. Linebacker is a Bradley
 derivative system that
 contributes to the forward area
 air defense mission for heavy
 forces by being able to fire
 Stinger missiles and a 25-mm
 automatic cannon at fixed and  0            0           0            0
 rotary wing targets. Production
 of the 99 Linebackers has
 ended, and fielding to heavy
 forces, III Corps units and 3rd
 Infantry Division is
 essentially complete.
 29. The Lightweight Laser
 Designator Rangefinder (LLDR)
 is a man-portable laser
 designator and target locator
 with eye-safe range finding,
 azimuth determination,
 self-location, and data/image
 export capability. It can
 locate targets in day or night
 with all-weather capability.
 According to the Army, LLDR
 meets an urgent need for
 precision target location and
 engagement for the artillery
 fire support teams. The LLDR
 program received Warfighter
 Rapid Acquisition Program      0            7.1         0.9          7.0
 funding in fiscal years 1997
 and 1998 to achieve an initial
 operational capability and for
 integration into the Striker in
 a vehicle-mounted
 configuration. LLDR will also
 serve as the sensor and digital
 data source for the Marine
 Corps fire support teams. It is
 a Joint Army/Marine Corps
 effort. The Army has a
 requirement of 1,184 systems
 and the Marine Corps of 394
 systems. An operational test is
 scheduled for November/December
 2000.
 30. The Long Range Advanced
 Scout Surveillance System
 (LRAS3) will provide armor and
 mechanized infantry battalion
 scout platoons with long-range
 target acquisition and
 far-target location
 capabilities, enabling them to
 conduct reconnaissance and
 surveillance missions beyond
 the effective range of enemy
 direct fire weapons. It will
 operate line-of-sight and
 provide real-time acquisition,
 target detection, recognition,
 and location information to the
 operator, in "around the clock"
 combat operations in both
 mounted and man-portable       1.5          46.2        0.8          44.4
 configurations. Operational
 testing found the system to be
 both "not effective" and "not
 suitable" due to intermittent
 loss of far target location
 capability. A limited user test
 is scheduled for the fourth
 quarter of fiscal year 2000 to
 verify improvements since the
 initial operational test and
 evaluation. The follow-on
 operational testing and
 evaluation and the first unit
 equipped are scheduled for the
 third and the fourth quarters,
 respectively, of fiscal year
 2001.
 31. The start of the M1A2
 Abrams tank with system
 enhancements follow-on
 operational test and evaluation
 (FOT&E) has been delayed about
 18 months (April 1999 to
 October 2000), mainly because
 of the inability to integrate
 the Force XXI Battle Command,
 Brigade and Below (FBCB2)
 Embedded Battle Command (EBC)
 software into the platform. The
 EBC effort has been replaced by
 the Integrated Combat Command  82.7         549.0       90.6         638.9
 and Control (IC3) initiative
 that will have the FBCB2
 software hosted on a separate
 processor (an Intel card), but
 share the same display and
 input device. Four System
 Enhancement Program (SEP) tanks
 will participate in the FOT&E;
 90 SEP tanks will participate
 in the Division Capstone
 Exercise, scheduled for April
 2001.
 32. The start of the M2/M3A3
 Bradley Fighting Vehicle's (M2
 is the Infantry vehicle, M3 is
 the Cavalry vehicle) initial
 operational test and evaluation
 has been delayed about
 18 months (April 1999 to
 October 2000), mainly because
 of the inability to integrate
 the FBCB2 EBC software into the
 platform. The EBC effort has
 been replaced by the Abrams-led0            388.8       0            389.3
 Integrated Combat Command and
 Control (IC3) initiative that
 will have the FBCB2 software
 hosted on a separate processor
 (an Intel card), but share the
 same display and input device.
 However, FBCB2 Appliques will
 be used during the initial
 operational test and evaluation
 and the Division Capstone
 Exercise.
 33. The M93A1 Fox is a Nuclear,
 Biological, and Chemical
 Reconnaissance System (NBCRS)
 enclosed within a wheeled,
 lightly armored vehicle. The
 vehicle finds, identifies,
 maps, and marks NBC
 contamination on the
 battlefield. The system
 completed operational testing
 in October 1998;               0            31.6        0            6.3
 interoperability with the
 Maneuver Control System was
 included in the operational
 testing. Fielding to Fort Hood
 units (20 systems) was
 completed in June 1999;
 however, an additional eight
 units are scheduled to be
 fielded to III Corps in
 December 2002.
 34. Smart Cards is part of the
 Automated Identification
 Technology (AIT) to provide
 state-of-the-art technologies
 that offer rapid and accurate
 data capture retrieval and
 transmission. The technology
 includes various radio
 frequency barcode-scanning
 devices and various data
 carrier devices with associated
 readers and writers. The data
 carrier devices include
 integrated circuit chip cards
 (smart card) in the size and
 shape of an ID card, which     0            1.8         0            0
 allows for the ease of storage
 for documents and data, and
 facilitates security as well.
 It can be used for, among
 others, personnel and finance
 records, electronic cash,
 deployability/wellness etc. The
 card is now being tested in the
 25th Infantry Division for food
 service, immunization, dental
 fitness, etc. (Note: The
 indicated funding amount is for
 AIT and not exclusively for
 Smart Cards.)
 35. The Medical Communications
 for Combat Casualty Care (MC4)
 is intended to provide the Army
 an information technology
 infrastructure to support the
 tactical medical mission
 interface with the Joint
 Theater Medical Information
 Program (TMIP) software. The   3.2          2.5         2.2          2.9
 progress of the MC4 system is
 dependent upon the TMIP
 software; TMIP is an
 acquisition category ID
 program. TMIP has an initial
 operational test and evaluation
 scheduled for the first quarter
 of fiscal year 2001.
 36. The Mortar Fire Control
 System (MFCS) integrates
 mortars into the fire support
 architecture and provides full
 field artillery tactical data
 system compatibility. It
 consists of a fire direction
 center and three subsystems    5.1          7.4         5.7          30.0
 (position navigation, fire
 control, and situational
 awareness) mounted on mobile
 platforms. MFCS is scheduled to
 complete fielding to the III
 Corps in 2004.
 37. The Division Tactical
 Exploitation System (DTES) is a
 replacement for the Mobile
 Integrated Tactical Terminal
 (MITT). DTES is a division
 asset that is required to
 process, exploit, and
 disseminate information from a
 combination of national,
 theater, and tactical
 intelligence assets. DTES will
 feed data to the Army's All
 Source Analysis System at
 division levels. The Army only
 requires 10 DTESs and the 4th
 Infantry Division and 1st
 Cavalry Division are scheduled 12.9         12.9        29.9         22.2
 to receive their units in
 fiscal year 2003. The 3rd
 Armored Cavalry Regiment will
 receive a Tactical Exploitation
 System-Light (TES-Light), which
 is a replacement for the
 Forward Area Support Terminal
 (FAST); the TES-Light is
 scheduled for fielding to the
 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment in
 fiscal year 2004. DTES has
 operational testing scheduled
 to begin in fiscal year 2002,
 and the TES-Light is scheduled
 to begin operational testing in
 fiscal year 2003.
 38. The Multiple Launch Rocket
 System (MLRS) provides a high
 volume of firepower in a very
 short time frame. MLRS consists
 of a self-loading launcher with
 an onboard fire control system.
 The launcher is mounted on a
 derivative of the Bradley
 Fighting Vehicle, that carries
 12 rockets or 2 Army Tactical
 Missile System (ATACMS)
 missiles, which can be fired
 individually or simultaneously.
 Rockets have a range beyond 30
 kilometers, and the ATACMS
 Block IA missile can reach
 beyond 300 kilometers. The MLRS
 M270 launcher is the standard
 U.S. Army platform for firing  59.5         228.4       49.4         28.2
 surface to surface artillery
 rockets and missiles. The
 Product Improvement Program
 includes two major upgrades to
 the current M270
 launcher-Improved Fire Control
 System and Improved Launcher
 Mechanical System. It also
 includes Guided MLRS Rocket,
 High Mobility Artillery Rocket
 System, and MLRS Smart Tactical
 Rocket (MSTAR). MSTAR was
 terminated by PBD 745. The
 initial operational test and
 evaluation is scheduled for
 May-June 2001 and the full-rate
 production decision in
 September 2001.
 39. The OH-58D Kiowa Warrior is
 a two-seat, single engine armed
 reconnaissance helicopter,
 which is a highly modified
 version of the OH-58A/C Kiowa.
 The primary mission of the
 Kiowa Warrior is armed
 reconnaissance in air cavalry
 troops and light attack
 companies. The aircraft
 operates autonomously providing
 armed reconnaissance, command
 and control, and target
 acquisition/designation for
 Apache helicopters and other
 airborne weapons platforms. The
 Safety Enhancement Program     0            46.9        0            45.1
 (SEP) was initiated in fiscal
 year 1996 to incorporate R3
 engines, crashworthy crew
 seats, supplemental restraint
 system, digitization, and
 improved weapons interface. The
 Army plans to upgrade 385
 aircraft under the SEP
 configuration. Aircraft fielded
 with the III Corps have limited
 digital capability. This will
 be upgraded in a two-phase
 effort to provide full aviation
 messaging capability for the
 first digitized corps by 2004.
 40. The M109A6 Paladin is a
 155-mm self-propelled howitzer.
 It has been approved for
 full-scale production and is
 designed to upgrade the
 M109A2/A3. The Paladin
 digitization initiative will
 integrate an FBCB2 capability
 into the platform. While there 2.5          2.7         2.6          5.2
 is no formal operational test
 of the FBCB2 enhancement,
 Paladin is scheduled to
 participate in the April 2001
 DCX and the November 2001 FBCB2
 initial operational test and
 evaluation.
 41. The objective of the
 Personal Communications System
 (PCS) program is to develop
 commercially available wireless
 cellular telephone technology
 for secure mobile satellite
 services and terrestrial
 applications. The Warfighters
 Information
 Network--Terrestrial
 (WIN-T)operational requirements
 document requires PCS to       2.4          0           0            0
 provide selected users with a
 wireless hand-held device that
 interfaces with the WIN-T
 network and the Global
 Information Grid over
 terrestrial, airborne, and
 military and commercial
 satellite links in order to
 exchange multimedia information
 between users.
 42. The Palletized Load System
 is capable of loading and
 unloading itself and a
 companion trailer in 5 minutes,
 which allows flexible mission
 assignment and operation under
 adverse conditions. The
 Palletized Load
 System-Enhanced-Driver Viewer
 Enhancer (PLS-E-DVE) is an
 infrared imaging device that
 operates in the micrometer wave
 bands and that is passive,     0            1.9         0            1.9
 lightweight, and vehicle
 powered. The thermal viewing
 system increases vehicle
 mobility under very poor
 driving conditions and provides
 situational awareness, target
 and ambush detection, and
 vehicle tracking. The DVE
 funding program on this
 platform for fiscal year 2005
 was eliminated by PBD 745.
 43. The Palletized Load
 System-Enhanced-Movement
 Tracking System (PLS-E-MTS) can
 identify position, track
 progress, and communicate with
 the operators of tactical
 wheeled vehicles. It has global
 positioning system capability,
 can send base-to-mobile and    0            6.4         0            16.4
 mobile-to-base messages, and
 can locate/track an asset's
 position using personal
 computer-based software. The
 system is scheduled to be
 fielded to most III Corps units
 in fiscal year 2001.
 44. The RAH-66 Comanche is an
 advanced light attack/armed
 reconnaissance helicopter
 currently being developed. The
 Comanche features a five-bladed
 bearingless main rotor; a
 shrouded tail rotor; and a
 composite fuselage having low
 radar cross-section,
 retractable weapons pylons, and
 a fly-by-wire flight control
 system. The Comanche is
 intended to replace the current
 fleet of AH-1 and OH-58
 helicopters in all air cavalry 562.7        0           725.7        0
 troops and light division
 attack helicopter battalions,
 and to supplement the AH-64
 Apache in heavy division/corps
 attack helicopter battalions.
 The engineering and
 manufacturing development
 milestone decision was
 scheduled for April 2000. III
 Corps fielding is scheduled to
 begin with eight aircraft in
 July 2005 for initial
 operational test and
 evaluation.
 45. Radio Frequency
 Tags/Automation Information
 Technology (RF Tags/AIT)
 provides asset
 visibility/in-transit
 capability to units and
 managers. The tags are an
 assemblage of commercial
 off-the-shelf equipment that
 store embedded data of
 container contents, shipments,
 and vehicle identification. The0            20.7        0            23.9
 tags are fixed to containers to
 track material through the
 distribution system. Formal
 operational testing will not be
 conducted on RF Tags but will
 be part of the overall initial
 operational test and evaluation
 of the Global Combat Support
 System- Army (GCSS-A), which is
 scheduled to start in November
 2000.
 46. The Sentinel system
 consists of an X-band radar
 with its prime mover/power
 HMMWV that supports protection
 of maneuver forces and critical
 assets from cruise missile,
 unmanned aerial vehicles, and
 rotary wing and fixed wing
 aircraft threats. It prevents
 fratricide and is capable of   8.4          25.5        3.6          31.7
 operating day or night in all
 weather conditions. It provides
 alerting/cueing of short-range
 air defense weapons. The
 Sentinel fielding to the first
 digitized division and the
 first digitized corps is
 complete.
 47. The Standard
 Installation/Division Personnel
 System 3 (SIDPERS3) supports
 field commanders in peace,
 contingencies, and war with
 accurate military personnel
 information for decision-making
 and management of personnel
 assets. The SIDPERS3 replaces
 the current 1972 system with a 9.2          6.9         6.2          4.9
 modern database management
 system and provides increased
 functionality and personnel
 asset visibility. The system is
 scheduled to be fully fielded
 to the Army by October 2000;
 fielding to Fort Hood units is
 scheduled for June 2000.
 48. The M707 Striker provides
 combat observation lasing teams
 (COLT) with enhanced
 surveillance, reconnaissance,
 target location, and target
 designation. Essentially,
 Striker is the functional
 equivalent of the BFIST system
 mounted on a HMMWV. An initial
 operational test and evaluation
 of Striker is to be combined
 with the M7 BFIST initial
 operational test and
 evaluation; however, the
 initial operational test and   0            19.1        0            21.4
 evaluation is unfunded. The
 initial operational test and
 evaluation may have to be
 delayed. Strikers are scheduled
 to be fielded to the 1st
 Cavalry Division and the 3rd
 Armored Cavalry Regiment by the
 end of 2004, but the 4th
 Infantry Division is not
 scheduled to receive its
 Strikers until 2005. The
 initial fielding of the Striker
 will be to the 3rd Infantry
 Division at Fort Stewart.
 49. The Tactical Airspace
 Integration System (TAIS) will
 provide battle commanders in
 echelons above corps, corps,
 and divisions with automated
 Army Airspace Command and
 Control and improved air
 traffic services. TAIS uses
 Army Common Hardware and
 Software and also commercial
 off-the-shelf hardware and
 software. It is intended to    0            20.7        0            19.2
 employ a Defense Information
 Infrastructure-compliant
 modular software design to be
 interoperable with the Army
 Battle Command System. TAIS
 will be delivered to the 1st
 Cavalry Division by September
 2000. Initial operational test
 and evaluation is scheduled for
 June 2001.
 50. The Transportation
 Coordinator's Automated
 Information for Movement System
 II (TC AIMS II) is a joint
 service migration system that
 is intended to provide an
 integrated set of
 transportation applications to
 facilitate movements management
 of personnel, equipment, and
 supplies from home station to  8.1          10.4        9.9          25.4
 the conflict and back.
 Operational testing is
 scheduled for the fourth
 quarter of fiscal year 2000,
 and some additional operational
 testing will be required as
 incremental development
 packages (software) are
 developed.
 51. The Tactical Interactive
 Ground Equipment (TIGER) was a
 combat service support concept
 to collect platform logistics
 data (e.g., fuel, oil,
 ammunition). The concept did   0            0           0            0
 not mature beyond the planning
 phase because of concerns about
 the amount of bandwidth needed
 for continuous real-time
 updates.
 52. Army Tactical Operations
 Centers (TOCs) are the
 automated command posts
 throughout the battle space
 where commanders and their
 staffs prepare, monitor, and
 alter the execution of battle
 plans. The Army Battle Command
 Systems that provide the
 command and control framework
 for the digitized battlefield
 are located within TOCs. A
 standard/common TOC operational
 architecture tailored to each
 individual echelon of command
 and mission area is being
 developed to assure
 interoperability and
 commonality. TOCs consist of
 Standard Integrated Command
 Post Systems either mounted on
 vehicles or fielded as         6.0          17.3        7.9          29.3
 free-standing tents. While TOCs
 do not have a formal initial
 operational test and
 evaluation, they will be
 evaluated in other digitization
 system tests, such as the
 FBCB2, Maneuver Control System,
 and during the Division
 Capstone Exercise. Fielding to
 the 4th Infantry Division --27
 TOCs --is expected to be
 completed by the end of 2000.
 Fielding to the first digitized
 corps is scheduled to be
 completed by September 2004. A
 TOC used to support an aviation
 brigade is known as an Aviation
 TOC (AVTOC). (Note: funding
 amounts include AVTOC, see item
 8, and Wireless LAN, see item
 55.)
 53. Trojan Spirit II provides
 tactical commanders critical
 intelligence connectivity via
 voice, data, video, and
 facsimile at all security
 levels. The system uses
 satellite communications to
 provide tactically deployed
 military intelligence units
 with a worldwide, quick
 reaction reporting and tasking
 capability. The fielding of the
 38 Army Trojan Spirit IIs began
 in 1993, with a 10-year life
 cycle design. Army Training and
 Doctrine Command planned to
 have the Trojan Spirit II
 functions migrate to the Area  0            4.9         0            4.9
 Common User System, managed by
 the program manager for WIN-T.
 Although the WIN-T operational
 requirements document provides
 WIN-Intelligence Gateway
 equipment, it is unclear
 whether WIN will be able to
 provide the Trojan Spirit II
 capability before Trojan Spirit
 II equipment will become
 obsolete and unsupportable.
 There is currently a $6.375
 million unfunded requirement
 for Trojan Spirit II
 recapitalization to replace the
 equipment that will become
 obsolete and unsupportable.
 54. The Tactical Unmanned
 Aerial Vehicle (TUAV) is a
 brigade commander's system. As
 the commander's primary
 day/night, reconnaissance,
 surveillance, and target
 acquisition system, it allows
 the commander to "see and
 understand" the battle space
 and ultimately contributes to
 the commander's dominant       29.4         37.8        11.9         44.7
 situational awareness. A TUAV
 system consists of four basic
 components: the Ground Control
 Station and related equipment,
 Air Vehicle, Modular Mission
 Payloads, and communications.
 An initial operational test and
 evaluation is scheduled for the
 third quarter of fiscal year
 2001.
 55. Through the wireless Local
 Area Network (LAN) program, the
 Army is working to deliver two
 wireless TOCs to the first
 digitized division in June 2000
 for a proof of principle
 experiment. The program manager
 for WIN-T will provide training
 and logistical support for 2   0            0           0            0
 years. Army officials stated
 that a wireless LAN capability
 will not be ready for fielding
 to the first digitized division
 or first digitized corps.
 (Note: funding for wireless LAN
 is included in TOCS, see item
 52.)
 56. The Wolverine Heavy Assault
 Bridge was developed to provide
 an improved and modernized
 gap-crossing capability for    0            0           0            0
 heavy maneuver forces. The
 program has been canceled
 through PBD 745.
 Total of funding estimates     $1,573.9     $2,397.1    $1,911.7     $2,460.8

Comments From the Department of Defense

(707451)

Table 1: The Army's Near-Term Digitization Milestones 6

Table 2: Category 2 Systems, by Availability 8

Table 3: Fielding Status of Category 2 Systems That Should Be Ready by 2004
9

Table 4: Acquisition Status of Category 2 Systems That May Not Be Available
by 2004 11

Table 5: Category 2 Systems With Scheduled Operational Tests 12

Table 6: Category 2 Systems Not Available by 2004 15
  

1. Tempo of operations generally refers to a commander's ability to conduct
operations at a time and place of the commander's choosing.

2. An Army division generally consists of 12,000 to 18,000 soldiers; there
are 10 divisions within the active Army. An Army corps comprises two or more
divisions; there are four corps within the active Army.

3. Tactical operations centers generally refer to fixed and relocatable
command posts where commanders and their staffs prepare, monitor, and alter
the execution of battle plans.

4. See Battlefield Automation: Performance Uncertainties Are Likely When
Army Fields Its First Digitized Division (GAO/NSIAD-99-150 , July 27, 1999).

5. The five Category 1 systems are the All Source Analysis System, Advanced
Field Artillery Tactical Data System, Combat Service Support Control System,
Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control System, and Maneuver Control
System.

6. A program budget decision is the budgeting mechanism used by the Office
of the Secretary of Defense to adjust the budget submissions from the
services.
*** End of document. ***